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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245386, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278528

RESUMO

Abstract Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Resumo A herbivoria é uma interação de grande impacto sobre as comunidades de plantas, uma vez que as relações entre herbívoros e plantas são fundamentais para a distribuição e abundância das espécies ao longo do tempo e do espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a taxa de expansão foliar da samambaia arborescente Cyathea phalerata e avaliar o dano causado por herbívoros a folhas de diferentes idades, assim como verificar se este dano está relacionado à temperatura e à precipitação. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica subtropical localizado no município de Caraá, na encosta nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no sul do Brasil. Nós monitoramos 24 indivíduos maduros de C. phalerata com báculos em uma população de aproximadamente 50 plantas. A taxa de expansão foliar, a porcentagem de folhas danificadas e a taxa de consumo da lâmina foliar por herbivoria foram calculados. Médias mensais de temperatura e precipitação acumulada foram calculadas a partir de dados diários. Báculos de C. phalerata expandiram rapidamente durante o primeiro e o segundo mês após emergência (3,98 cm dia-1; 2,91 cm dia-1, respectivamente). O dano causado por herbivoria foi observado em todas as folhas monitoradas, mas nenhuma das plantas sofreu desfolhação completa. A maior porcentagem (57%) de folhas danificadas foi registrada aos 60 dias de monitoramento, e também a maior taxa de consumo mensal (6,04%) ocorreu em folhas jovens, recém expandidas, enquanto esta taxa permaneceu entre 1,50 e 2,21% em folhas maduras. As taxas mensais de consumo da lâmina foliar e de folhas danificadas mostraram relação positiva e forte entre si e com a temperatura. A rápida expansão foliar observada em C. phalerata pode ser considerada uma estratégia fenológica para reduzir o dano a folhas jovens, abreviando o período de desenvolvimento e acelerando o aumento das defesas em folhas maduras.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161461

RESUMO

Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Herbivoria , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Folhas de Planta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 803-813, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142536

RESUMO

Abstract Riparian forests present biotic and abiotic factors that influence environmental dissimilarity, which reflect specific fern distribution. The purpose of this this study was to evaluate the environmental heterogeneity associated to the terrestrial fern communities in riparian forest remnants in the grasslands southern half of Rio Grande do Sul state . We sampled ten 5×5 m plots in each site (AI, AII and AIII), totaling 30 plots. In each plot, fern species were inventoried and vegetative, microclimatic and edaphic parameters were collected. A total of 24 species were surveyed in the three riparian forest remnants, distributed in 19 genera and 10 families. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that plots of AI had the highest temperature and aluminum values, while humidity was the lowest, which was reflected in the decrease of ferns richness. Soil moisture and air humidity were variables more related to the plots of AII and AII, indicating that these plants were favored in these environments. The floristic identity characteristic of each site suggests that many species are dependent to certain local environmental conditions. In this sense, even in very geographically close sites, riparian remnants deserve conservation attention, since they are capable of harboring high diversity in this grassland phytophysiognomy in southern Brazil. The results of this integrated study, with vegetation, climatic, and edaphic parameters, suggest, as expected, that ferns categorically respond to the heterogeneity shown by riparian environments, even when fragments are geographically very close to each other.


