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1.
J Fish Dis ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837562

RESUMO

Diagnostic accuracy of pathogen detection depends upon the selection of suitable tests. Problems can arise when the selected diagnostic test gives false-positive or false-negative results, which can affect control measures, with consequences for the population health. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of different diagnostic methods IHC, PCR and qPCR detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish and as a consequence differences in disease prevalence. We analysed tissue from 388 salmonid specimens sampled from a recirculating system and rivers in the Czech Republic. Overall prevalence of T. bryosalmonae was extremely high at 92.0%, based on positive results of at least one of the above-mentioned screening methods. IHC resulted in a much lower detection rate (30.2%) than both PCR methods (qPCR32: 65.4%, PCR: 81.9%). While qPCR32 produced a good match with IHC (60.8%), all other methods differed significantly (p < .001) in the proportion of samples determined positive. Both PCR methods showed similar sensitivity, though specificity (i.e., the proportion of non-diseased fish classified correctly) differed significantly (p < .05). Sample preservation method significantly (p < .05) influenced the results of PCR, with a much lower DNA yield extracted from paraffin-embedded samples. Use of different methods that differ in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity resulted in random and systematic diagnosis errors, illustrating the importance of interpreting the results of each method carefully.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730108

RESUMO

Natural and uninterrupted water courses are important for biodiversity and fish population stability. Nowadays, many streams and rivers are obstructed by artificial migration barriers, often preventing the migration of fish. On the other hand, distribution of pathogens by migrating fishes is still a point of concern. Pathogen transport and transmission is a driving force in the dynamics of many infectious diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible consequences of the removal of an artificial migration barrier for the upstream transport of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) in brown trout, by migrating fish. To test this question, a river system was selected with a migration barrier separating a PKD positive river from a PKD negative tributary. After removal of the barrier, PKD prevalence and pathology was examined during five years after elimination of the barrier. In the tributary, no PKD was recorded at any time of the survey. By means of unidirectional PIT (passive integrated transponder)-tagging, we confirmed upstream migration of adult brown trout into the tributary during the cold season, presumably for spawning. By eDNA, we confirmed presence of T. bryoalmonae and Fredericella sp., the definitive host, DNA in water from the PKD positive river stretch, but not in the PKD negative tributary. Our study illustrates the importance of the connectivity of streams for habitat maintenance. Although migration of brown trout from a PKD-positive river into a PKD-negative tributary, mainly for spawning, was confirmed, upstream spreading of PKD was not observed.

3.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 140: 179-186, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815526

RESUMO

The rearing of less established fish species in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) is increasing, but may require adaptations of the rearing facilities if health impairments occur. We observed several health issues in burbot Lota lota reared for up to 2 yr in a RAS and used microbiological, histological and molecular-biological methods to identify the causative agents. Minor skin trauma led to the development of ulcers. In addition, several fillets of burbot showed pronounced granulomatous inflammation and calcification with signs of muscle fiber degeneration which resembled a condition called 'sandy flesh disease' in North American walleye. Several infectious agents were able to be excluded as a cause for the disease. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum was isolated in high numbers in some of the affected muscle tissue. However, the role of this bacterium or other causative agents or husbandry conditions remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Animais , Aquicultura , Carnobacterium , Doenças dos Peixes , Músculo Esquelético
5.
J Fish Dis ; 43(10): 1201-1211, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740949

RESUMO

Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD), which affects both wild and farmed salmonid fish. The objective of this study was to outline differences in susceptibility to PKD in different salmonid species, hybrids and breeding lineages. Susceptibility to T. bryosalmonae infection was established based on cumulative mortality, pathological findings and detection of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney using immunohistochemistry and molecular methods. Determination of pure and hybrid individuals of different species in the genus Salvelinus, and dissimilarity of rainbow trout lineages, was performed using traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microsatellite analyses. Rainbow trout displayed higher disease severity compared with brook trout and Alsatian charr. Moreover, the results indicated differences in infection susceptibility, not only among different salmonid species but also among different lineages of charr and rainbow trout. Our study indicated that some salmonid species and even different lineages of the same species are more suitable for farming under PKD pressure.

6.
J Fish Dis ; 43(10): 1317-1324, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830324

RESUMO

Since 2016, annually occurring species-specific die-offs of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) occurred in the Thur River, situated in the Eastern part of Switzerland. These events lead to drastically reduced population densities in the impacted river regions. Clinical signs in brown trout and mortality were restricted to few weeks in August/September. To characterize the syndrome and to find possible causes, from end of March to November 2018, one-year-old brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to water from Thur River, fish were sampled regularly and screened for infectious agents, including viral metagenomics, and pathology was described. Starting approximately four months post-exposure, brown trout showed severe lymphohistiocytic pancarditis and necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis. These lesions were recorded until the end of the experiment in November. Rainbow trout were not affected at any point in time. No infectious agents could be identified so far as cause of disease, especially no viral aetiology. Even if pathogenesis and pathology point in the direction of an infectious agent, a causative relationship could not be confirmed and aetiology remains unclear.

