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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010139, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417447

RESUMO

The arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) is common throughout the Indo-Pacific region, where most global dengue transmission occurs. We analysed population genomic data and tested for cryptic species in 160 Ae. albopictus sampled from 16 locations across this region. We found no evidence of cryptic Ae. albopictus but found multiple intraspecific COI haplotypes partitioned into groups representing three Asian lineages: East Asia, Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and Christmas Island shared recent coancestry, and Indonesia and Timor-Leste were likely invaded from East Asia. We used a machine learning trained on morphologically sexed samples to classify sexes using multiple genetic features and then characterized the wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia infections in 664 other samples. The wAlbA and wAlbB infections as detected by qPCR showed markedly different patterns in the sexes. For females, most populations had a very high double infection incidence, with 67% being the lowest value (from Timor-Leste). For males, the incidence of double infections ranged from 100% (PNG) to 0% (Vanuatu). Only 6 females were infected solely by the wAlbA infection, while rare uninfected mosquitoes were found in both sexes. The wAlbA and wAlbB densities varied significantly among populations. For mosquitoes from Torres Strait and Vietnam, the wAlbB density was similar in single-infected and superinfected (wAlbA and wAlbB) mosquitoes. There was a positive association between wAlbA and wAlbB infection densities in superinfected Ae. albopictus. Our findings provide no evidence of cryptic species of Ae. albopictus in the region and suggest site-specific factors influencing the incidence of Wolbachia infections and their densities. We also demonstrate the usefulness of ddRAD tag depths as sex-specific mosquito markers. The results provide baseline data for the exploitation of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in dengue control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Wolbachia , Aedes/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Wolbachia/genética
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010256, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196357

RESUMO

Mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia endosymbionts are being released in many countries for arbovirus control. The wMel strain of Wolbachia blocks Aedes-borne virus transmission and can spread throughout mosquito populations by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying wMel were first released into the field in Cairns, Australia, over a decade ago, and with wider releases have resulted in the near elimination of local dengue transmission. The long-term stability of Wolbachia effects is critical for ongoing disease suppression, requiring tracking of phenotypic and genomic changes in Wolbachia infections following releases. We used a combination of field surveys, phenotypic assessments, and Wolbachia genome sequencing to show that wMel has remained stable in its effects for up to a decade in Australian Ae. aegypti populations. Phenotypic comparisons of wMel-infected and uninfected mosquitoes from near-field and long-term laboratory populations suggest limited changes in the effects of wMel on mosquito fitness. Treating mosquitoes with antibiotics used to cure the wMel infection had limited effects on fitness in the next generation, supporting the use of tetracycline for generating uninfected mosquitoes without off-target effects. wMel has a temporally stable within-host density and continues to induce complete cytoplasmic incompatibility. A comparison of wMel genomes from pre-release (2010) and nine years post-release (2020) populations show few genomic differences and little divergence between release locations, consistent with the lack of phenotypic changes. These results indicate that releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes for population replacement are likely to be effective for many years, but ongoing monitoring remains important to track potential evolutionary changes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Wolbachia , Animais , Austrália , Wolbachia/genética
3.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 22(3): 1200-1212, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597453

RESUMO

Investigating dispersal in animal populations can be difficult, particularly for taxa that are hard to directly observe such as those that are small or rare. A promising solution may come from new approaches that use genome-wide sequence data to detect close kin dyads and estimate dispersal parameters from the distribution of these dyads. These methods have so far only been applied to mosquito populations. However, they should have broad applicability to a range of taxa, although no assessment has yet been made on their performance under different dispersal conditions and study designs. Here we develop an R package and shiny app, kindisperse, that can be used to estimate dispersal parameters from the spatial distribution of close kin. kindisperse can handle study designs that target different life stages and allows for a range of dispersal kernel shapes and organismal life histories; we provide implementation examples for a vertebrate (Antechinus) and an invertebrate (Aedes). We use simulations run in kindisperse to compare the performance of two published close kin methodologies, showing that one method produces unbiased estimates whereas the other produces downward-biased estimates. We also use kindisperse simulations to investigate how study design affects dispersal estimates, and we provide guidelines for the size and shape of sample sites as well as the number of close kin needed for accurate estimates. kindisperse is easily adaptable for application to a variety of research contexts ranging from invasive pests to threatened species where noninvasive DNA sampling can be used to detect close kin.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/genética , Animais
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 894, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia wMel is the most commonly used strain in rear and release strategies for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that aim to inhibit the transmission of arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and yellow fever. However, the long-term establishment of wMel in natural Ae. aegypti populations raises concerns that interactions between Wolbachia wMel and Ae. aegypti may lead to changes in the host genome, which could affect useful attributes of Wolbachia that allow it to invade and suppress disease transmission. RESULTS: We applied an evolve-and-resequence approach to study genome-wide genetic changes in Ae. aegypti from the Cairns region, Australia, where Wolbachia wMel was first introduced more than 10 years ago. Mosquito samples were collected at three different time points in Gordonvale, Australia, covering the phase before (2010) and after (2013 and 2018) Wolbachia releases. An additional three locations where Wolbachia replacement happened at different times across the last decade were also sampled in 2018. We found that the genomes of mosquito populations mostly remained stable after Wolbachia release, with population differences tending to reflect the geographic location of the populations rather than Wolbachia infection status. However, outlier analysis suggests that Wolbachia may have had an influence on some genes related to immune response, development, recognition and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. aegypti populations remained geographically distinct after Wolbachia wMel releases in North Australia despite their Wolbachia infection status. At some specific genomic loci, we found signs of selection associated with Wolbachia, suggesting potential evolutionary impacts can happen in the future and further monitoring is warranted.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Wolbachia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Aedes/genética , Animais , Wolbachia/genética
5.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(10): 907-921, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074606

