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1.
Theranostics ; 9(22): 6706-6718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588245

RESUMO

Rationale : Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) based upon bioorthogonal click chemistry has been investigated for the first time in the context of peritoneal carcinomatosis using a CEA-targeting 35A7 mAb bearing trans-cyclooctene (TCO) moieties and several 177Lu-labeled tetrazine (Tz) radioligands. Starting from three Tz probes containing PEG linkers of varying lengths between the DOTA and Tz groups (i.e. PEGn = 3, 7, or 11, respectively, for Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3), we selected [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 as the most appropriate for pretargeted SPECT imaging and demonstrated its efficacy in tumor growth control. Methods: An orthotopic model of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) was obtained following the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of A431-CEA-Luc cells in nude mice. Tumor growth was assessed using bioluminescence imaging. Anti-CEA 35A7 mAb was grafted with 2-3 TCO per immunoglobulin. Pretargeted SPECT imaging and biodistribution experiments were performed to quantify the activity concentrations of [177Lu]Lu-Tz-1-3 in tumors and non-target organs to determine the optimal Tz probe for the PRIT of PC. Results: The pharmacokinetic profiles of [177Lu]Lu-Tz-1-3 alone were determined using both SPECT imaging and biodistribution experiments. These data revealed that [177Lu]Lu-Tz-1 was cleared via both the renal and hepatic systems, while [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 and [177Lu]Lu-Tz-3 were predominantly excreted via the renal system. In addition, these results illuminated that the longer the PEG linker, the more rapidly the Tz radioligand was cleared from the peritoneal cavity. The absorbed radiation dose corresponding to pretargeting with 35A7-TCO followed 24 h later by [177Lu]Lu-Tz-1-4 was higher for tumors following the administration of [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 (i.e. 0.59 Gy/MBq) compared to either [177Lu]Lu-Tz-1 (i.e. 0.25 Gy/MBq) and [177Lu]Lu-Tz-3 (i.e. 0.18 Gy/MBq). In a longitudinal PRIT study, we showed that the i.p. injection of 40 MBq of [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 24 hours after the systemic administration of 35A7-TCO significantly slowed tumor growth compared to control mice receiving only saline or 40 MBq of [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 alone. Ex vivo measurement of the peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) confirmed that PRIT significantly reduced tumor growth (PCI = 15.5 ± 2.3 after PRIT vs 30.0 ± 2.3 and 30.8 ± 1.4 for the NaCl and [177Lu]Lu-Tz-2 alone groups, respectively). Conclusion : Our results clearly demonstrate the impact of the length of PEG linkers upon the biodistribution profiles of 177Lu-labeled Tz radioligands. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time the possibility of using bioorthogonal chemistry for both the pretargeted SPECT and PRIT of peritoneal carcinomatosis.

2.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(11): 986-992, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uniparental disomy (UPD) testing is currently recommended during pregnancy in fetuses carrying a balanced Robertsonian translocation (ROB) involving chromosome 14 or 15, both chromosomes containing imprinted genes. The overall risk that such a fetus presents a UPD has been previously estimated to be around ~0.6-0.8%. However, because UPD are rare events and this estimate has been calculated from a number of studies of limited size, we have reevaluated the risk of UPD in fetuses for whom one of the parents was known to carry a nonhomologous ROB (NHROB). METHOD: We focused our multicentric study on NHROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15. A total of 1747 UPD testing were performed in fetuses during pregnancy for the presence of UPD(14) and/or UPD(15). RESULT: All fetuses were negative except one with a UPD(14) associated with a maternally inherited rob(13;14). CONCLUSION: Considering these data, the risk of UPD following prenatal diagnosis of an inherited ROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15 could be estimated to be around 0.06%, far less than the previous estimation. Importantly, the risk of miscarriage following an invasive prenatal sampling is higher than the risk of UPD. Therefore, we do not recommend prenatal testing for UPD for these pregnancies and parents should be reassured.