Resumo As florestas ripárias apresentam fatores bióticos e abióticos que influenciam a dissimilaridade ambiental, e que refletem a distribuição específica de samambaias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a heterogeneidade ambiental associada às comunidades de samambaias terrícolas em remanescentes de mata ciliar dos campos da metade sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Pampa). Foram amostradas dez parcelas de 5×5 m em cada sítio (AI, AII e AIII), totalizando 30 parcelas. Em cada quadro, foram inventariadas as espécies de samambaia, além de outros parâmetros vegetacionais, microclimáticos e edáficos. Um total de 24 espécies foram identificadas nos três remanescentes de mata ciliar, distribuídas em 19 gêneros e 10 famílias. A Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA) mostrou que as parcelas de AI apresentaram os maiores valores de temperatura e alumínio, enquanto a umidade foi a menor, o que se refletiu na diminuição da riqueza de samambaias. A umidade do solo e a umidade do ar foram as variáveis ​​mais relacionadas às parcelas de AII e AIII, indicando que essas plantas foram favorecidas nesses. A identidade florística característica de cada local sugere que muitas espécies são dependentes de certas condições ambientais locais. Nesse sentido, mesmo em sítios geograficamente próximos, remanescentes de matas ciliares merecem atenção no que se refere a conservação, uma vez que são capazes de abrigar grande diversidade nesta fitofisionomia exclusiva do sul do Brasil. Os resultados deste estudo integrado, com parâmetros vegetacionais, climáticos e edáficos, sugerem, que as samambaias respondem categoricamente à heterogeneidade mostrada pelos ambientes ripários, mesmo quando os fragmentos estão próximos.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 199-205, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089283
5.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 803-813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800765

RESUMO

Riparian forests present biotic and abiotic factors that influence environmental dissimilarity, which reflect specific fern distribution. The purpose of this this study was to evaluate the environmental heterogeneity associated to the terrestrial fern communities in riparian forest remnants in the grasslands southern half of Rio Grande do Sul state . We sampled ten 5×5 m plots in each site (AI, AII and AIII), totaling 30 plots. In each plot, fern species were inventoried and vegetative, microclimatic and edaphic parameters were collected. A total of 24 species were surveyed in the three riparian forest remnants, distributed in 19 genera and 10 families. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that plots of AI had the highest temperature and aluminum values, while humidity was the lowest, which was reflected in the decrease of ferns richness. Soil moisture and air humidity were variables more related to the plots of AII and AII, indicating that these plants were favored in these environments. The floristic identity characteristic of each site suggests that many species are dependent to certain local environmental conditions. In this sense, even in very geographically close sites, riparian remnants deserve conservation attention, since they are capable of harboring high diversity in this grassland phytophysiognomy in southern Brazil. The results of this integrated study, with vegetation, climatic, and edaphic parameters, suggest, as expected, that ferns categorically respond to the heterogeneity shown by riparian environments, even when fragments are geographically very close to each other.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Solo
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 495-504, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001457

RESUMO

Abstract Forest edges typically exhibit higher luminosity and lower humidity than the forest interior, resulting in an abiotic gradient. However, the degree of abiotic difference can be affected from the type of the matrix, influencing the selection of species. We compared the floristic and phytosociological structure of understory communities of ferns and lycophytes of the edge and interior of three forest sites influenced by different types of surrounding matrices (natural field, Pinus plantation, and cultivation of crops). In the region of Araucaria Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and interior of each site, totaling 72 plots and to evaluate the phytosociological contrast, using as a parameter coverage and species richness per plot to evaluate this contrast. We recorded a total of 38 species in the studied areas, distributed in 15 families. The results show that the edge effect acts at different intensities in the analyzed sites. In the site with unnatural matrix, the composition was more homogeneous both in the edges and in the interiors and presented lower richness, showing a more pronounced and deep impact. Already in the site with natural matrix surroundings, although the border also presents low richness, the interior was about 3x richer. Based on our results, we concluded that fern conservation efforts should focus on fragments of Araucaria Forest inserted in the natural field, because the conversion of natural field into Pinus planting and cultivation of crops decreases ferns species both in the edges and forest interiors of the studied fragments, besides altering the phytosociological structure leading the communities to simplification.