RESUMO

Mosquito control strategies increasingly apply knowledge from population genomics research. This review highlights recent applications to three research domains: mosquito invasions, insecticide resistance evolution, and rear and release programs. Current research trends follow developments in reference assemblies, either as improvements to existing assemblies (particularly Aedes) or assemblies for new taxa (particularly Anopheles). With improved assemblies, studies of invasive and rear and release target populations are better able to incorporate adaptive as well as demographic hypotheses. New reference assemblies are aiding comparisons of insecticide resistance across sister taxa while helping resolve taxon boundaries amidst frequent introgression. Anopheles gene drive deployments and improved Aedes genome assemblies should lead to a convergence in research aims for Anopheles and Aedes in the coming years.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Genômica , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
6.
Mol Ecol ; 30(5): 1174-1189, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421231

RESUMO

Population genomic approaches can characterize dispersal across a single generation through to many generations in the past, bridging the gap between individual movement and intergenerational gene flow. These approaches are particularly useful when investigating dispersal in recently altered systems, where they provide a way of inferring long-distance dispersal between newly established populations and their interactions with existing populations. Human-mediated biological invasions represent such altered systems which can be investigated with appropriate study designs and analyses. Here we apply temporally restricted sampling and a range of population genomic approaches to investigate dispersal in a 2004 invasion of Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) in the Torres Strait Islands (TSI) of Australia. We sampled mosquitoes from 13 TSI villages simultaneously and genotyped 373 mosquitoes at genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 331 from the TSI, 36 from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and four incursive mosquitoes detected in uninvaded regions. Within villages, spatial genetic structure varied substantially but overall displayed isolation by distance and a neighbourhood size of 232-577. Close kin dyads revealed recent movement between islands 31-203 km apart, and deep learning inferences showed incursive Ae. albopictus had travelled to uninvaded regions from both adjacent and nonadjacent islands. Private alleles and a co-ancestry matrix indicated direct gene flow from PNG into nearby islands. Outlier analyses also detected four linked alleles introgressed from PNG, with the alleles surrounding 12 resistance-associated cytochrome P450 genes. By treating dispersal as both an intergenerational process and a set of discrete events, we describe a highly interconnected invasive system.


Assuntos
Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Austrália , Humanos , Ilhas , Metagenômica , Papua Nova Guiné
7.
Mol Ecol ; 30(1): 114-130, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108010