3.
Mol Ther ; 26(1): 256-268, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033008

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of unilateral subretinal injection of the adeno-associated vector (AAV) serotypes 2 and 4 (AAV2/4) RPE65-RPE65 vector in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with RPE65 gene deficiency. We evaluated ocular and general tolerance and visual function up to 1 year after vector administration in the most severely affected eye in nine patients with retinal degeneration associated with mutations in the RPE65 gene. Patients received either low (1.22 × 1010 to 2 × 1010 vector genomes [vg]) or high (between 3.27 × 1010 and 4.8 × 1010 vg) vector doses. An ancillary study, in which six of the original nine patients participated, extended the follow-up period to 2-3.5 years. All patients showed good ophthalmological and general tolerance to the rAAV2/4-RPE65-RPE65 vector. We observed a trend toward improved visual acuity in patients with nystagmus, stabilization and improvement of the visual field, and cortical activation along visual pathways during fMRI analysis. OCT analysis after vector administration revealed no retinal thinning, except in cases of macular detachment. Our findings show that the rAAV2/4.RPE65.RPE65 vector was well tolerated in nine patients with RPE65-associated LCA. Efficacy parameters varied between patients during follow-up.

4.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 25(20): 5603-5612, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893600

RESUMO

This study describes the synthesis and radiosynthesis of eight new [18F]fluoro-inositol-based radiotracers in myo- and scyllo-inositol configuration. These radiotracers are equipped with a propyl linker bearing fluorine-18. This fluorinated arm is either on a hydroxyl group, i.e. O-alkylated inositols, or on the cyclohexyl backbone, i.e. C-branched derivatives. To modulate lipophilicity, inositols were synthesized in acetylated or hydroxylated form. Automated radiosynthesis was performed on the AllInOne module and the radiotracers were produced in good radiochemical yields (15-31.5% dc). Preliminary in vivo preclinical evaluation of these eight [18F]fluoro-inositols as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging agents in a breast tumour-bearing mouse model was performed and compared with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG). Amongst the different inositols, [18F]myo-2 showed the highest tumour uptake 2.34±0.39%ID/g, revealing the potential of this tracer for monitoring breast cancer.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Flúor , Inositol/química , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Flúor/normas , Humanos , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Inositol/síntese química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
7.
Prenat Diagn ; 37(2): 201-205, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943351

RESUMO

This manuscript presents a molecularly demonstrated gonadal mosaicism from paternal origin for X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata by single sperm typing. A couple who had experienced two medical terminations of pregnancy of female fetuses was referred to our pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) centre with the diagnosis of maternally derived gonadal mosaicism. Indeed, genetic analyses of different DNA samples - including semen - from the healthy parents failed to detect the variant found in the fetuses. Six embryos, all male, were obtained during the PGD cycle. The causative variant was not detected in any embryo, whereas five embryos had inherited the 'at-risk' maternal haplotype. The assumption of a maternal gonadal mosaicism was still possible, but this finding allowed us to consider the possibility of a paternal rather than maternal gonadal mosaicism. It prompted us to perform extensive single sperm analyses, demonstrating a low-frequency paternal germline mosaicism, which led to completely different haplotype phasing and PGD counselling. In conclusion, this case further exemplifies that germline mosaicism is a pitfall in PGD where diagnosis largely relies on linkage analysis and suggests that tracing the parental inheritance through polar body analysis and/or single sperm typing experiments is of major importance for adequate genetic counselling and accurate PGD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Condrodisplasia Punctata/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Mosaicismo , Herança Paterna/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Condrodisplasia Punctata/genética , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Linhagem , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/normas , Recidiva , Espermatozoides/citologia
8.
Nucl Med Biol ; 44: 50-61, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821345

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To image kappa opioid receptor (KOR) for preclinical studies, N-fluoropropylJDTic 9 derived from the best-established KOR antagonist JDTic, was labeled with fluorine-18. METHODS: Radiosynthesis of [18F]9 was achieved according to an automated two-step procedure from [18F]-fluoride. Peripheral and cerebral distributions were determined by ex vivo experiments and by PET imaging in mouse. Radiometabolism studies were performed both in vivo in mice and in vitro in mouse and human liver microsomes. Identification of the major metabolic fragmentations was carried out by UPLC-MS analysis of enzymatic cleavage of non-radioactive ligand 9. Microsomal metabolic degradation of parent JDTic was also achieved for comparison. RESULTS: The radiotracer [18F]9 was produced after 140±5min total synthesis time (2.2±0.4% not decay corrected radiochemical yield) with a specific activity of 41-89GBq/µmol (1.1-2.4Ci/µmol). Peripheral and regional brain distributions of [18F]9 were consistent with known KOR locations but no significant specific binding in brain was shown. [18F]9 presented a typical hepatobiliary and renal elimination, and was rapidly metabolized. The in vivo and in vitro radiometabolic profiles of [18F]9 were similar. Piperidine 12 was identified as the major metabolic fragment of the non-radioactive ligand 9. JDTic 7 was found to be much more stable than 9. CONCLUSION: Although the newly proposed radioligand [18F]9 was concluded to be not suitable for KOR PET imaging due to the formation of brain penetrating radiometabolites, our findings highlight the metabolic stability of JDTic and may help in the design of novel JDTic derivatives for in vivo applications.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Flúor , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/síntese química , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Humanos , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Radioquímica , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(2): 531-536, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27868338

