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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(11): 2323-2327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588688

RESUMO

Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) combines discrete anisotropic diffusion tensors and the spectrum of isotropic diffusion tensors to model the underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) pathologies. We used clinical MS subtypes as a surrogate of underlying pathologies to assess DBSI as a biomarker of pathology in 55 individuals with MS. Restricted isotropic fraction (reflecting cellularity) and fiber fraction (representing apparent axonal density) were the most important DBSI metrics to classify MS using brain white matter lesions. These DBSI metrics outperformed lesion volume. When analyzing the normal-appearing corpus callosum, the most significant DBSI metrics were fiber fraction, radial diffusivity (reflecting myelination), and nonrestricted isotropic fraction (representing edema). This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the ability of DBSI as a potential noninvasive biomarker of MS neuropathology.

2.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 145: 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208521

RESUMO

This is a new, exciting time for the study of peripheral nerve and its diseases. For many years research in peripheral neuropathies largely involved descriptive analysis, a situation which is now rapidly giving way to hypothesis testing with the development and validation of molecular genetic tools. Although it has been known for some time that many neuropathies target the most distal portions of the longest peripheral nerves, a process variously referred to as central-peripheral distal neuropathy, "dying-back" neuropathy, or "stocking-glove" neuropathy, proposed mechanisms driving axon loss have been generally unproven/untestable. Studies have shown that mitochondrial DNA mutations accumulate in distal axons and a unifying theory of distal neuropathy has been proposed based on underlying mitochondrial aging defects in mitogenesis and, thus, distal axon susceptibility, particularly if axonal transport defects also accompanied them. Increased levels of mtDNA mutations have been described in some painful neuropathies (e.g., HIV) compared to baseline HIV patients and controls. For some time no therapies were available to preserve and prevent the development of peripheral neuropathy and, with a variety of expected pathogenetic mechanisms, complex cocktails of therapeutic agents were envisioned. Although structure and ultrastructure continue to be relevant in the studies of mitochondriopathy-driven neuropathies, more techniques have been added and more complex hypotheses now expand the concept and focus directly on mitochondrial pathology or dysfunction. It is now possible to definitively test possible pathogenetic mechanisms with a variety of new tools and to formulate new and testable hypotheses.

3.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(7): 626-632, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115468

RESUMO

Pituitary adenomas are rare in children and adolescents and although mostly benign, they can sometimes be challenging to manage due to their locally invasive nature. In this study, we examined the clinicopathologic features of 42 pituitary adenomas in patients ≤21 years of age. The youngest patient was 8 years old (median age: 18 years), and the female-to-male ratio was 1.8:1. Five patients had recurrence after resection. There was no obvious difference between the recurrent rates in the typical (11.7%) and atypical adenomas (12.5%) based on the 2004 WHO classification. However, the recurrence rate was much higher in adenomas with an elevated proliferation index of ≥3% (20.8%) or with evidence of local invasion (18.2%). Adenomas with combination of an elevated proliferation index of ≥3% and imaging evidence of local invasion had the highest recurrence rate of 25%. In summary, pituitary adenomas are more frequent in adolescents as compared with children and are more common in girls. An elevated proliferation index of ≥3% and evidence of local invasion on imaging seem to correlate with a high probability of recurrence. Furthermore, we observe rarity of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) protein loss (surrogate to ATRX mutation) in these tumors without any connotation on prognosis.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00733, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Site-1 Protease (S1P) is a Golgi-resident protein required for the activation of regulatory proteins that drive key cellular functions, including, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. While disruptions in S1P function have been widely characterized in animal models, to date, the implications of disrupted S1P function in human disease states are not completely known. METHODS: The patient and both parents underwent whole exome and mitochondrial DNA sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the mutation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence studies were performed on either proband-derived fibroblasts or on an established cell line to assess protein expression and cellular localization of the mutated S1P protein. Quantitative real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assays were used to examine activation of S1P target pathways in the context of the S1P mutation. RESULTS: We describe a female patient with a de novo heterozygous missense mutation in the transmembrane domain of S1P (p. Pro1003Ser). The patient presented to our neuromuscular clinic with episodic, activity-induced, focal myoedema and myalgias with hyperCKemia. Her clinical phenotype was complex and included gastrointestinal hypomotility, ocular migraines, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Molecular analysis using proband-derived fibroblasts and cell lines harboring the Pro1003Ser mutation demonstrated increased activation of UPR and lipid and cholesterol regulatory pathways and localization of S1P Pro1003Ser in the Golgi. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a critical function for S1P in several human organ systems and implicate an important role for S1P in various human disease states.