RESUMO

Dispersal is a key biological process serving several functions including connectivity among populations. Habitat fragmentation caused by natural or anthropogenic structures may hamper dispersal, thereby disrupting genetic connectivity. Investigating factors affecting dispersal and gene flow is important in the current era of anthropogenic global change, as dispersal comprises a vital part of a species' resilience to environmental change. Using finescale landscape genomics, we investigated gene flow and genetic structure of the Sooty Copper butterfly (Lycaena tityrus) in the Alpine Ötz valley system in Austria. We found surprisingly high levels of gene flow in L. tityrus across the region. Nevertheless, ravines, forests, and roads had effects on genetic structure, while rivers did not. The latter is surprising as roads and rivers have a similar width and run largely in parallel in our study area, pointing towards a higher impact of anthropogenic compared with natural linear structures. Additionally, we detected eleven loci potentially under thermal selection, including ones related to membranes, metabolism, and immune function. This study demonstrates the usefulness of molecular approaches in obtaining estimates of dispersal and population processes in the wild. Our results suggest that, despite high gene flow in the Alpine valley system investigated, L. tityrus nevertheless seems to be vulnerable to anthropogenically-driven habitat fragmentation. With anthropogenic rather than natural linear structures affecting gene flow, this may have important consequences for the persistence of species such as the butterfly studied here in altered landscapes.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Áustria , Borboletas/genética , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Estruturas Genéticas
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(4): 1683-1693, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants. In temperate areas, annual populations of DBM originate from adult migrants. However, the source populations and migration trajectories of immigrants remain unclear. Here, we investigated migration trajectories of DBM in China using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped using double-digest RAD (ddRAD) sequencing. We first analyzed patterns of spatial and temporal genetic structure among southern source and northern recipient populations, then inferred migration trajectories into northern regions using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), assignment tests, and spatial kinship patterns. RESULTS: Temporal genetic differentiation among populations was low, indicating that sources of recipient populations and migration trajectories are stable. Spatial genetic structure indicated three genetic clusters in the southern source populations. Assignment tests linked northern populations to the Sichuan cluster, and central-eastern populations to the southern and Yunnan clusters, indicating that Sichuan populations are sources of northern immigrants and southern and Yunnan populations are sources of central-eastern populations. First-order (full-sib) and second-order (half-sib) kin pairs were always found within populations, but ~ 35-40% of third-order (cousin) pairs were found in different populations. Closely related individuals in different populations were found at distances of 900-1500 km in ~ 35-40% of cases, while some were separated by > 2000 km. CONCLUSION: This study unravels seasonal migration patterns in the DBM. We demonstrate how careful sampling and population genomic analyses can be combined to help understand cryptic migration patterns in insects. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , China , Genômica , Larva , Metagenômica , Mariposas/genética
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008463, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678817

RESUMO

The arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) and Ae. albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) are both common throughout the Indo-Pacific region, where 70% of global dengue transmission occurs. For Ae. aegypti all Indo-Pacific populations are invasive, having spread from an initial native range of Africa, while for Ae. albopictus the Indo-Pacific includes invasive populations and those from the native range: putatively, India to Japan to Southeast Asia. This study analyses the population genomics of 480 of these mosquitoes sampled from 27 locations in the Indo-Pacific. We investigated patterns of genome-wide genetic differentiation to compare pathways of invasion and ongoing gene flow in both species, and to compare invasive and native-range populations of Ae. albopictus. We also tested landscape genomic hypotheses that genetic differentiation would increase with geographical distance and be lower between locations with high connectivity to human transportation routes, the primary means of dispersal at these scales. We found that genetic distances were generally higher in Ae. aegypti, with Pacific populations the most highly differentiated. The most differentiated Ae. albopictus populations were in Vanuatu, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, the latter two representing potential native-range populations and potential cryptic subspeciation respectively. Genetic distances in Ae. aegypti increased with geographical distance, while in Ae. albopictus they decreased with higher connectivity to human transportation routes. Contrary to the situation in Ae. aegypti, we found evidence of long-distance Ae. albopictus colonisation events, including colonisation of Mauritius from East Asia and of Fiji from Southeast Asia. These direct genomic comparisons indicate likely differences in dispersal ecology in these species, despite their broadly sympatric distributions and similar use of human transport to disperse. Our findings will assist biosecurity operations to trace the source of invasive material and for biocontrol operations that benefit from matching genetic backgrounds of released and local populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Animais , Ásia
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(12): 4202-4209, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding pest incursion pathways is critical for preventing new invasions and for stopping the transfer of alleles that reduce the efficacy of local control methods. The mosquitoes Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are both highly invasive disease vectors, and through a series of ongoing international incursions are continuing to colonize new regions and spread insecticide resistance alleles among established populations. This study uses high-resolution molecular markers and a set of 241 reference genotypes to trace incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus into mainland Australia, where no successful invasions have yet been observed. We contrast these results with incursion pathways of Ae. aegypti, investigated previously. RESULTS: Assignments successfully identified China, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan as source locations. Incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus were entirely different to those of Ae. aegypti, despite broad sympatry of these species throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Incursions of Ae. albopictus appeared to have come predominantly along marine routes from key trading locations, while Ae. aegypti was mostly linked to aerial routes from tourism hotspots. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate how genomics can help decipher otherwise cryptic incursion pathways. The inclusion of reference genotypes from the Americas may help resolve some unsuccessful assignments. While many congeneric taxa will share common incursion pathways, this study highlights that this is not always the case, and incursion pathways of important taxa should be specifically investigated. Species differences in aerial and marine incursion rates may reflect the efficacy of ongoing control programmes such as aircraft disinsection. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre Amarela , Aedes/genética , América , Animais , Austrália , China , Japão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Taiwan
11.
Mol Ecol ; 29(9): 1628-1641, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246542

