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1.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare myeloproliferative disease associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular complications. The precise mechanisms leading to elevation of blood pressure (BP) and secondary target organ damage remains, however, poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aims were to: evaluate BP profile, assess sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system activities and provide a comprehensive assessment of subclinical target organ damage in PV patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PV and 20 control subjects were included. BP measurements, catecholamines, urinary and plasma O-methylated catecholamine metabolites, aldosterone and renin concentration were analyzed. Microneurography sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA) and baroreflex control of heart rate and assessment of subclinical target organ damage were assessed. RESULTS: At similar levels of BP, BP variability was decreased in the PV group (standard deviation of mean 24h systolic BP 9(3) vs 12(3) mm Hg; p=0.003). PV patients were characterized by lower norepinephrine excretion 16.54 (6.32) vs. 25.46 (12.88) µg/day, p=0.03) as well as decreased MSNA as assessed by microneurography compared to controls (MSNA/min 30.7(8.70)/min vs 38.7(5.4)/min, p=0.007 and MSNA/10 heart beats 51.8 (11.0)/100 beats vs 61.1 (11.3)/100 heart beats, p=0.04). Baroreflex control of HR was unaltered in PV group. Increased hemoglobin and red cell count correlated with decreased retinal capillary flow in PV patients. CONCLUSIONS: In PV high hemoglobin plasma concentration and hematocrit are associated with lower sympathetic nervous activity, decreased BP variability and retinal capillary flow. There was no relationship between hemoglobin plasma concentration, hematocrit and target organ damage.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921919, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Arterial hypertension (HT) is a leading cause of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) has been recently described as a factor that prevents myocardial dysfunction. The present study measured serum USP18 levels in normotensive (n=29), isolated diastolic hypertensive (n=20), and systolic-diastolic hypertensive (n=30) male participants and correlated these results with biochemical parameters that are included in routine assessments of patients with hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-nine men, aged 24 to 82 years (mean=50.8±11.4 years), were included in the study. None of the participants had ever been treated for HT. Blood and urine parameters were assessed using routine techniques. Serum USP18 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS The means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of USP18 levels in the HT(-), iDHT(+), and HT(+) groups were 69.3 (22.1-116.5) pg/ml, 90.1 (29.0-151.3) pg/ml, and 426.7 (163.1-690.3) pg/ml, respectively. In the HT(+) group, the mean serum USP18 level was 6.2-times higher than in the HT(-) group (p=0.014) and 4.7-times higher than in the iDHT(+) group (p=0.19). The partial correlation analysis that was adjusted for risk factors of arteriosclerosis indicated that USP18 levels were correlated with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate. CONCLUSIONS This preliminary study found that serum USP18 levels were significantly higher in drug-naive male participants with arterial hypertension compared with normotensive controls. USP18 exerts cardiovascular-protective effects. Elevations of USP18 levels may indicate a counterregulatory process that is engaged during increases in pressure in the left ventricle.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385506

RESUMO

AIMS : A J-shaped association of cardiovascular events to achieved systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was shown in high-risk patients. This association on oral anticoagulation is unknown. This analysis from RELY assessed the risks of death, stroke or systemic emboli, and bleeding according to mean achieved SBP and DBP in atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation. METHODS AND RESULTS : RE-LY patients were followed for 2 years and recruited between 22 December 2005 until 15 December 2007. 18.113 patients were randomized in 951 centres in 54 countries and 18,107 patients with complete blood pressure (BP) data were analysed with a median follow-up of 2.0 years and a complete follow-up in 99.9%. The association between achieved mean SBP and DBP on all-cause death, stroke and systemic embolic events (SSE), major, and any bleeding were explored. On treatment, SBP >140 mmHg and <120 mmHg was associated with all-cause death compared with SBP 120-130 mmHg (reference). For SSE, risk was unchanged at SBP <110 mmHg but increased at 140-160 mmHg (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.81; 1.40-2.33) and SBP ≥160 mmHg (HR 3.35; 2.09-5.36). Major bleeding events were also increased at <110 mmHg and at 110 to <120 mmHg. Interestingly, there was no increased risk of major bleeding at SBP >130 mmHg. Similar patterns were observed for DBP with an increased risk at <70 mmHg (HR 1.55; 1.35-1.78) and >90 mmHg (HR 1.88; 1.43-2.46) for all-cause death compared to 70 to <80 mmHg (reference). Risk for any bleeding was increased at low DBP <70 mmHg (HR 1.46; 1.37-1.56) at DBP 80 to <90 mmHg (HR 1.13; 1.06-1.31) without increased risk at higher achieved DBP. Dabigatran 150 mg twice daily showed an advantage in all patients for all-cause death and SSE and there was an advantage for 110 mg dabigatran twice daily for major bleeding and any bleeding irrespective of SBP or DBP achieved. Similar results were obtained for baseline BP, time-updated BP, and BP as time-varying covariate. CONCLUSION : Low achieved SBP associates with increased risk of death, SSE, and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation. Major bleeding events did not occur at higher BP. Low BP might identify high-risk patients not only for death but also for high bleeding risks. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov-Identifier: NCT00262600.

