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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266324

RESUMO

Recent studies on insulin, leptin, osteocalcin (OCN), and bone remodeling have evoked interest in the interdependence of bone formation and energy household. Accordingly, this study attempts to investigate trauma specific hormone changes in a murine trauma model and its influence on fracture healing. Thereunto 120 female wild type (WT) and leptin-deficient mice underwent either long bone fracture (Fx), traumatic brain injury (TBI), combined trauma (Combined), or neither of it and therefore served as controls (C). Blood samples were taken weekly after trauma and analyzed for insulin and OCN concentrations. Here, WT-mice with Fx and, moreover, with combined trauma showed a greater change in posttraumatic insulin and OCN levels than mice with TBI alone. In the case of leptin-deficiency, insulin changes were still increased after bony lesion, but the posttraumatic OCN was no longer trauma specific. Four weeks after trauma, hormone levels recovered to normal/basal line level in both mouse strains. Thus, WT- and leptin-deficient mice show a trauma specific hyperinsulinaemic stress reaction leading to a reduction in OCN synthesis and release. In WT-mice, this causes a disinhibition and acceleration of fracture healing after combined trauma. In leptin-deficiency, posttraumatic OCN changes are no longer specific and fracture healing is impaired regardless of the preceding trauma.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872353

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a known key mediator of physiological bone regeneration and is clinically approved for selected musculoskeletal interventions. Yet, broad usage of this growth factor is impeded due to side effects that are majorly evoked by high dosages and burst release kinetics. In this study, mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGs), produced by an aerosol-assisted spray-drying scalable process, were loaded with BMP-2 resulting in prolonged, low-dose BMP-2 release without affecting the material characteristics. In vitro, MBGs were found to be cytocompatible and to induce a pro-osteogenic response in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In a pre-clinical rodent model, BMP-2 loaded MBGs significantly enhanced bone formation and influenced the microarchitecture of newly formed bone. The MBG carriers alone performed equal to the untreated (empty) control in most parameters tested, while additionally exerting mild pro-angiogenic effects. Using MBGs as a biocompatible, pro-regenerative carrier for local and sustained low dose BMP-2 release could limit side effects, thus enabling a safer usage of BMP-2 as a potent pro-osteogenic growth factor.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509740

RESUMO

Injectable therapeutic formulations locally releasing their cargo with tunable kinetics in response to external biochemical/physical cues are gaining interest in the scientific community, with the aim to overcome the cons of traditional administration routes. In this work, we proposed an alternative solution to this challenging goal by combining thermo-sensitive hydrogels based on custom-made amphiphilic poly(ether urethane)s (PEUs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles coated with a self-immolative polymer sensitive to acid pH (MSN-CS-SIP). By exploiting PEU chemical versatility, Boc-protected amino groups were introduced as PEU building block (PEU-Boc), which were then subjected to a deprotection reaction to expose pendant primary amines along the polymer backbone (PEU-NH2, 3E18 -NH2/gPEU-NH2) with the aim to accelerate system response to external acid pH environment. Then, thermo-sensitive hydrogels were designed (15% w/v) showing fast gelation in physiological conditions (approximately 5 min), while no significant changes in gelation temperature and kinetics were induced by the Boc-deprotection. Conversely, free amines in PEU-NH2 effectively enhanced and accelerated acid pH transfer (pH 5) through hydrogel thickness (PEU-Boc and PEU-NH2 gels covered approximately 42 and 52% of the pH delta between their initial pH and the pH of the surrounding buffer within 30 min incubation, respectively). MSN-CS-SIP carrying a fluorescent cargo as model drug (MSN-CS-SIP-Ru) were then encapsulated within the hydrogels with no significant effects on their thermo-sensitivity. Injectability and in situ gelation at 37°C were demonstrated ex vivo through sub-cutaneous injection in rodents. Moreover, MSN-CS-SIP-Ru-loaded gels turned out to be detectable through the skin by IVIS imaging. Cargo acid pH-triggered delivery from PEU-Boc and PEU-NH2 gels was finally demonstrated through drug release tests in neutral and acid pH environments (in acid pH environment approximately 2-fold higher cargo release). Additionally, acid-triggered payload release from PEU-NH2 gels was significantly higher compared to PEU-Boc systems at 3 and 4 days incubation. The herein designed hybrid injectable formulations could thus represent a significant step forward in the development of multi-stimuli sensitive drug carriers. Indeed, being able to adapt their behavior in response to biochemical cues from the surrounding physio-pathological environment, these formulations can effectively trigger the release of their payload according to therapeutic needs.