RESUMO

Nations throughout the Indo-Pacific region use pyrethroid insecticides to control Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, often without knowledge of pyrethroid resistance status of the pest or origin of resistance. Two mutations (V1016G + F1534C) in the sodium channel gene (Vssc) of Ae. aegypti modify ion channel function and cause target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, with a third mutation (S989P) having a potential additive effect. Of 27 possible genotypes involving these mutations, some allelic combinations are never seen whereas others predominate. Here, five allelic combinations common in Ae. aegypti from the Indo-Pacific region are described and their geographical distributions investigated using genome-wide SNP markers. We tested the hypothesis that resistance allele combinations evolved de novo in populations versus the alternative that dispersal of Ae. aegypti between populations facilitated genetic invasions of allele combinations. We used latent factor mixed-models to detect SNPs throughout the genome that showed structuring in line with resistance allele combinations and compared variation at SNPs within the Vssc gene with genome-wide variation. Mixed-models detected an array of SNPs linked to resistance allele combinations, all located within or in close proximity to the Vssc gene. Variation at SNPs within the Vssc gene was structured by resistance profile, whereas genome-wide SNPs were structured by population. These results demonstrate that alleles near to resistance mutations have been transferred between populations via linked selection. This indicates that genetic invasions have contributed to the widespread occurrence of Vssc allele combinations in Ae. aegypti in the Indo-Pacific region, pointing to undocumented mosquito invasions between countries.


Assuntos
Aedes , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Aedes/genética , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Sódio/genética
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 075302, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491113

RESUMO

We study a one-dimensional interacting quantum liquid hosting a pair of mobile impurities causing backscattering. We determine the effective retarded interaction between the two impurities mediated by the liquid. We show that for strong backscattering this interaction gives rise to resonances and antiresonances in the finite-frequency mobility of the impurity pair. At the antiresonances, the two impurities remain at rest even when driven by a (small) external force. At the resonances, their synchronous motion follows the external drive in phase and reaches maximum amplitude. Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis in quantum tunneling across the impurities, we study the range of validity of our model. We predict that these mechanical antiresonances are observable in experiments on ultracold atom gases confined to one dimension.

13.
Evol Appl ; 12(6): 1136-1146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297145

RESUMO

Biological invasions are increasing globally in number and extent despite efforts to restrict their spread. Knowledge of incursion pathways is necessary to prevent new invasions and to design effective biosecurity protocols at source and recipient locations. This study uses genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to determine the origin of 115 incursive Aedes aegypti(yellow fever mosquito) detected at international ports in Australia and New Zealand. We also genotyped mosquitoes at three point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene: V1016G, F1534C and S989P. These mutations confer knockdown resistance to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, widely used for controlling invertebrate pests. We first delineated reference populations using Ae. aegypti sampled from 15 locations in Asia, South America, Australia and the Pacific Islands. Incursives were assigned to these populations using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and an assignment test with a support vector machine predictive model. Bali, Indonesia, was the most common origin of Ae. aegypti detected in Australia, while Ae. aegypti detected in New Zealand originated from Pacific Islands such as Fiji. Most incursives had the same allelic genotype across the three Vsscgene point mutations, which confers strong resistance to synthetic pyrethroids, the only insecticide class used in current, widely implemented aircraft disinsection protocols endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Additionally, all internationally assigned Ae. aegypti had Vssc point mutations linked to pyrethroid resistance that are not found in Australian populations. These findings demonstrate that protocols for preventing introductions of invertebrates must consider insecticide resistance, and highlight the usefulness of genomic data sets for managing global biosecurity objectives.

14.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1254-1264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125998

RESUMO

Understanding past dispersal and breeding events can provide insight into ecology and evolution and can help inform strategies for conservation and the control of pest species. However, parent-offspring dispersal can be difficult to investigate in rare species and in small pest species such as mosquitoes. Here, we develop a methodology for estimating parent-offspring dispersal from the spatial distribution of close kin, using pairwise kinship estimates derived from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs were scored in 162 Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) collected from eight close-set, high-rise apartment buildings in an area of Malaysia with high dengue incidence. We used the SNPs to reconstruct kinship groups across three orders of kinship. We transformed the geographical distances between all kin pairs within each kinship category into axial standard deviations of these distances, then decomposed these into components representing past dispersal events. From these components, we isolated the axial standard deviation of parent-offspring dispersal and estimated neighbourhood area (129 m), median parent-offspring dispersal distance (75 m) and oviposition dispersal radius within a gonotrophic cycle (36 m). We also analysed genetic structure using distance-based redundancy analysis and linear regression, finding isolation by distance both within and between buildings and estimating neighbourhood size at 268 individuals. These findings indicate the scale required to suppress local outbreaks of arboviral disease and to target releases of modified mosquitoes for mosquito and disease control. Our methodology is readily implementable for studies of other species, including pests and species of conservation significance.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Linhagem , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Malásia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 120(5): 386-395, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358725