5.
Lancet ; 395(10234): 1444-1451, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-based renal denervation has significantly reduced blood pressure in previous studies. Following a positive pilot trial, the SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED (SPYRAL Pivotal) trial was designed to assess the efficacy of renal denervation in the absence of antihypertensive medications. METHODS: In this international, prospective, single-blinded, sham-controlled trial, done at 44 study sites in Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, the UK, and the USA, hypertensive patients with office systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg to less than 180 mm Hg were randomly assigned 1:1 to either a renal denervation or sham procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in 24-h systolic blood pressure and the secondary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in office systolic blood pressure from baseline to 3 months after the procedure. We used a Bayesian design with an informative prior, so the primary analysis combines evidence from the pilot and Pivotal trials. The primary efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02439749. FINDINGS: From June 25, 2015, to Oct 15, 2019, 331 patients were randomly assigned to either renal denervation (n=166) or a sham procedure (n=165). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were met, with posterior probability of superiority more than 0·999 for both. The treatment difference between the two groups for 24-h systolic blood pressure was -3·9 mm Hg (Bayesian 95% credible interval -6·2 to -1·6) and for office systolic blood pressure the difference was -6·5 mm Hg (-9·6 to -3·5). No major device-related or procedural-related safety events occurred up to 3 months. INTERPRETATION: SPYRAL Pivotal showed the superiority of catheter-based renal denervation compared with a sham procedure to safely lower blood pressure in the absence of antihypertensive medications. FUNDING: Medtronic.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/cirurgia , Rim/inervação , Rim/cirurgia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/normas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Simpatectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Structural abnormalities in resistance arteries are a hallmark of patients with hypertension. In hypertensive patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL), it is still a matter of debate whether structural vascular changes are because of elevated blood pressure (BP) or to toxic effects of elevated circulating catecholamines. Hence, the aim of our study was to assess whether catecholamine excess and/or elevated BP affect the structure of small retinal arteries in patients with catecholamine-producing tumors. METHODS: The study included 27 patients with PPGL and 27 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent biochemical tests for catecholamine excess, echocardiography and analyses of scanning-laser-Doppler-flowmetry (SLDF) both at baseline and 12 months following surgical resection of PPGL. RESULTS: Baseline retinal arterial diameter, arterial wall thickness and wall cross sectional area (WCSA) were higher in patients with PPGL as compared with subjects without PPGL (arterial diameter: 110 ±â€Š16.5 vs. 99.5 ±â€Š10.8 µm, wall thickness: 16.3 ±â€Š6.0 vs. 13.5 ±â€Š4.0 µm, WCSA: 4953.9 ±â€Š2472.8 vs. 3784.1 ±â€Š1446.3 µm, P < 0.05). Significant correlations were noted between wall thickness and WCSA and echocardiographic parameters assessing diastolic and systolic function of left ventricle. No correlations between retinal parameters, BP level and plasma concentrations of metanephrines were observed. In patients with PPGL, there were postoperative decreases in wall thickness (16.4 ±â€Š15.8 vs. 14.8 ±â€Š4.7 µm; P = 0.011) and WLR (0.42 ±â€Š0.13 vs. 0.37 ±â€Š0.10; P = 0.003) at 12 months after surgical removal of tumors. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that catecholamine excess is related to thickening of retinal arteries independent of BP and reversible after surgical cure. These data support a role of catecholamines in vascular remodeling in PPGL patients.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5255, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210247