Resumo Bordas florestais tipicamente exibem maior luminosidade e menor umidade que o interior florestal, resultando em um gradiente abiótico. Entretanto, o grau de diferença abiótica pode ser afetado a partir do tipo da matriz, influenciando a seleção de espécies. Comparamos a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica das comunidades de samambaias e licófitas na borda e interior de três sítios influenciados por diferentes matrizes (campo natural, plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas). Na região de Floresta com Araucária no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram sorteadas doze parcelas de 10 × 10 m na borda e no interior de cada sítio, totalizando 72 parcelas para avaliar o contraste fitossociológico, utilizando como parâmetro cobertura e riqueza das espécies por parcela para avaliar esse contraste. Registramos um total de 38 espécies nas áreas estudadas, distribuídas em 15 famílias. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito de borda atua em intensidades distintas nos sítios analisados. Nos sítios com matriz antropizada, a composição foi mais homogênea tanto nas bordas, quanto nos interiores e apresentou menor riqueza, demonstrando impacto mais pronunciado e profundo. Já no sítio com matriz de entorno natural, apesar da borda também apresentar baixa riqueza, o interior foi cerca de 3x mais rico. Sugerimos que os esforços de conservação de samambaias e licófitas em fragmentos com araucária, devem se concentrar em sítios inseridos em campo natural, pois, a conversão destes em plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas, diminui a diversidade dessas plantas, tanto nas bordas quanto nos interiores da floresta, além de alterar a estrutura fitossociológica levando as comunidades à simplificação.


Assuntos
Florestas , Gleiquênias , Lycopodiaceae , Biota , Brasil
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 337-344, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989444

RESUMO

Abstract Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae) is target of extractive exploitation and is threatened with extinction. We analyzed the population structure, the spatial distribution pattern of D. sellowiana and its relationship with environmental parameters within three fragments of Araucaria Forest in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The fragments are of different sizes, namely, large (H1LF) with 246 ha, medium (H2MF) with 57 ha and small (H3SF) with 5.2 ha. Within each site, 1 ha was delimited, divided into 100 subplots (100 m2), of which 20 were selected with a draw. In each subplot, counting of the individuals, the registration of the caudice height and the coverage of leaves (SC) (m2), measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), canopy opening degree (CO), soil moisture (SM) and litter thickness (LT). The temperature (T) was measured inside each site. A total of 792 plants were sampled, of which 551 were concentrated in H1LF, 108 in H2MF and 133 in H3SF. An average of 1320 ha-1 individuals were estimated. Of the total including the three fragments, 96.9% of the individuals are in the first class of height (up to 0.8 m), indicating a great potential of population development. The spatial distribution pattern (AI) was aggregated in the three populations and the plants presented a heterogeneous total coverage, between 4.73 m2 (H2MF) and 2,223.47 m2 (H1LF). The highest values ​​of SC and SM were more related to the distribution of individuals in H1LF whereas the opposite was recorded in H2MF. The highest values ​​of PAR, LT and CO correlated with the distribution of D. sellowiana in H3SF. In addition to revealing that the H1LF population is among the most dense in southern Brazil, the results demonstrated a significant structural distinction between the interior populations of the fragments, in spite of them being located near to one another and being part of the same natural field matrix.


Resumo Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae) é alvo de exploração extrativista e encontra-se ameaçada de extinção. Analisamos a estrutura populacional, o padrão de distribuição espacial de D. sellowiana e sua relação com parâmetros ambientais no interior de três fragmentos de Floresta com Araucária, no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Os fragmentos possuem diferentes tamanhos sendo denominados de grande (H1LF) com 246 ha, médio (H2MF) com 57 ha e de pequeno (H3SF) com 5,2 ha. No interior de cada sítio, foi demarcado 1 ha, fracionado em 100 subparcelas (100m2), das quais 20 foram sorteadas. Em cada subparcela foi feita a contagem dos indivíduos, o registro da altura do cáudice e da cobertura (SC) (m2) das folhas, as medições da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR), grau de abertura do dossel (CO), umidade do solo (SM) e espessura da serapilheira (LT). A temperatura (T) foi medida no interior de cada sítio. Foram amostradas 792 plantas, das quais 551 concentradas no H1LF, 108 no H2MF e 133 no H3SF e em média foram estimados 1320 indivíduos ha-1. Do total dos três fragmentos, 96,9% dos indivíduos estão na primeira classe de altura (até 0,8 m), indicando grande potencial de desenvolvimento das populações. O padrão de distribuição espacial (AI) foi agregado nas três populações e as plantas apresentaram uma cobertura total heterogênea, entre 4,73m2 (H2MF) e 2.223,47m 2 (H1LF). Os maiores valores de SC e de SM foram mais relacionadas com a distribuição dos indivíduos no H1LF enquanto que o contrário foi registrado no H2MF. Os maiores valores de PAR, LT e de CO relacionaram-se com a distribuição de D. sellowiana no H3SF. Além de revelar que a população do H1LF está entre as mais densas já descritas no sul do Brasil, os resultados demonstraram uma significativa distinção estrutural entre as populações dos interiores dos fragmentos com diferentes tamanhos, embora muito próximos geograficamente e inseridos em uma mesma matriz de campo natural.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Temperatura , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
9.
Braz J Biol ; 79(3): 495-504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304255