4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4789-4814, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451926

RESUMO

The interest on applying mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in orthopedic disorders has risen tremendously in the last years due to scientific successes in preclinical in vitro and animal model studies. In a wide range of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system, MSCs are currently under evaluation, but so far have found access to clinical use only in few cases. The current assignment is to translate the acquired knowledge into clinical practice. Therefore, this review aims at presenting a synopsis of the up-to-date status of the use of MSCs and MSC related cell products in musculoskeletal indications. Clinical studies were included, whereas preclinical and animal study data not have been considered. Most studies published so far investigate the final outcome applying bone marrow derived MSCs. In fewer trials the use of adipose tissue derived MSCs and allogenic MSCs was investigated in different applications. Although the reported results are equivocal in the current literature, the vast majority of the studies shows a benefit of MSC based therapies depending on the cell sources and the indication in clinical use. In summary, the clinical use of MSCs in patients in orthopedic indications has been found to be safe. Standardized protocols and clear definitions of the mechanisms of action and the mode and timing of application as well as further coordinated research efforts will be necessary for finally adding MSC based therapies in standard operating procedures and guidelines for the clinicians treating orthopedic disorders.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260421

RESUMO

Local pH is stated to acidify after bone fracture. However, the time course and degree of acidification remain unknown. Whether the acidification pattern within a fracture hematoma is applicable to adjacent muscle hematoma or is exclusive to this regenerative tissue has not been studied to date. Thus, in this study, we aimed to unravel the extent and pattern of acidification in vivo during the early phase post musculoskeletal injury. Local pH changes after fracture and muscle trauma were measured simultaneously in two pre-clinical animal models (sheep/rats) immediately after and up to 48 h post injury. The rat fracture hematoma was further analyzed histologically and metabolomically. In vivo pH measurements in bone and muscle hematoma revealed a local acidification in both animal models, yielding mean pH values in rats of 6.69 and 6.89, with pronounced intra- and inter-individual differences. The metabolomic analysis of the hematomas indicated a link between reduction in tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and pH, thus, metabolic activity within the injured tissues could be causative for the different pH values. The significant acidification within the early musculoskeletal hematoma could enable the employment of the pH for novel, sought-after treatments that allow for spatially and temporally controlled drug release.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(13): 14946-14957, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141284

RESUMO

In this work, two types of mesoporous carbon particles with different morphology, size, and pore structure have been functionalized with a self-immolative polymer sensitive to changes in pH and tested as drug nanocarriers. It is shown that their textural properties allow significantly higher loading capacity compared to typical mesoporous silica nanoparticles. In vial release experiments of a model Ru dye at pH 7.4 and 5 confirm the pH-responsiveness of the hybrid systems, showing that only small amounts of the cargo are released at physiological pH, whereas at slightly acidic pH (e.g., that of lysosomes), self-immolation takes place and a significant amount of the cargo is released. Cytotoxicity studies using human osteosarcoma cells show that the hybrid nanocarriers are not cytotoxic by themselves but induce significant cell growth inhibition when loaded with a chemotherapeutic drug such as doxorubicin. In preparation of an in vivo application, in vial responsiveness of the hybrid system to short-term pH-triggering is confirmed. The consecutive in vivo study shows no substantial cargo release over a period of 96 h under physiological pH conditions. Short-term exposure to acidic pH releases an experimental fluorescent cargo during and continuously after the triggering period over 72 h.

7.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 26(15-16): 852-862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046626

RESUMO

Biomaterials with tunable biophysical properties hold great potential for tissue engineering. The adaptive immune system plays an important role in bone regeneration. Our goal is to investigate the regeneration potential of cell-laden alginate hydrogels depending on the immune status of the animal model. Specifically, the regeneration potential of rat mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-laden, void-forming alginate hydrogels, with a stiffness optimized for osteogenic differentiation, is studied in 5-mm critical-sized femoral defects, in both T cell-deficient athymic Rowett Nude (RNU) rats and immunocompetent Sprague Dawley rats. Bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and tissue mineral density are higher for athymic RNU nude rats 6 weeks postsurgery. In addition, these animals show a significantly higher number of total cells and cells with non-lymphocyte morphology at the defect site, while the number of cells with lymphocyte-like morphology is lower. Hydrogel degradation is slower and the remaining alginate fragments are surrounded by a thicker fibrous capsule. Ossification islands originating from alginate residues suggest that encapsulated MSCs differentiate into the osteogenic lineage and initiate the mineralization process. However, this effect is insufficient to fully bridge the bone defect in both animal models. Alginate hydrogels can be used to deliver MSCs and thereby recruit endogenous cells through paracrine signaling, but additional osteogenic stimuli are needed to regenerate critical-sized segmental femoral defects.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383915