RESUMO

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) represents a reliable tool for retinal layer volume and thickness measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal changes indicating neurodegenerative processes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared to healthy controls. This was a cross-sectional, single-center study comprising 32 ESRD patients and 38 controls. Sectoral retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and retinal layer volumes were obtained by SD-OCT. Age- and gender-adjusted retinal layer volumes such as total retinal volume (p = 0.037), ganglion cell layer volume (GCL, p = 0.003), ganglion cell layer - inner plexiform layer volume (GCL-IPL, p = 0.005) and inner retinal layer volume (IRL, p = 0.042) of the right eye were lower in ESRD patients. Inner plexiform layer volume of both eyes (IPL, right eye: p = 0.017; left eye: 0.044) was reduced, as was RNFL thickness in the temporal superior sector (right eye: p = 0.016). A subgroup analysis excluding patients with diabetes revealed that GCL (p = 0.014) and GCL-IPL volume of the right eye (p = 0.024) and temporal superior sector of the RNFL scan (p = 0.021) in ESRD patients were still significantly thinner. We observed a decrease in several retinal layer volumes and temporal RNFL thickness indicative of retinal neurodegenerative processes in patients with ESRD.

9.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 707-713, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008429

RESUMO

Recent trial results support catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) for treatment of hypertension, while the exact mechanisms causing blood pressure to fall remain incompletely understood. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the effects of RDN on cardiac function in patients with hypertension undergoing RDN and compared with sham treatment. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess stroke volume index, cardiac index, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance index, and stroke work index from aortic flow measurements. Patients with resistant hypertension from a randomized, sham-controlled RDN trial underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging before RDN and at follow-up (randomized cohort). Results were then validated in a cohort of patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RDN and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (validation cohort). In total, 162 patients were included 52 patients in the randomized trial (27 shams) and 110 patients in the validation cohort. In the randomized cohort, stroke volume index was reduced by 4.7±9.8 mL/m2 in the RDN cohort and remained unchanged in the sham cohort (P=0.008 for between-group comparison), while cardiac index and stroke work index tended to be reduced in RDN patients but not in sham patients (-0.10±5.9 versus 0.17±0.51 L/min per m2 and -7.1±12.5 versus -1.4±10.4 g/m2, P=0.08 for both). In contrast, systemic vascular resistance index and heart rate remained unchanged after RDN. In the validation cohort, reduction of stroke volume index was confirmed, and cardiac index and stroke work index were also reduced significantly, whereas systemic vascular resistance index and heart rate remained unchanged at follow-up. In this study of patients with resistant hypertension, RDN resulted in a reduction of stroke volume when compared with sham.

10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(3): 289-302, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SPYRAL HTN clinical trial program was initiated with two 80-patient pilot studies, SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED and SPYRAL HTN-ON MED, which provided biological proof of principle that renal denervation has a blood pressure-lowering effect versus sham controls for subjects with uncontrolled hypertension in the absence or presence of antihypertensive medications, respectively. TRIAL DESIGN: Two multicenter, prospective, randomized, sham-controlled trials have been designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation for the reduction of blood pressure in subjects with hypertension in the absence (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal) or presence (SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion) of antihypertensive medications. The primary efficacy endpoint is baseline-adjusted change from baseline in 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure. The primary safety endpoint is incidence of major adverse events at 1 month after randomization (or 6 months in cases of new renal artery stenosis). Both trials utilize a Bayesian design to allow for prespecified interim analyses to take place, and thus, the final sample sizes are dependent on whether enrollment is stopped at the first or second interim analysis. SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal will enroll up to 300 subjects and SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion will enroll up to 221 subjects. A novel Bayesian power prior approach will leverage historical information from the pilot studies, with a degree of discounting determined by the level of agreement with data from the prospectively powered studies. CONCLUSIONS: The Bayesian paradigm represents a novel and promising approach in device-based hypertension trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02439749 (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED Pivotal) and NCT02439775 (SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Expansion).