RESUMO

Forest edges typically exhibit higher luminosity and lower humidity than the forest interior, resulting in an abiotic gradient. However, the degree of abiotic difference can be affected from the type of the matrix, influencing the selection of species. We compared the floristic and phytosociological structure of understory communities of ferns and lycophytes of the edge and interior of three forest sites influenced by different types of surrounding matrices (natural field, Pinus plantation, and cultivation of crops). In the region of Araucaria Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and interior of each site, totaling 72 plots and to evaluate the phytosociological contrast, using as a parameter coverage and species richness per plot to evaluate this contrast. We recorded a total of 38 species in the studied areas, distributed in 15 families. The results show that the edge effect acts at different intensities in the analyzed sites. In the site with unnatural matrix, the composition was more homogeneous both in the edges and in the interiors and presented lower richness, showing a more pronounced and deep impact. Already in the site with natural matrix surroundings, although the border also presents low richness, the interior was about 3x richer. Based on our results, we concluded that fern conservation efforts should focus on fragments of Araucaria Forest inserted in the natural field, because the conversion of natural field into Pinus planting and cultivation of crops decreases ferns species both in the edges and forest interiors of the studied fragments, besides altering the phytosociological structure leading the communities to simplification.


Assuntos
Biota , Gleiquênias , Florestas , Lycopodiaceae , Brasil
10.
Braz J Biol ; 79(2): 337-344, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133559

RESUMO

Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae) is target of extractive exploitation and is threatened with extinction. We analyzed the population structure, the spatial distribution pattern of D. sellowiana and its relationship with environmental parameters within three fragments of Araucaria Forest in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The fragments are of different sizes, namely, large (H1LF) with 246 ha, medium (H2MF) with 57 ha and small (H3SF) with 5.2 ha. Within each site, 1 ha was delimited, divided into 100 subplots (100 m2), of which 20 were selected with a draw. In each subplot, counting of the individuals, the registration of the caudice height and the coverage of leaves (SC) (m2), measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), canopy opening degree (CO), soil moisture (SM) and litter thickness (LT). The temperature (T) was measured inside each site. A total of 792 plants were sampled, of which 551 were concentrated in H1LF, 108 in H2MF and 133 in H3SF. An average of 1320 ha-1 individuals were estimated. Of the total including the three fragments, 96.9% of the individuals are in the first class of height (up to 0.8 m), indicating a great potential of population development. The spatial distribution pattern (AI) was aggregated in the three populations and the plants presented a heterogeneous total coverage, between 4.73 m2 (H2MF) and 2,223.47 m2 (H1LF). The highest values ​​of SC and SM were more related to the distribution of individuals in H1LF whereas the opposite was recorded in H2MF. The highest values ​​of PAR, LT and CO correlated with the distribution of D. sellowiana in H3SF. In addition to revealing that the H1LF population is among the most dense in southern Brazil, the results demonstrated a significant structural distinction between the interior populations of the fragments, in spite of them being located near to one another and being part of the same natural field matrix.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Temperatura
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 187-194, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888880

RESUMO

Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing) and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis) and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit). Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.