7.
J Fish Dis ; 43(10): 1299-1315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830338

RESUMO

Aquaculture is a rapidly growing field of food production. However, morbidity and mortality are higher in aquaculture species than in domestic animals. Bacterial diseases are a leading cause of farmed fish morbidity and are often treated with antimicrobials. Since most Swiss fish farms release effluents directly into surface water without treatment and since aquaculture fish are consumed by humans, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multi-resistance in aquaculture fish are important for environmental and public health. In this study, AMR tests for 14 antimicrobials were performed on 1,448 isolates from 1,134 diagnostic laboratory submissions from farmed and ornamental fish submissions for the period from 2000 to 2017. Amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin had the lowest proportion of resistant samples. However, AMR was highly variable over time. Resistance proportions were higher in: (a) ornamental fish compared with farmed fish, (b) fish from recirculation systems compared with those from other farming systems and (c) isolates originating from skin compared with those originating from inner organs. Multiple resistances were common. The results of this study provide useful data for Swiss fish veterinarians and some interesting hypotheses about risk factors for AMR in aquaculture and pet fish in Switzerland. However, further research is needed to define risk factors.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 3056-3060, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640119

RESUMO

Transmission paths in the distribution of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids are still largely unknown. In this study, the role of goosander (Mergus merganser) as possible transport host for Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae through faeces was examined. Goosander fledglings were fed exclusively with diseased brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). In all trout used for feeding, intratubular sporogonic stage of the parasite was confirmed histologically. Between one to 10 hours post-feeding, the goosander faeces were sampled and tested for T. bryosalmonae DNA. In qPCR, only DNA fragments were found, and in conventional PCR, no amplification was confirmed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the role of goosander as transport hosts for T. bryosalmonae via their faeces can be neglected.

9.
Environ Int ; 142: 105836, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563011

RESUMO

Estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EEDCs), such as ethinylestradiol (EE2), are well studied for their impact on the reproductive system of fish. EEDCs may also impact the immune system and, as a consequence, the disease susceptibility of fish. It is currently not yet known whether the low concentrations of EEDCs that are able to disrupt the reproductive system of trout are effective in disrupting the immune system and the fish host resistance towards pathogens, too, or whether such immunodisruptive effects would occur only at higher EEDC concentrations. Therefore, in the present study we compare the effect thresholds of low 17α-ethinylestradiol concentrations (1.5 and 5.5 EE2 ng/L) on the reproductive system, the immune system, the energy expenditures and the resistance of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against the parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae - the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids. The parasite infection was conducted without injection and under low pathogen exposure concentrations. The disease development was followed over 130 days post infection - in the presence or absence of EE2 exposure. The results show that the long-term EE2 exposure affected, at both concentrations, reproductive parameters like the mRNA levels of hepatic vitellogenin and estrogen receptors. At the same concentrations, EE2 exposure modulated the immune parameters: mRNA levels of several immune genes were altered and the parasite intensity as well as the disease severity (histopathology) were significantly reduced in EE2-exposed fish compared to infected control fish. The combination of EE2 exposure and parasite infection was energetically costly, as indicated by the decreased values of the swim tunnel respirometry. Although further substantiation is needed, our findings suggest that EE2 exerts endocrine disruptive and immunomodulating activities at comparable effect thresholds, since reproductive and immune parameters were affected by the same, low EE2 concentrations.

10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2642-2652, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386103

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease of salmonids, which is exacerbating with increasing water temperature. Its causative agent, the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, exploits freshwater bryozoans as primary hosts and salmonids as intermediate hosts. Our experiments showed that the manipulation of exposure concentrations of infective malacospores had relatively minor impacts for the disease outcomes in the fish host. In this study, brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different exposure concentrations of T. bryosalmonae malacospores: (a) a single low parasite concentration (LC), (b) a single high parasite concentration (HC) and (c) three times a low concentration (repeat exposure, RE). Parasite dynamics in the fish host and release of fish malacospores were quantified and fish kidney histopathology was evaluated to determine PKD pathogenesis. Infection prevalence was always lower in the LC group than in the other groups over the course of the study. While the parasite proliferation phase was slower in the LC group, the maximum parasite burden did not differ significantly amongst treatments. The onset of fish malacospore release (day 45 post-exposure), indicated by detection of T. bryosalmonae DNA in the tank water, occurred at the same time point for all groups. Reduced intensity of kidney pathological development was observed in the LC treatment indicating lower disease severity. While the LC treatment resulted in reduced outcomes across several infection parameters (infection prevalence, parasite proliferation, total fish malacospores released), the overall differences were small. The RE and HC treatment outcomes were for most parameters comparable. Our results suggest that repeated exposure, as is likely to occur in the wild during the summer months, might play a more important role in the dynamics of PKD as an emerging infectious disease than the actual concentration of spores.