11.
Cardiol Ther ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933276

RESUMO

A symposium held at the 29th European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection in Milan, Italy, discussed the potential impact and long-term benefits of early active management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with hypertension, and potential barriers to this strategy. Hypertension often aggregates with other cardiovascular risk factors, exponentially increasing morbidity and mortality. While effective therapies to treat hypertension exist, a substantial number of patients still experience major cardiovascular events. Two major issues account for these disappointing results: interventions initiated too late in the disease trajectory and lack of effective translation of the research findings into daily clinical practice. Results from genetic studies suggest that lifetime exposure to lower blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol levels due to protective gene mutations, can provide greater cardiovascular benefits than middle-/late-age interventions. Clinical guidelines suggest adding statins to BP-lowering therapies for further cardiovascular benefits in most hypertensive patients; however, real-world data show that physicians' compliance with these recommendations and patients' adherence to BP- and lipid-lowering treatments remain poor, resulting in poor risk factor control and an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The use of single-pill combinations (SPC) can partially mitigate these issues, as they are associated with increased patient adherence and improved BP control. Treatment with SPC has been recommended in the European Hypertension Guidelines, but optimization of the total CVD risk may need adoption of more ambitious treatment strategies aimed to deliver single pills that control multiple CVD risk factors. Amlodipine, perindopril and atorvastatin have been shown to improve BP and lipid levels to a great extent when given separately, and this combination has also been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Overall, early intervention in patients with hypertension with use of an effective, high-intensity cardiovascular risk reduction regimen and attention to medication adherence through reducing pill burden are likely to result in optimal outcomes.

12.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 844-850, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983305

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a leading global risk factor. Increasing age is related to changes in cardiovascular physiology that could influence cuff BP measurement, but this has never been examined systematically and was the aim of this study. Cuff BP was compared with invasive aortic BP across decades of age (from 40 to 89 years) using individual-level data from 31 studies (1674 patients undergoing coronary angiography) and 22 different cuff BP devices (19 oscillometric, 1 automated auscultation, 2 mercury sphygmomanometry) from the Invasive Blood Pressure Consortium. Subjects were aged 64±11 years, and 32% female. Cuff systolic BP overestimated invasive aortic systolic BP in those aged 40 to 49 years, but with each older decade of age, there was a progressive shift toward increasing underestimation of aortic systolic BP (P<0.0001). Conversely, cuff diastolic BP overestimated invasive aortic diastolic BP, and this progressively increased with increasing age (P<0.0001). Thus, there was a progressive increase in cuff pulse pressure underestimation of invasive aortic PP with increasing decades of age (P<0.0001). These age-related trends were observed across all categories of BP control. We conclude that cuff BP as an estimate of aortic BP was substantially influenced by increasing age, thus potentially exposing older people to greater chance for misdiagnosis of the true risk related to BP.

13.
Microvasc Res ; 129: 103974, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that alterations in large arteries are associated with microvascular remodelling and decreased retinal capillary blood flow. METHODS: The study group comprised of 88 patients with essential hypertension and 32 healthy controls. Retinal microcirculation was evaluated by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Macrovascular changes were assessed on the basis of arterial stiffness measurement (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), its hemodynamic consequences (central pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index) and intima media thickness of common carotid artery. RESULTS: Pulse wave velocity was inversely correlated to mean retinal capillary blood flow in hypertensive patients (R = -0.32, p < 0.01). This relationship remained significant in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, central systolic blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (ß = -31.27, p < 0.001). Lumen diameter (LD) of retinal arterioles was significantly smaller in hypertensive then normotensive subjects (79.4 vs. 83.8, p = 0.03). Central and brachial systolic, diastolic and mean BPs were significantly correlated with LD and outer diameter of retinal arterioles. The relationship between LD and central BPs remained significant in multivariate analysis (ß = -0.15, p = 0.03 for cSBP; ß = -0.22, p = 0.04 for cDBP; ß = -0.21, p = 0.03 for cMBP). Moreover, in a subgroup with cardiac damage central and brachial pulse pressure were positively associated with retinal wall thickness, wall cross sectional area, and wall to lumen ratio. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the study provides a strong evidence that microcirculation is coupled with macrocirculation not only in terms of structural but also functional parameters.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 41(2): 231-238, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590564