RESUMO

The interaction of hematopoietic cells and the bone microenvironment to maintain bone homeostasis is increasingly appreciated. We hypothesized that the transfer of allogeneic T lymphocytes has extensive effects on bone biology and investigated trabecular and cortical bone structures, the osteoblast reconstitution, and the bone vasculature in experimental hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT). Allogeneic or syngeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and allogeneic T lymphocytes were isolated and transferred in a murine model. After 20, 40, and 60 days, bone structures were visualized using microCT and histology. Immune cells were monitored using flow cytometry and bone vessels, bone cells and immune cells were fluorescently stained and visualized. Remodeling of the bone substance, the bone vasculature and bone cell subsets were found to occur as early as day +20 after allogeneic HSCT (including allogeneic T lymphocytes) but not after syngeneic HSCT. We discovered that allogeneic HSCT (including allogeneic T lymphocytes) results in a transient increase of trabecular bone number and bone vessel density. This was paralleled by a cortical thinning as well as disruptive osteoblast lining and loss of B lymphocytes. In summary, our data demonstrate that the adoptive transfer of allogeneic HSCs and allogeneic T lymphocytes can induce profound structural and spatial changes of bone tissue homeostasis as well as bone marrow cell composition, underlining the importance of the adaptive immune system for maintaining a balanced bone biology.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Animais , Biomarcadores , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Diáfises , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/imunologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Quimeras de Transplante , Transplante Homólogo
9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1954, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475013

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that T lymphocytes play a key role in controlling endogenous regeneration. Regeneration appears to be impaired in case of local accumulation of CD8+ effector T cells (TEFF), impairing endogenous regeneration by increasing a primary "useful" inflammation toward a damaging level. Thus, rescuing regeneration by regulating the heightened pro-inflammatory reaction employing regulatory CD4+ T (TReg) cells could represent an immunomodulatory option to enhance healing. Hypothesis was that CD4+ TReg might counteract undesired effects of CD8+ TEFF. Using adoptive TReg transfer, bone healing was consistently improved in mice possessing an inexperienced immune system with low amounts of CD8+ TEFF. In contrast, mice with an experienced immune system (high amounts of CD8+ TEFF) showed heterogeneous bone repair with regeneration being dependent upon the individual TEFF/TReg ratio. Thus, the healing outcome can only be improved by an adoptive TReg therapy, if an unfavorable TEFF/TReg ratio can be reshaped; if the individual CD8+ TEFF percentage, which is dependent on the individual immune experience can be changed toward a favorable ratio by the TReg transfer. Remarkably, also in patients with impaired fracture healing the TEFF/TReg ratio was higher compared to uneventful healers, validating our finding in the mouse osteotomy model. Our data demonstrate for the first time the key-role of a balanced TEFF/TReg response following injury needed to reach successful regeneration using bone as a model system. Considering this strategy, novel opportunities for immunotherapy in patients, which are at risk for impaired healing by targeting TEFF cells and supporting TReg cells to enhance healing are possible.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/imunologia , Regeneração Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osso e Ossos/imunologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10749, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341225

RESUMO

Adequate analgesia is essential whenever pain might occur in animal experiments. Unfortunately, the selection of suitable analgesics for mice in bone-linked models is limited. Here, we evaluated two analgesics - Tramadol [0.1 mg/ml (Tlow) vs. 1 mg/ml (Thigh)] and Buprenorphine (Bup; 0.009 mg/ml) - after a pre-surgical injection of Buprenorphine, in a mouse-osteotomy model. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of these opioids in alleviating pain-related behaviors, to provide evidence for adequate dosages and to examine potential side effects. High concentrations of Tramadol affected water intake, drinking frequency, food intake and body weight negatively in the first 2-3 days post-osteotomy, while home cage activity was comparable between all groups. General wellbeing parameters were strongly influenced by anesthesia and analgesics. Model-specific pain parameters did not indicate more effective pain relief at high concentrations of Tramadol. In addition, ex vivo high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) analysis and histology analyzing bone healing outcomes showed no differences between analgesic groups with respect to newly formed mineralized bone, cartilage and vessels. Our results show that high concentrations of Tramadol do not improve pain relief compared to low dosage Tramadol and Buprenorphine, but rather negatively affect animal wellbeing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Osteotomia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Água Potável , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos
11.
J Vis Exp ; (146)2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081822