RESUMO

The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia suppresses the capacity for arbovirus transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and can spread spatially through wild mosquito populations following local introductions. Recent introductions in Cairns, Australia have demonstrated slower than expected spatial spread. Potential reasons for this include: (i) barriers to Ae. aegypti dispersal; (ii) higher incidence of long-range dispersal; and (iii) intergenerational loss of Wolbachia. We investigated these three potential factors using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an assay for the Wolbachia infection wMel in 161 Ae. aegypti collected from Cairns in 2015. We detected a small but significant barrier effect of Cairns highways on Ae. aegypti dispersal using distance-based redundancy analysis and patch-based simulation analysis. We detected a pair of putative full-siblings in ovitraps 1312 m apart, indicating long-distance female movement likely mediated by human transport. We also found a pair of full-siblings of different infection status, indicating intergenerational loss of Wolbachia in the field. These three factors are all expected to contribute to the slow spread of Wolbachia through Ae. aegypti populations, though from our results it is unclear whether Wolbachia loss and long-distance movement are sufficiently common to reduce the speed of spatial spread appreciably. Our findings inform the strategic deployment of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes during releases, and show how parameter estimates from laboratory studies may differ from those estimated using field data. Our landscape genomics approach can be extended to other host/symbiont systems that are being considered for biocontrol.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Wolbachia/fisiologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(10): e0006009, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045401

RESUMO

Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive disease vector with an expanding worldwide distribution. Genetic assays using low to medium resolution markers have found little evidence of spatial genetic structure even at broad geographic scales, suggesting frequent passive movement along human transportation networks. Here we analysed genetic structure of Aedes albopictus collected from 12 sample sites in Guangzhou, China, using thousands of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found evidence for passive gene flow, with distance from shipping terminals being the strongest predictor of genetic distance among mosquitoes. As further evidence of passive dispersal, we found multiple pairs of full-siblings distributed between two sample sites 3.7 km apart. After accounting for geographical variability, we also found evidence for isolation by distance, previously undetectable in Ae. albopictus. These findings demonstrate how large SNP datasets and spatially-explicit hypothesis testing can be used to decipher processes at finer geographic scales than formerly possible. Our approach can be used to help predict new invasion pathways of Ae. albopictus and to refine strategies for vector control that involve the transformation or suppression of mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , China , Cidades , Fluxo Gênico
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24007, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045779

RESUMO

It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(10): 107006, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23521286

RESUMO

Majorana bound states have been proposed as building blocks for qubits on which certain operations can be performed in a topologically protected way using braiding. However, the set of these protected operations is not sufficient to realize universal quantum computing. We show that the electric field in a microwave cavity can induce Rabi oscillations between adjacent Majorana bound states. These oscillations can be used to implement an additional single-qubit gate. Supplemented with one braiding operation, this gate allows us to perform arbitrary single-qubit operations.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(15): 156402, 2012 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22587268

RESUMO

We evaluate the low-temperature conductance of a weakly interacting one-dimensional helical liquid without axial spin symmetry. The lack of that symmetry allows for inelastic backscattering of a single electron, accompanied by forward scattering of another. This joint effect of weak interactions and potential scattering off impurities results in a temperature-dependent deviation from the quantized conductance, δG ∝ T4. In addition, δG is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level. We determine numerically the parameters entering our generic model for the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang Hamiltonian of a HgTe/CdTe quantum well in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(9): 096602, 2011 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21929258

RESUMO

We consider a four-terminal setup of a two-dimensional topological insulator (quantum spin Hall insulator) with local tunneling between the upper and lower edges. The edge modes are modeled as helical Luttinger liquids and the electron-electron interactions are taken into account exactly. Using perturbation theory in the tunneling, we derive the cumulant generating function for the interedge current. We show that different possible transport channels give rise to different signatures in the current noise and current cross correlations, which could be exploited in experiments to elucidate the interplay between electron-electron interactions and the helical nature of the edge states.

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