RESUMO

AIMS: Resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes in various conditions. It is unknown whether different levels of RHR and different associations with cardiovascular outcomes occur in patients with or without diabetes, because the impact of autonomic neuropathy on vascular vulnerability might be stronger in diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 30 937 patients aged 55 years or older with a history of or at high risk for cardiovascular disease and after myocardial infarction, stroke, or with proven peripheral vascular disease from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials investigating ramipril, telmisartan, and their combination followed for a median of 56 months. We analysed the association of mean achieved RHR on-treatment with the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, the components of the composite primary outcome, and all-cause death as continuous and categorical variables. Data were analysed by Cox regression analysis, ANOVA, and χ2 test. These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov.number NCT00153101. Patients were recruited from 733 centres in 40 countries between 1 December 2001 and 31 July 2008 (ONTARGET) and 1 November 2001 until 30 May 2004 (TRANSCEND). In total, 19 450 patients without diabetes and 11 487 patients with diabetes were stratified by mean RHR. Patients with diabetes compared to no diabetes had higher RHRs (71.8 ± 9.0 vs. 67.9 ± 8.8, P < 0.0001). In the categories of <60 bpm, 60 ≤ 65 bpm, 65 ≤ 70 bpm, 70 ≤ 75 bpm, 75 ≤ 80 bpm and ≥80 bpm, non-diabetic patients had an increased hazard of the primary outcome with mean RHR of 75 ≤ 80 bpm (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.17 (1.01-1.36)) compared to RHR 60 ≤ 65 bpm. For patients with in-trial RHR ≥80 bpm the hazard ratios were highest (diabetes: 1.96 (1.64-2.34), no diabetes: 1.73 (1.49-2.00), For cardiovascular death hazards were also clearly increased at RHR ≥80 bpm (diabetes [1.99, (1.53-2.58)], no diabetes [1.73 (1.38-2.16)]. Similar results were obtained for hospitalization for heart failure and all-cause death while the effect of RHR on myocardial infarction and stroke was less pronounced. Results were robust after adjusting for various risk indicators including beta-blocker use and atrial fibrillation. No significant association to harm was observed at lower RHR. CONCLUSION: Mean RHR above 75-80 b.p.m. was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes except for stroke. Since in diabetes, high RHR is associated with higher absolute event numbers and patients have higher RHRs, this association might be of particular clinical importance in diabetes. These data suggest that RHR lowering in patients with RHRs above 75-80 b.p.m. needs to be studied in prospective trials to determine if it will reduce outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients at high cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov.Unique identifier: NCT00153101.

15.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(2): 182-189, 2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin, the C-terminal peptide of provasopressin, is released from the neurohypophysis and reflects the activity of the hormone arginine vasopressin in patients with hypertension. Elevated copeptin levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study is to compare copeptin levels in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) before and 6 months after renal denervation (RDN). METHODS: Copeptin was measured in 34 patients with TRH and 30 patients with primary hypertension stage 1 or 2 (HT). In addition, copeptin levels were measured in patients with TRH at 6-month follow-up visit after RDN. RDN was performed by an experienced interventionalist applying at least 4 ablations longitudinally and rotationally within the lengths of each renal artery to cover a full 4-quadrant ablation. RESULTS: In patients with TRH 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) decreased from 154 ± 15/87 ± 12 mm Hg to 146 ± 13/83 ± 7.9 mm Hg after RDN (systolic: P = 0.001, diastolic: P = 0.034). There was no significant change in copeptin levels in these 34 patients with TRH before vs. 6 months after RDN (median 8.4 [interquartile range 3.6-14] vs. 8.5 [4.5-13] pmol/l, P = 0.334). Patients with TRH had higher copeptin levels (P = 0.024) than patients with HT (24-hour ambulatory BP: 142 ± 11/91 ± 8.3 mm Hg, copeptin: 4.2 [2.8-6.3] pmol/l). CONCLUSION: Patients with TRH showed 2-fold higher copeptin levels than patients with HT. RDN did not lead to any change of copeptin levels in patients with TRH 6 months after procedure despite significant fall in BP. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01318395, NCT01687725.