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, contributing to an increasing prevalence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent research has established that pro-inflammatory immune cells infiltrate obese hypertrophic adipose tissue and liver. Given the emerging importance of immune cells in the context of metabolic homeostasis, there is a critical need to quantify and characterize their modification during the development of type 2 diabetes and NASH. However, animal models that induce pathophysiological features typical of human NASH are sparse. In this article, we provide a detailed protocol to identify immune cell subsets isolated from liver and adipose tissue in a reliable mouse model of NASH, established by housing high-fat diet (HFD) mice under non-specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions without a barrier for at least seven weeks. We demonstrate the handling of mice in non-SPF conditions, digestion of the tissues and identification of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, B and T cell subsets by flow cytometry. Representative flow cytometry plots from SPF HFD mice and non-SPF mice are provided. To obtain reliable and interpretable data, the use of antibodies, accurate and precise methods for tissue digestion and proper gating in flow cytometry experiments are critical elements. The intervention to restore physiological antigen exposure in mice by housing them in non-SPF conditions and unspecific exposure to microbial antigens could provide a relevant tool for investigating the link between immunological alterations, diet-induced obesity and related long term complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 797, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031773

RESUMO

Bone formation as well as bone healing capacity is known to be impaired in the elderly. Although bone formation is outpaced by bone resorption in aged individuals, we hereby present a novel path that considerably impacts bone formation and architecture: Bone formation is substantially reduced in aged individual owing to the experience of the adaptive immunity. Thus, immune-aging in addition to chronological aging is a potential risk factor, with an experienced immune system being recognized as more pro-inflammatory. The role of the aging immune system on bone homeostasis and on the bone healing cascade has so far not been considered. Within this study mice at different age and immunological experience were analyzed toward bone properties. Healing was assessed by introducing an osteotomy, immune cells were adoptively transferred to disclose the difference in biological vs. chronological aging. In vitro studies were employed to test the interaction of immune cell products (cytokines) on cells of the musculoskeletal system. In metaphyseal bone, immune-aging affects bone homeostasis by impacting bone formation capacity and thereby influencing mass and microstructure of bone trabeculae leading to an overall reduced mechanical competence as found in bone torsional testing. Furthermore, bone formation is also impacted during bone regeneration in terms of a diminished healing capacity observed in young animals who have an experienced human immune system. We show the impact of an experienced immune system compared to a naïve immune system, demonstrating the substantial differences in the healing capacity and bone homeostasis due to the immune composition. We further showed that in vivo mechanical stimulation changed the immune system phenotype in young mice toward a more naïve composition. While this rescue was found to be significant in young individuals, aged mice only showed a trend toward the reconstitution of a more naïve immune phenotype. Considering the immune system's experience level in an individual, will likely allow one to differentiate (stratify) and treat (immune-modulate) patients more effectively. This work illustrates the relevance of including immune diagnostics when discussing immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies for the progressively aging population of the industrial countries.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Regeneração Óssea , Remodelação Óssea/imunologia , Osso e Ossos/imunologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Homeostase , Osteogênese , Animais , Biomarcadores , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Cicatrização , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 713, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024548