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant genetic diseases can occur de novo and in the form of somatic mosaicism, which can give rise to a less severe phenotype, and make diagnosis more difficult given the sensitivity limits of the methods used. We report the case of female child with a history of surgery for syndactyly of the hands and feet, who was admitted at 6 years of age to a pediatric intensive care unit following cardiac arrest. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a long QT interval that on occasions reached 500 ms. Despite the absence of facial dysmorphism and the presence of normal psychomotor development, a diagnosis of Timothy syndrome was made given the association of syndactyly and the ECG features. Sanger sequencing of the CACNA1C gene, followed by sequencing of the genes KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, were negative. The subsequent analysis of a panel of genes responsible for hereditary cardiac rhythm disorders using Haloplex technology revealed a recurrent mosaic p.Gly406Arg missense mutation of the CACNA1C gene in 18% of the cells. This mosaicism can explain the negative Sanger analysis and the less complete phenotype in this patient. Given the other cases in the literature, mosaic mutations in Timothy syndrome appear more common than previously thought. This case demonstrates the importance of using next-generation sequencing to identify mosaic mutations when the clinical picture supports a specific mutation that is not identified using conventional testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sindactilia/diagnóstico , Sindactilia/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Códon , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(2): 340-343, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929169

RESUMO

[18F]-Fluoride ready for aromatic nucleophilic substitution was prepared according to a simple process including trapping of aqueous [18F]-fluoride on a cartridge pre-loaded with the phosphonium borane [(Ph2MeP)C6H4(BMes2)]+, then releasing by elution of TBACN in dry acetonitrile. Subsequent radiofluorination was successfully applied to a model reaction and to the radiosynthesis of [18F]-setoperone.


Assuntos
Boranos/química , Fluoretos/química , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Halogenação , Radioquímica/métodos , Acetonitrilos/química
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(1): 150-152, 2016 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782105

RESUMO

Homozygous frameshift variants in CNTNAP1 have recently been reported in patients with arthrogryposis and abnormal axon myelination. In two brothers with severe congenital hypotonia and foot deformities, we identified compound heterozygous variants in CNTNAP1, reporting the first causative missense variant, p.(Cys323Arg). Motor nerve conductions were markedly decreased. Nerve microscopical lesions confirmed a severe hypomyelinating process and showed loss of attachment sites of the myelin loops on the axons, which could be a characteristic of Caspr loss-of-function. We discuss the pathophysiology of the myelination process and we propose to consider this disorder as a congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Deformidades do Pé/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Deformidades do Pé/fisiopatologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Irmãos
12.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 86(5): 309-318, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27676402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to describe a large population with anomalies involving the SHOX region, responsible for idiopathic short stature and Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and to identify a possible genotype/phenotype correlation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study on French subjects with a SHOX region anomaly diagnosed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or Sanger sequencing. Phenotypes were collected in each of the 7 genetic laboratories practicing this technique for SHOX analysis. RESULTS: Among 205 index cases and 100 related cases, 91.3% had LWD. For index cases, median age at evaluation was 11.7 (9.0; 15.9) years and mean height standard deviation score was -2.3 ± 1.1. A deletion of either SHOX or PAR1 or both was found in 74% of patients. Duplications and point mutations/indels affected 8 and 18% of the population, respectively. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed that deletions were more frequently associated with Madelung deformity and mesomelic shortening in girls, as well as with presence of radiologic anomalies, than duplications. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight genotype-phenotype relationships in the French population with a SHOX defect and provide new information showing that clinical expression is milder in cases of duplication compared to deletions.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Receptor PAR-1/genética , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 1001-1010, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108799