5.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(4): 365-372, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856249

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common histopathologic finding in cortical specimens resected for refractory epilepsy. GABAergic neuronal abnormalities and K-Cl cotransporter type 2 (KCC2) immaturity may be contributing factors for FCD-related epilepsy. We examined surgical specimens from 12 cases diagnosed with FCD, and brain tissues without developmental abnormality obtained from 6 autopsy cases. We found that GABAergic neuronal density was abnormal in FCD with 2 distinct patterns. In 7 of 12 (58%) FCD subjects, the GABAergic neuron density in dysplastic regions and in neighboring nondysplastic regions was equally reduced, hence we call this a "broad pattern." In the remaining cases, GABAergic neuron density was decreased in dysplastic regions but not in the neighboring nondysplastic regions; we designate this "restricted pattern." The different patterns are not associated with pathologic subtypes of FCD. Intracytoplasmic retention of KCC2 is evident in dysmorphic neurons in the majority of FCD type II subjects (5/7) but not in FCD type I. Our study suggests that (1) "broad" GABAergic deficiency may reflect epileptic vulnerability outside the dysplastic area; and (2) abnormal distribution of KCC2 may contribute to seizure generation in patients with FCD type II but not in type I.

6.
J Neurovirol ; 25(2): 284-287, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864100

RESUMO

Therapy for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remains challenging since there are no antiviral therapies available for JC virus. Immune reconstitution has improved the prognosis in many settings where PML occurs, but it often is not possible in PML patients with hematologic malignancies. We describe the first biopsy proven PML case where the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab appears to have stimulated immune activation resulting in effective control of PML in a patient with hematologic malignancy. This report supports further investigation of the utility of checkpoint inhibitors for treating PML where other immune reconstitution options are not available.

7.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 39(2): 260-267, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676416

RESUMO

A 21-year-old man experienced unilateral vision loss associated with multiple atrophic chorioretinal lesions. He was treated for a presumptive diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis, but his vision did not improve with antiviral therapy. Over the course of several weeks, his symptoms progressed to involve both eyes. The fellow eye showed characteristic yellow-white placoid lesions, prompting treatment with oral corticosteroids for acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). Despite high-dose therapy with prednisone 80 mg daily, the patient developed the acute onset of mental status changes within the next several days. Neuroimaging revealed multifocal large-vessel strokes associated with cerebral edema; these infarcts led to herniation and death. Postmortem histopathologic examination confirmed granulomatous inflammation in both ocular and cerebral vasculatures. Together with findings from multimodal imaging obtained throughout this patient's clinical course, our findings support the notion that granulomatous choroiditis is the mechanism of the ocular lesions seen in APMPPE. This granulomatous inflammation can also affect cerebral vessels, leading to strokes.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(48): 12313-12318, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377266

RESUMO

Skin is the largest organ in the body and serves important barrier, regulatory, and sensory functions. The epidermal layer shows rhythmic physiological responses to daily environmental variation (e.g., DNA repair). We investigated the role of the circadian clock in the transcriptional regulation of epidermis using a hybrid experimental design, in which a limited set of human subjects (n = 20) were sampled throughout the 24-h cycle and a larger population (n = 219) were sampled once. We found a robust circadian oscillator in human epidermis at the population level using pairwise correlations of clock and clock-associated genes in 298 epidermis samples. We then used CYCLOPS to reconstruct the temporal order of all samples, and identified hundreds of rhythmically expressed genes at the population level in human epidermis. We compared these results with published time-series skin data from mice and found a strong concordance in circadian phase across species for both transcripts and pathways. Furthermore, like blood, epidermis is readily accessible and a potential source of biomarkers. Using ZeitZeiger, we identified a biomarker set for human epidermis that is capable of reporting circadian phase to within 3 hours from a single sample. In summary, we show rhythms in human epidermis that persist at the population scale and describe a path to develop robust single-sample circadian biomarkers.

9.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 105(3): 328-333, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316860

RESUMO

Meningiomas are among the most common tumors of the adult central nervous system (CNS). They are classified by the World Health Organization into three pathologic grades with increasing severity: grade I are benign with favorable treatment outcomes and low recurrence rates while grade III display malignant behavior and poor progression-free survival. Previous studies have shown that inactivation of NF-2 is the most common genetic event in high-grade meningioma; however, there is dearth of molecular data to distinguish grade II (AM-II) from the even more aggressive grade III (AM-III). As part of a routine diagnostic workup, 19 AM-II and 5 AM-III were submitted for targeted sequencing on a panel of twenty-four genes relevant to CNS tumors. The data generated during the course of clinical care was collected and re-analyzed with the aim of identifying molecular features to distinguish AM-II and AM-III. Our cases contained several well-characterized, potentially actionable mutations, but we did not find any novel, recurrent sequence variants. Copy number variations were common in both AM-II and AM-III; chr22q loss was the most prevalent followed in decreasing frequency by losses of chr1p, chr14q, and chr10. In particular, chr10 loss was noted in 4 of 5 AM-III cases but none of the AM-II cases. This suggests that chr10 loss may serve as a diagnostic and perhaps a prognostic marker to differentiate AM-II from AM-III. If confirmed in larger studies, our finding could further aid the classification of meningioma.