16.
J Hypertens ; 38(4): 579-587, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834123

RESUMO

: Suboptimal adherence to antihypertensive medication is a major contributor to poor blood pressure control. Several methods, direct or indirect, are available for measuring adherence, including the recently developed biochemical screening, although there is no gold-standard method routinely used in clinical practice to accurately assess the different facets of adherence. Adherence to treatment is a complex phenomenon and several of the barriers to adherence will need to be addressed at the healthcare system level; however, when looking at adherence from a more practical side and from the practitioner's perspective, the patient-practitioner relationship is a key element both in detecting adherence and in attempting to choose interventions tailored to the patient's profile. The use of single-pill combinations enabling simplification of treatment regimen, the implementation of a collaborative team-based approach and the development of electronic health tools also hold promise for improving adherence, and thus impacting cardiovascular outcomes and healthcare costs.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816038

RESUMO

AIMS: Preserved vascular function represents a key prognostic factor in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but data on vascular parameters in this patient cohort are scarce. Patients with T2DM often need more than one drug to achieve optimal glucose control. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of 2 combination therapies on vascular function in subjects with T2DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective, randomized study included 97 subjects with T2DM. Subjects were randomized to either the combination therapy empagliflozin (E) 10 mg with linagliptin (L) 5mg once daily or metformin (M) 850 or 1000mg twice daily with insulin (I) once daily. At baseline and after 12 weeks, subjects had peripheral office and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurement and underwent vascular assessment by pulse wave analysis under office and ambulatory conditions. Office, 24-hour ambulatory and central BP as well as pulse pressure (PP) decreased after 12 weeks of treatment with E+L, whereas no change was observed in M+I. There were greater decreases in 24-h ambulatory peripheral systolic (between-group difference: -5.2±1.5mmHg, p = 0.004), diastolic BP (-1.9±1.0mmHg, p = 0.036) and PP (-3.3±1.0mmHg, p = 0.007) in E+L than M+I. Central office systolic BP (-5.56±1.9mmHg, p = 0.009), forward pressure height of the pulse wave (-2.0±0.9mmHg, p = 0.028), 24-hour ambulatory central systolic (-3.6±1.4mmHg, p = 0.045), diastolic BP (-1.95±1.1mmHg, p = 0.041) and 24-hour pulse wave velocity (-0.14±0.05m/s, p = 0.043) were reduced to a greater extent with E+L. CONCLUSION: Beyond the effects on glycaemic control, the combination therapy of E+L significantly improved central BP and vascular function compared to the classic combination of M+I.

19.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2389-2397, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Initiation of antihypertensive drug treatment in low-risk individuals with grade 1 hypertension is under debate. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of mildly elevated blood pressure (BP) on early neurodegenerative processes independent of ageing. METHODS: Sixty-two individuals were included in this study: 25 young (aged <40 years) and 37 older (aged ≥40 years) individuals at low cardiovascular risk and grade 1 hypertension at most. Macular retinal layer volumes of both eyes were determined by SD-OCT. Total retinal volume but also each inner retinal layer volume separately including retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and GCL-IPL were measured in each individual. RESULTS: Retinal layer volumes were lower among older individuals compared with young individuals (RNFL right eye: P = 0.037/left eye: P = 0.021; GCL and GCL-IPL: both eyes P < 0.001; IPL right eye: P = 0.005/left eye: P = 0.002; total retinal volume: both eyes P = 0.002) and there was an inverse correlation between retinal layer volumes and age. Partial correlation analysis, excluding age as a cofactor, revealed an inverse association between retinal layer volumes and DBP. In multiple regression analysis, DBP was identified as a determinant of retinal neurodegenerative processes. CONCLUSION: In the current study, we observed an inverse association between retinal neurodegenerative processes and DBP, suggesting that BP-lowering therapy by early antihypertensive drug-treatment might be beneficial to avoid early neurodegeneration.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 3006-3017, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196459

RESUMO

Three recent renal denervation studies in both drug-naïve and drug-treated hypertensive patients demonstrated a significant reduction of ambulatory blood pressure compared with respective sham control groups. Improved trial design, selection of relevant patient cohorts, and optimized interventional procedures have likely contributed to these positive findings. However, substantial variability in the blood pressure response to renal denervation can still be observed and remains a challenging and important problem. The International Sympathetic Nervous System Summit was convened to bring together experts in both experimental and clinical medicine to discuss the current evidence base, novel developments in our understanding of neural interplay, procedural aspects, monitoring of technical success, and others. Identification of relevant trends in the field and initiation of tailored and combined experimental and clinical research efforts will help to address remaining questions and provide much-needed evidence to guide clinical use of renal denervation for hypertension treatment and other potential indications.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/tendências , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Internacionalidade , Rim/inervação , Simpatectomia/tendências , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Denervação/métodos , Denervação/tendências , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Simpatectomia/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
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