Resumo O clima é um dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento das plantas. A fenologia de Guarea macrophylla Vahl, arvoreta utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas, foi acompanhada durante 18 meses, em mata ciliar do arroio Schmidt, Campo Bom, RS, Brasil. Foram observados os eventos vegetativos (queda foliar e brotamento) e reprodutivos, separados em floração (botão floral e antese) e frutificação (frutos imaturos, maturando e maduros). Os eventos fenológicos foram relacionados à temperatura, ao fotoperíodo e à precipitação e a sua sazonalidade foi verificada por meio da análise estatística circular. As fenofases vegetativas foram contínuas, não se relacionaram com os fatores climáticos e apresentaram baixa intensidade, ressaltando a característica perene da espécie. A floração ocorreu durante a primavera e o verão e tanto botão floral quanto antese relacionaram-se com temperatura e fotoperíodo. A frutificação foi constante e passou por todos os estádios de desenvolvimento. Os frutos imaturos desenvolveram-se em meses com o menor fotoperíodo e maturaram mais intensamente no inverno, em dias de menor temperatura. Os frutos maduros tornaram-se disponíveis para os dispersores na primavera, em períodos com maior fotoperíodo e temperatura. Com exceção da queda foliar, todos os outros eventos fenológicos apresentaram sazonalidade em sua manifestação. O adiantamento de um mês entre as florações observadas no presente estudo indicou que as alterações climáticas locais de temperatura induziram a ocorrência antecipada dessa fenofase.


Assuntos
Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meliaceae/fisiologia , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Brasil , Fotoperíodo , Frutas/fisiologia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 187-194, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832838

RESUMO

Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing) and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis) and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit). Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Meliaceae/fisiologia , Brasil , Mudança Climática , Frutas/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Temperatura
13.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 25-35, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270210

RESUMO

The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Embriófitas/fisiologia , Florestas , Brasil
14.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 105-13, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270222

RESUMO

The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tradescantia/genética
15.
Braz J Biol ; 72(2): 397-405, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22735150

RESUMO

The leaf production and senescence, formation and release of spores of Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin were analysed based on the monthly monitoring of 50 plants growing in a secondary forest, in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, during the year 2004. The caudex height and number of mature and fertile leaves were recorded annually in 2004-09. In 2004, monthly production and senescence of leaves were concomitant, without total leaf abscission. Population synchrony at emergence (Z = 0.86) and leaf senescence (Z = 0.82) increased in spring but did not correlate with temperature and photoperiod. All individuals were fertile and the sporangia production and spore liberation presented higher and equal synchrony (Z = 0.84) respectively in spring and summer. Sporangia production was related with temperature and photoperiod, however taller plants did not produce more fertile leaves. Phenological events analysed were not influenced by precipitation, as expected for forests in non-seasonal climate. Over five years (2004-09), the annual mean caudex growth varied between 1.19 and 2.50 cm.year-1 and the plants appeared to have an ability to maintain a relatively stable amount of leaves throughout this period.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Árvores
16.
Braz J Biol ; 70(3): 521-8, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20730338

RESUMO

The extractive exploitation of the tree fern Alsophila setosa Kaulf. alters forest formations and diminishes the availability of micro-habitat for epiphytes. A survey of epiphytic fern communities on A. setosa at 16 study sites in different forest formations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, documented the occurrence of 31 species representing 16 genera and six families. The greatest richness of species occurred in Polypodiaceae (39%) and in the genus Asplenium L. (22%). Habitual holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 61% of the species. Similarity analysis demonstrated heterogeneity in the composition of the epiphytic ferns at the study sites and indicated that the vegetation type is not the main factor for floristic difference. The lowest total specific richness (5) was recorded for the seasonal deciduous forest site. The majority of the sites presented similar averages of phorophyte height and epiphyte richness per caudex. In 25% of the sites the height of the host plants presented significant correlation with specific richness. Considering that the majority of the epiphytes are habitual and that some of them occur exclusively or preferentially on tree ferns, the maintenance of these host plants in the vegetation is essential for the conservation of epiphytic species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Gleiquênias/classificação , Simbiose , Árvores , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(3): 521-528, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-555263