10.
Acta Neuropathol ; 136(6): 955-972, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194648

RESUMO

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repeated head traumas. Using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein as a marker, plus automated quantitative analysis, we examined the characteristics and extent of astrogliosis present in stage III and IV CTE, along with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases. Astrogliosis in CTE patients was more diffuse compared to that of AD and FTD patients, which was concentrated in the sulcal depths. Of 14 patients with CTE, 10 exhibited signs of a degenerating astrocyte pathology, characterized by beaded, broken astrocytic processes. This astrocytic degeneration was typically found to be diffuse throughout the white matter, although two cases demonstrated astrocytic degeneration in the gray matter. The degeneration was also observed in 2 of 3 AD and 2 of 3 FTD brains, with overall similar characteristics across diseases. There was minimal to no astrocytic degeneration in six age-matched controls with no neurodegenerative disease. We found that the extent of the white matter astrocytic degeneration was strongly correlated with the level of overall astrogliosis in both the white and gray matter. However, astrocytic degeneration was not correlated with the overall extent of tau pathology. Specifically, there was no correlation between levels of p-tau in the sulcal depths and astrocytic degeneration in the white matter adjacent to the sulcal depths. Thus, astrocytic degeneration and overall astrogliosis appear to represent distinct pathological features of CTE. Further investigation into these astroglial pathologies could provide new insights into underlying disease mechanisms and represent a potential target for in vivo assessment of CTE as well as other neurodegenerative disorders.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(458)2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209245

RESUMO

The discovery that half of the mammalian protein-coding genome is regulated by the circadian clock has clear implications for medicine. Recent studies demonstrated that the circadian clock influences therapeutic outcomes in human heart disease and cancer. However, biological time is rarely given clinical consideration. A key barrier is the absence of information on tissue-specific molecular rhythms in the human body. We have applied the cyclic ordering by periodic structure (CYCLOPS) algorithm, designed to reconstruct sample temporal order in the absence of time-of-day information, to the gene expression collection of 13 tissues from 632 human donors. We identified rhythms in gene expression across the body; nearly half of protein-coding genes were shown to be cycling in at least 1 of the 13 tissues analyzed. One thousand of these cycling genes encode proteins that either transport or metabolize drugs or are themselves drug targets. These results provide a useful resource for studying the role of circadian rhythms in medicine and support the idea that biological time might play a role in determining drug response.

12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 159(6): 948-955, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of the circadian clock on homeostasis, the functional interaction between the circadian clock and hypoxia-inducible factors, and the role of circadian dysregulation in the progression of cardiopulmonary disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was accessed through PubMed. REVIEW METHODS: A general review is presented on molecular pathways disrupted in OSA, circadian rhythms and the role of the circadian clock, hypoxia signaling, crosstalk between the circadian and hypoxia systems, the role of the circadian clock in cardiovascular disease, and implications for practice. Studies included in this State of the Art Review demonstrate the potential contribution of the circadian clock and hypoxia in animal models or human disease. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular crosstalk between the circadian clock and hypoxia-inducible factors has not been evaluated in disease models of OSA. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Pediatric OSA is highly prevalent and, if left untreated, may lead to cardiopulmonary sequelae. Changes in inflammatory markers that normally demonstrate circadian rhythmicity are also seen among patients with OSA. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors interact with core circadian clock transcription factors; however, the interplay between these pathways has not been elucidated in the cardiopulmonary system. This gap in knowledge hinders our ability to identify potential biomarkers of OSA and develop alternative therapeutic strategies. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which OSA impinges on clock function and the impact of clock dysregulation on the cardiopulmonary system may lead to future advancements for the care of patients with OSA. The aim of this review is to shed light on this important clinical topic.

13.
Brain Pathol ; 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the three-prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) gene have been associated with neurological diseases, including Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy (RVCL). However, the endogenous expression of TREX1 in human brain has not been studied. METHODS: We produced a rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb) to TREX1 to characterize TREX1 by Western blotting (WB) of cell lysates from normal controls and subjects carrying an RVCL frame-shift mutation. Dual staining was performed to determine cell types expressing TREX1 in human brain tissue. TREX1 distribution in human brain was further evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from normal controls and patients with RVCL and ischemic stroke. RESULTS: After validating the specificity of our anti-TREX1 rabbit pAb, WB analysis was utilized to detect the endogenous wild-type and frame-shift mutant of TREX1 in cell lysates. Dual staining in human brain tissues from patients with RVCL and normal controls localized TREX1 to a subset of microglia and macrophages. Quantification of immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex revealed that TREX1+ microglia were primarily in the gray matter of normal controls (22.7 ± 5.1% and 5.5 ± 1.9% of Iba1+ microglia in gray and white matter, respectively) and commonly in association with the microvasculature. In contrast, in subjects with RVCL, the TREX1+ microglia were predominantly located in the white matter of normal appearing cerebral cortex (11.8 ± 3.1% and 38.9 ± 5.8% of Iba1+ microglia in gray and white matter, respectively). The number of TREX1+ microglia was increased in ischemic brain lesions in central nervous system of RVCL and stroke patients. CONCLUSIONS: TREX1 is expressed by a subset of microglia in normal human brain, often in close proximity to the microvasculature, and increases in the setting of ischemic lesions. These findings suggest a role for TREX1+ microglia in vessel homeostasis and response to ischemic injury.