RESUMO

Within an aging population, fracture incidences will rise and with the augmented risks of impaired healing the overall risk of delayed bone regeneration will substantially increase in elderly patients. Thus, new strategies to rescue fracture healing in the elderly are highly warranted. Modulating the initial inflammatory phase toward a reduced pro-inflammation launches new treatment options for delayed or impaired healing specifically in the elderly. Here, we evaluated the capacity of the prostacyclin analog Iloprost to modulate the inflammatory phase toward a pro-regenerative milieu using in vitro as well as in vivo model systems. In vitro, Iloprost administration led to a downregulation of potential unfavorable CD8+ cytotoxic T cells as well as their pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion profile. Furthermore, Iloprost increased the mineralization capacity of osteogenic induced mesenchymal stromal cells through both direct as well as indirect cues. In an in vivo approach, Iloprost, embedded in a biphasic fibrin scaffold, decreased the pro-inflammatory and simultaneously enhanced the anti-inflammatory phase thereby improving bone healing outcome. Overall, our presented data confirms a possible strategy to modulate the early inflammatory phase in aged individuals toward a physiological healing by a downregulation of an excessive pro-inflammation that otherwise would impair healing. Further confirmation in phase I/II trials, however, is needed to validate the concept in a broader clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Iloprosta/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epoprostenol/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização
14.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 27(11): 3575-3582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The treatment of osteochondral defects in joint cartilage remains challenging due to its limited repair capacity. This study presents a metallic osteochondral plug with hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated cap edges for improved implant-tissue contact. The hypothesis was that improved attachment prevents from synovial fluid-influx and thereby avoids osteolysis and resulting implant instability. METHODS: In total, 24 female, adult sheep were randomized into three groups. All animals received an Episealer®-implant in the medial condyle of the right knee. The implants were coated with two different HA versions or uncoated (control group). After 12 weeks, the implant-tissue connections were analysed radiologically and histologically. RESULTS: In general, the groups with the coated cap edges showed a better quality of tissue connection to the implant. The occurrence of gaps between tissue and implant was more seldom, the binding of calcified and hyaline cartilage to the cap was significantly better than in the uncoated group. A histomorphometrically measured lower amount of void space in these groups compared to the group with the uncoated edges confirmed that. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis of a tighter cartilage bone contact was confirmed. The HA coating of the implant's cap edges resulted in better adherence of cartilage to the implant, which was not previously reported. In conclusion, this led to a better contact between implant and cartilage as well as neighbouring bone. In clinical routine, joint fluid is aggressive, penetrates through cartilage rifts, and promotes osteolysis and loosening of implants. The observed sealing effect will act to prevent joint fluid to get access to the implant-tissue interfaces. Joint fluid is aggressive, can cause osteolysis, and can, clinically cause pain. These effects are liable to decrease with these findings and will further the longevity of these osteochondral implants.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Durapatita , Próteses e Implantes , Desenho de Prótese , Animais , Interface Osso-Implante , Feminino , Cartilagem Hialina , Metais , Osteólise/prevenção & controle , Falha de Prótese , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos
15.
Acta Biomater ; 86: 171-184, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616076

RESUMO

Although several biomaterials for bone regeneration have been developed in the last decades, clinical application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is clinically only approved when applied on an absorbable bovine collagen I scaffold (ACS) (Helistat; ACS-H). In research, another ACS, namely Lyostypt (ACS-L) is frequently used as a scaffold in bone-linked studies. Nevertheless, until today, the influence of ACS alone on bone healing remains unknown. Unexpectedly, in vitro studies using ASC-H revealed a suppression of osteogenic differentiation and a significant reduction of cell vitality when compared to ASC-L. In mice, we observed a significant delay in bone healing when applying ACS-L in the fracture gap during femoral osteotomy. The results of our study show for the first time a negative influence of both ACS-H and ACS-L on bone formation demonstrating a substantial need for more sophisticated delivery systems for local stimulation of bone healing in both clinical application and research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence-based justification to promote the development and approval of more suitable and sophisticated delivery systems in bone healing research. Additionally, we stimulate researchers of the field to consider that the application of those scaffolds as a delivery system for new substances represents a delayed healing approach rather than a normal bone healing which could greatly impact the outcome of those studies and play a pivotal role in the translation to the clinics. Moreover, we provide impulses on underlying mechanism involving the roles of small-leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRP) for further detailed investigations.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteotomia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956322

RESUMO

Macrophages are essential players in the process of fracture healing, acting by remodeling of the extracellular matrix and enabling vascularization. Whilst activated macrophages of M1-like phenotype are present in the initial pro-inflammatory phase of hours to days of fracture healing, an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage phenotype is supposed to be crucial for the induction of downstream cascades of healing, especially the initiation of vascularization. In a mouse-osteotomy model, we provide a comprehensive characterization of vessel (CD31+, Emcn+) and macrophage phenotypes (F4/80, CD206, CD80, Mac-2) during the process of fracture healing. To this end, we phenotype the phases of vascular regeneration-the expansion phase (d1-d7 after injury) and the remodeling phase of the endothelial network, until tissue integrity is restored (d14-d21 after injury). Vessels which appear during the bone formation process resemble type H endothelium (CD31hiEmcnhi), and are closely connected to osteoprogenitors (Runx2+, Osx+) and F4/80+ macrophages. M1-like macrophages are present in the initial phase of vascularization until day 3 post osteotomy, but they are rare during later regeneration phases. M2-like macrophages localize mainly extramedullary, and CD206+ macrophages are found to express Mac-2+ during the expansion phase. VEGFA expression is initiated by CD80+ cells, including F4/80+ macrophages, until day 3, while subsequently osteoblasts and chondrocytes are main contributors to VEGFA production at the fracture site. Using Longitudinal Intravital Microendoscopy of the Bone (LIMB) we observe changes in the motility and organization of CX3CR1+ cells, which infiltrate the injury site after an osteotomy. A transient accumulation, resulting in spatial polarization of both, endothelial cells and macrophages, in regions distal to the fracture site, is evident. Immunofluorescence histology followed by histocytometric analysis reveals that F4/80+CX3CR1+ myeloid cells precede vascularization.