RESUMO

The extractive exploitation of the tree fern Alsophila setosa Kaulf. alters forest formations and diminishes the availability of micro-habitat for epiphytes. A survey of epiphytic fern communities on A. setosa at 16 study sites in different forest formations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, documented the occurrence of 31 species representing 16 genera and six families. The greatest richness of species occurred in Polypodiaceae (39 percent) and in the genus Asplenium L. (22 percent). Habitual holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 61 percent of the species. Similarity analysis demonstrated heterogeneity in the composition of the epiphytic ferns at the study sites and indicated that the vegetation type is not the main factor for floristic difference. The lowest total specific richness (5) was recorded for the seasonal deciduous forest site. The majority of the sites presented similar averages of phorophyte height and epiphyte richness per caudex. In 25 percent of the sites the height of the host plants presented significant correlation with specific richness. Considering that the majority of the epiphytes are habitual and that some of them occur exclusively or preferentially on tree ferns, the maintenance of these host plants in the vegetation is essential for the conservation of epiphytic species.


A exploração extrativista da samambaia arborescente Alsophila setosa Kaulf. altera as formações florestais e diminui a disponibilidade de microhabitats para epífitos. Um levantamento das comunidades de filicíneas epifíticas sobre A. setosa em 16 sítios de diferentes formações florestais, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, documentou a ocorrência de 31 espécies representando 16 gêneros e seis famílias. A maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu em Polypodiaceae (39 por cento) e no gênero Asplenium L. (22 por cento). A categoria ecológica predominante foi a de holoepífito habitual, representando 61 por cento das espécies. A análise de similaridade evidenciou heterogeneidade na composição de filicíneas epifíticas dos sítios estudados e indicou que o tipo vegetacional não é o principal fator de diferenciação florística. A menor riqueza específica total (5) foi registrada em sítio de floresta estacional decidual. A maioria dos sítios apresentou médias similares de altura dos forófitos e de riqueza de epífitos por cáudice. Em 25 por cento dos sítios, a altura das plantas hospedeiras apresentou correlação significativa com riqueza específica. Considerando que a maioria dos epífitos é habitual e que alguns deles ocorrem exclusivamente ou preferencialmente sobre samambaias arborescentes, a manutenção dessas plantas hospedeiras, na vegetação, é essencial para a conservação de espécies epifíticas.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Gleiquênias/classificação , Simbiose , Árvores , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica
18.
Braz J Biol ; 70(4 Suppl): 1155-60, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225156

RESUMO

Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin, an intensely exploited tree fern, is found inside forests in several succession stages, as well as in swamps, roadsides and unused fields in the Rio dos Sinos basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This study evaluated the in vitro germination and gametophyte development of C. atrovirens under different pH conditions, as well as spore viability after different storage times at 7 ºC. The lowest germination rate of spores was obtained at pH 7.0. At pH 5.0 to 6.5, laminar gametophyte development started at 20 to 30 days of culture. Antheridia and archegonia were first observed at 35 and 128 days, respectively. Storage at 7 ºC did not affect germination rates. The capability of germination at different pH levels may explain the occurrence of the species in a wide range of habitats. The present study contributes to the understanding of the full life-cycle of C. atrovirens and to the analysis of the influence of abiotic components, providing information for the cultivation, management and conservation of the species.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/fisiologia , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criopreservação , Gleiquênias/citologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Braz J Biol ; 70(4 Suppl): 1161-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225157

RESUMO

In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gleiquênias/classificação , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , População Urbana
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