14.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518786072, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992856

RESUMO

Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) models diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals as a combination of discrete anisotropic diffusion tensors and a spectrum of isotropic diffusion tensors. Here, we report the histopathological correlates of DBSI in the biopsied brain tissue of a patient with an inflammatory demyelinating lesion typical of multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased radial diffusivity (marker of demyelination), decreased fiber fraction (apparent axonal density), elevated nonrestricted isotropic fraction (marker of vasogenic edema), but unchanged axial diffusivity (marker of integrity of residual axons) seen in the lesion appeared consistent with histopathological findings of inflammatory demyelination with relative axonal sparing. Our report supports the application of DBSI as a biomarker in human studies of MS.

15.
Front Neurol ; 9: 169, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623063

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population-those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aß) in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD-Aß plaques. As a result, Aß plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago. Advances in brain imaging and quantitative measures of Aß in biological fluids have yielded insight into the time course of plaque development decades before and after AD symptom onset. However, despite the fundamental role of Aß plaques in AD, in vivo measures of individual plaque growth, growth distribution, and dynamics are still lacking. To address this question, we combined stable isotope labeling kinetics (SILK) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging in an approach termed SILK-SIMS to resolve plaque dynamics in three human AD brains. In human AD brain, plaques exhibit incorporation of a stable isotope tracer. Tracer enrichment was highly variable between plaques and the spatial distribution asymmetric with both quiescent and active nanometer sub-regions of tracer incorporation. These data reveal that Aß plaques are dynamic structures with deposition rates over days indicating a highly active process. Here, we report the first, direct quantitative measures of in vivo deposition into plaques in human AD brain. Our SILK-SIMS studies will provide invaluable information on plaque dynamics in the normal and diseased brain and offer many new avenues for investigation into pathological mechanisms of the disease, with implications for therapeutic development.

16.
Zookeys ; (748): 89-95, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674916

RESUMO

Four populations of the large freshwater ostracod, Chlamydotheca unispinosa (Baird, 1862), were discovered on the Caribbean island of Montserrat. These are the first records of the species on Montserrat and extend its known distribution approximately 113 km northwest and 63 km southeast of the closest known populations on Îles des Saintes (Guadeloupe) and Nevis, respectively. We provide the first DNA barcode for C. unispinosa, a 686 bp fragment of the COI gene which may be used for future comparative studies of this widely distributed species.

17.
Neurologist ; 23(2): 55-59, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Indications for autoantibody testing in patients with rapid-onset cognitive impairment have expanded in step with the growing number of disease-associated autoantibodies and clinical syndromes. Although increased access to autoantibody testing has broadened our understanding of the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), it has also produced new challenges associated with deciphering the contributions of disease-associated autoantibodies in patients with atypical clinical features and/or multiple autoantibodies. These challenges are illustrated through presentation of a patient with AE associated with autoantibodies against intracellular and cell-surface neuronal antigens. The implications of detection of multiple autoantibodies are considered in the context of relevant literature, and used to frame a diagnostic and therapeutic approach. CASE REPORT: A previously well 67-year-old man presented with encephalopathy and psychosis, impaired visual fixation, and ataxia, emerging over 3 months. Hu, CRMP-5, and NMDAR autoantibodies were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. No malignancy was discovered despite extensive investigations. An aggressive course of immunotherapy temporarily stabilized his course; however, the patient succumbed to his illness 10 months after symptom onset. Lack of sustained response to immunotherapy and neuropathologic findings suggested that AE associated with Hu antibodies was primarily responsible for this patient's progressive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple autoantibodies may be detected in patients with AE. When antibodies targeting intracellular and cell-surface antigens are detected together, investigation and treatment of syndromes associated with intracellular antibodies should be prioritized, acknowledging the link between these antibodies and irreversible neuronal injury. In paraneoplastic cases, prognosis may be tied to early detection and treatment of the underlying malignancy.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Demência , Progressão da Doença , Encefalite , Idoso , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/complicações , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/etiologia , Demência/imunologia , Proteínas ELAV/imunologia , Encefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino
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