11.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124589, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437630

RESUMO

Vitellogenin (VTG), a well-established biomarker for the diagnosis of endocrine activity in fish, is used in multiple OECD test guidelines (TG) to identify activities of chemicals on hormonal pathways. However, the synthesis of VTG may not only be modified by typical endocrine-related pathways, but also through non-endocrine-mediated processes. In particular, hepatotoxicity, i.e. toxicant-induced impairment of liver structure and function, might influence VTG as a biomarker, since VTG is synthesized in hepatocytes. An intimate understanding of the interplay between endocrine-related and non-endocrine-related pathways influencing VTG production is crucial for the avoidance of erroneous diagnoses in hazard assessment for regulatory purposes of chemical compounds. In order to investigate whether hepatotoxicity may interfere with hepatic VTG synthesis, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to three well-known hepatotoxicants, acetaminophen, isoniazid and acetylsalicylic acid, according to OECD TG 230. Various hepatotoxicity- and endocrine system-related endpoints were recorded: mRNA expression of selected endocrine- and hepatotoxicity-related marker genes in the liver; VTG levels in head/tail homogenates; and liver histopathology. All three test compounds induced significant, but mild single cell necrosis of hepatocytes and transcriptional changes of hepatotoxicity-related marker genes, thus confirming hepatotoxic effects. A positive correlation between hepatotoxicity and reduced hepatic VTG synthesis was not observed, with the single exception of a weak increase in female zebrafish exposed to APAP. This suggests that - in studies conducted according to OECD TG 229 or 230 - it is unlikely that hepatotoxic chemicals will interfere with the hepatic capacity for VTG synthesis.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Aspirina/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Isoniazida/toxicidade , Vitelogeninas/biossíntese , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/biossíntese
12.
J Fish Dis ; 42(5): 685-691, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806486

RESUMO

In non-salmonid fish, Aeromonas salmonicidacan cause local infections with severe skin ulcerations, known as atypical furunculosis. In this study, we present a systemic infection by a virulent A. salmonicidain European perch (Perca fluviatilis).This infection was diagnosed in a Swiss warm water recirculation aquaculture system. The isolate of A.  salmonicida encodes a type three secretion system (TTSS) most likely located on a plasmid similar to pAsa5/pASvirA, which is known to specify one of the main virulence attributes of the species A. salmonicida. However, the genes specifying the TTSS of the perch isolate show a higher temperature tolerance than strains isolated from cold-water fish. The function of the TTSS in virulence was verified in a cytotoxicity test using bluegill fry and epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Aeromonas salmonicida/fisiologia , Aeromonas salmonicida/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Percas , Animais , Furunculose , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 206-215, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711587

RESUMO

High rates of progestins consumption in the form of active ingredients in women's oral contraceptives and other hormonal preparations may lead to their increased concentrations in aquatic environments and subsequent harmful effect on fish reproduction. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of etonogestrel, a third-generation synthetic progestin, on the reproductive behavior, fertility, gonads histology, and secondary sexual characteristics of male and female Endler's guppies (Poecilia wingei). Fish were subjected for 34 days to two concentrations of etonogestrel, including one possibly environmentally relevant (3.2 ng L-1) and one sublethal (320 ng L-1) concentration. A mating behavior study was subsequently conducted and revealed that the treatment with etonogestrel significantly reduced mating frequency in the exposed fish compared to controls. All the exposed females were unable to reproduce. In addition, female fish exposed to the highest level of etonogestrel were masculinized, as their anal fins and body coloration showed patterns similar to those of male fish. Etonogestrel-exposed females also had fewer developed oocytes. In conclusion, the low etonogestrel concentration (3.2 ng L-1) led to a reduction of mating activity in males without effect on their reproductive success, but it completely inhibited reproduction in females. Exposure to etonogestrel clearly has more severe consequences for females than males.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Desogestrel/efeitos adversos , Poecilia/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Poecilia/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
15.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