Assuntos
Calo Ósseo/irrigação sanguínea , Calo Ósseo/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Biomarcadores , Regeneração Óssea , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Osteoblastos , Osteogênese
17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1069, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892281

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, our knowledge is mostly based on conventional murine models and promising preclinical studies rarely translated into successful therapies. There is a growing awareness of the limitations of studies in laboratory mice, housed in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, as relevant aspects of the human immune system remain unappreciated. Here, we assessed the impact of housing conditions on adaptive immunity and metabolic disease processes during high-fat diet (HFD). We therefore compared diet-induced obesity in SPF mice with those housed in non-SPF, so-called "antigen exposed" (AE) conditions. Surprisingly, AE mice fed a HFD maintained increased insulin levels to compensate for insulin resistance, which was reflected in islet hyperplasia and improved glucose tolerance compared to SPF mice. By contrast, we observed higher proportions of effector/memory T cell subsets in blood and liver of HFD AE mice accompanied by the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-like liver pathology. Thus, our data demonstrate the impact of housing conditions on metabolic alterations. Studies in AE mice, in which physiological microbial exposure was restored, could provide a tool for revealing therapeutic targets for immune-based interventions for T2D patients.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Habitação , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Abrigo para Animais , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
18.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 16(2): 155-168, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536393

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impaired healing outcomes or even non-unions after bone injury are still a highly relevant problem in the daily clinical life. Especially within an aging population, the occurrence of bone fractures increases and thus novel treatment approaches to overcome compromised bone regeneration are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: The gold standard to treat delayed or non-healing bone injuries is still the use of autologous bone grafts to foster regeneration. Besides its successful treatment outcome, it also has disadvantages: a second surgery is needed in order to harvest the bone material and the material is highly limited. Looking into the recent literature, a multitude of different research approaches were already conducted to identify new possible strategies to treat impaired bone regeneration: application of mesenchymal stromal cells, platelet lysates, growth factors, interference in the immune system, or bone formation stimulation by ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the treatment approaches actually performed in the clinic as well as at the bench in the context of compromised bone healing. It clearly highlights the complexity of the nature of non-healing bone fractures as well as patient-dependent factors influencing the healing process.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/uso terapêutico , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Fraturas não Consolidadas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534011

RESUMO

Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(423)2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321260

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) titanium-mesh scaffolds offer many advantages over autologous bone grafting for the regeneration of challenging large segmental bone defects. Our study supports the hypothesis that endogenous bone defect regeneration can be promoted by mechanobiologically optimized Ti-mesh scaffolds. Using finite element techniques, two mechanically distinct Ti-mesh scaffolds were designed in a honeycomb-like configuration to minimize stress shielding while ensuring resistance against mechanical failure. Scaffold stiffness was altered through small changes in the strut diameter only. Honeycombs were aligned to form three differently oriented channels (axial, perpendicular, and tilted) to guide the bone regeneration process. The soft scaffold (0.84 GPa stiffness) and a 3.5-fold stiffer scaffold (2.88 GPa) were tested in a critical size bone defect model in vivo in sheep. To verify that local scaffold stiffness could enhance healing, defects were stabilized with either a common locking compression plate that allowed dynamic loading of the 4-cm defect or a rigid custom-made plate that mechanically shielded the defect. Lower stress shielding led to earlier defect bridging, increased endochondral bone formation, and advanced bony regeneration of the critical size defect. This study demonstrates that mechanobiological optimization of 3D additive manufactured Ti-mesh scaffolds can enhance bone regeneration in a translational large animal study.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágenos Fibrilares/química , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Ovinos , Cicatrização
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