16.
Parasitology ; 145(3): 281-291, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831940

RESUMO

Climate change, in particular rising temperature, is suspected to be a major driver for the emergence of many wildlife diseases. Proliferative kidney disease of salmonids, caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, was used to evaluate how temperature dependence of host-parasite interactions modulates disease emergence. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) kept at 12 and 15 °C, were experimentally infected with T. bryosalmonae. Parasite development in the fish host and release of spores were quantified simultaneously to unravel parasite transmission potential from the vertebrate to the invertebrate host. A change to a stable plateau in infection intensity of the kidney coincided with a threshold at which spore shedding commenced. This onset of parasite release was delayed at the low temperature in accordance with reaching this infection intensity threshold, but the amount of spores released was irrespective of temperature. The production of parasite transmission stages declined with time. In conclusion, elevated temperature modifies the parasite transmission opportunities by increasing the duration of transmission stage production, which may affect the spread and establishment of the parasite in a wider range of rivers.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Temperatura , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Rim/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias , Truta/anatomia & histologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(45): 11992-11997, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078391

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a major threat to wild and farmed salmonid populations because of its lethal effect at high water temperatures. Its causative agent, the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, has a complex lifecycle exploiting freshwater bryozoans as primary hosts and salmonids as secondary hosts. We carried out an integrated study of PKD in a prealpine Swiss river (the Wigger). During a 3-year period, data on fish abundance, disease prevalence, concentration of primary hosts' DNA in environmental samples [environmental DNA (eDNA)], hydrological variables, and water temperatures gathered at various locations within the catchment were integrated into a newly developed metacommunity model, which includes ecological and epidemiological dynamics of fish and bryozoans, connectivity effects, and hydrothermal drivers. Infection dynamics were captured well by the epidemiological model, especially with regard to the spatial prevalence patterns. PKD prevalence in the sampled sites for both young-of-the-year (YOY) and adult brown trout attained 100% at the end of summer, while seasonal population decay was higher in YOY than in adults. We introduce a method based on decay distance of eDNA signal predicting local species' density, accounting for variation in environmental drivers (such as morphology and geology). The model provides a whole-network overview of the disease prevalence. In this study, we show how spatial and environmental characteristics of river networks can be used to study epidemiology and disease dynamics of waterborne diseases.


Assuntos
Briozoários/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Myxozoa/patogenicidade , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/metabolismo , Myxozoa/fisiologia
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 238: 5-16, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291603

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an endoparasitic disease of salmonid fish caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea). This study presents a comprehensive view on PKD development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at an intensive fish breeding facility, with focus on mortality, pathology/histopathology, haematological findings and immune functions. Diseased and reference fish were sampled monthly and time course of natural infection was followed up from the onset of clinical signs (September 2014) to full recovery (January 2015). PKD- associated cumulative mortality was 30% with a peak value in October, while immunohistochemical testing indicated a continuous significant decrease in T. bryosalmonae numbers from September to December; with no parasites detected in January. During peak clinical infection, a significant decrease in red blood cell counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin concentration, along with a reduction in lymphocytes and a significant phagocyte elevation corresponding with an increase in phagocyte oxidative burst were measured in comparison to control animals. Complement activity and total immunoglobulin plasma concentrations were also elevated, though only during the initial monitoring period (September). Individuals surviving PKD, recovered and were able to fully regenerate both renal structure and haematopoietic parameters to normal levels. Changes in the red blood cell parameters indicate anaemia and a decreased oxygen transportation capacity during the clinical disease phase. Together with an increased oxygen demand at higher temperatures and decreased oxygen solubility this could lead to decompensation and elevated mortality. The stimulation of immune parameters, and especially oxidative phagocytic burst, is likely to have had a strong effect on both, regeneration and elimination of the pathogenic agent.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Nefropatias/patologia , Temperatura
19.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 123(3): 193-203, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322206

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations, with the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae as the causative agent. Species differences in parasite susceptibility and disease-induced mortality seem to exist. The aim of the present study was to compare incidence, pathology and mortality of PKD in grayling Thymallus thymallus and brown trout Salmo trutta under identical semi-natural conditions. Young-of-the-year grayling and brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were jointly exposed in cage compartments in a river in the northeast of Switzerland during 3 summer months. Wild brown trout were caught by electrofishing near the cage, and PKD status was compared with that of caged animals. Cage-exposed grayling showed a PKD incidence of 1%, regardless of whether parasite infection was determined by means of real-time PCR or histopathology/immunohistochemistry. In contrast, PKD incidence of caged brown trout was 77%. This value was not significantly different to PKD prevalence of wild brown trout caught above and below the cage (60 and 91%, respectively). Mortality in grayling was significantly higher compared with that of brown trout (40 versus 23%); however, grayling mortality was not considered to be associated with PKD. Mortality of caged and infected brown trout was significantly higher than mortality of non-infected caged trout. Histopathology indicated an ongoing mostly acute or chronic active infection in brown trout, which survived until the end of exposure. The results suggest that grayling are less susceptible to infection with T. bryosalmonae compared with brown trout under the tested field conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie , Suíça/epidemiologia
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