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing of 13 individuals with developmental delay commonly accompanied by abnormal muscle tone and seizures identified de novo missense mutations enriched within a sub-region of GNB1, a gene encoding the guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-1, Gß. These 13 individuals were identified among a base of 5,855 individuals recruited for various undiagnosed genetic disorders. The probability of observing 13 or more de novo mutations by chance among 5,855 individuals is very low (p = 7.1 × 10(-21)), implicating GNB1 as a genome-wide-significant disease-associated gene. The majority of these 13 mutations affect known Gß binding sites, which suggests that a likely disease mechanism is through the disruption of the protein interface required for Gα-Gßγ interaction (resulting in a constitutively active Gßγ) or through the disruption of residues relevant for interaction between Gßγ and certain downstream effectors (resulting in reduced interaction with the effectors). Strikingly, 8 of the 13 individuals recruited here for a neurodevelopmental disorder have a germline de novo GNB1 mutation that overlaps a set of five recurrent somatic tumor mutations for which recent functional studies demonstrated a gain-of-function effect due to constitutive activation of G protein downstream signaling cascades for some of the affected residues.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/química , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Convulsões/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Cyst Fibros ; 15(4): 452-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27013383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cascade carrier testing within cystic fibrosis (CF) affected families offers relatives of CF patients the opportunity to know their status regarding the mutation that segregates within their family, and thus to make informed reproductive choices. As an Australian study has recently shown that this test seemed underused, we searched to assess uptake of this test in a European area where CF is common, and to report its public health implications. METHODS: This study relied on 40 CF-affected families from western Brittany, France. Investigations included drawing of family trees and registration of carrier tests performed in those families. RESULTS: Of the 459 relatives eligible for testing, 185 were tested, leading to an adjusted uptake rate of testing of 40.7% (95% CI: [34.1%; 47.3%]). The main predictors for having testing were being female (p=0.031) and having a high prior risk (p<0.001). Planning a pregnancy or expecting a child (reported in at least 38.4% of tested relatives) also appeared critical in choosing to be tested. Overall, carrier testing allowed to reassure more than 1/4 of the relatives and to detect five new 1-in-4 at-risk couples who then requested prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study assesses, for first time in Europe, uptake of CF cascade carrier testing within CF families, which is a critical tool to reassure non-carriers and to detect early new at-risk couples.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/psicologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
Hum Mutat ; 37(4): 354-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751395

RESUMO

A rare syndromic form of intellectual disability with impaired speech was recently found associated with mutations in CHAMP1 (chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein 1), the protein product of which is directly involved in microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Through whole-exome sequencing in six unrelated nonconsanguineous families having a sporadic case of intellectual disability, we identified six novel de novo truncating mutations in CHAMP1: c.1880C>G p.(Ser627*), c.1489C>T; p.(Arg497*), c.1876_1877delAG; p.(Ser626Leufs*4), c.1043G>A; p.(Trp348*), c.1002G>A; p.(Trp334*), and c.958_959delCC; p.(Pro320*). Our clinical observations confirm the phenotypic homogeneity of the syndrome, which represents therefore a distinct clinical entity. Besides, our functional studies show that CHAMP1 protein variants are delocalized from chromatin and are unable to bind to two of its direct partners, POGZ and HP1. These data suggest a pathogenic mechanism of the CHAMP1-associated intellectual disability syndrome mediated by direct interacting partners of CHAMP1, several of which are involved in chromo/kinetochore-related disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
18.
ChemMedChem ; 11(2): 179-89, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228928

RESUMO

The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) system is described to modulate various pathological conditions, including inflammation and fibrosis. A series of new heterocyclic small-molecule CB2 receptor agonists were identified from a high-throughput screen. Lead optimization gave access to novel, highly potent, and selective (over CB1) triazolopyrimidine derivatives. A preliminary structure-activity relationship was established, and physicochemical properties in this compound class were significantly improved toward better solubility, lipophilicity, and microsomal stability. An optimized triazolopyrimidine derivative, (3S)-1-[5-tert-butyl-3-[(1-cyclopropyltetrazol-5-yl)methyl]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]pyrrolidin-3-ol (39), was tested in a kidney ischemia-reperfusion model, in which it showed efficacy at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) (p.o.). A significant depletion of the three measured kidney markers indicated a protective role of CB2 receptor activation toward inflammatory kidney damage. Compound 39 was also protective in a model of renal fibrosis. Oral treatment with 39 at 3 mg kg(-1) per day significantly decreased the amount of fibrosis by ∼ 40% which was induced by unilateral ureter obstruction.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Triazóis/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/síntese química , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(4): 949-57, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698168

RESUMO

Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis is a pseudoautosomal dominantly-inherited skeletal dysplasia ascribed to haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene caused by deletions, point mutations, or partial duplications of the gene, or to heterozygous deletions upstream or downstream of the intact SHOX gene involving conserved non-coding cis-regulatory DNA elements that show enhancer activity. Recently, two SHOX conserved non-coding element duplications, one upstream and one downstream, were reported in patients referred with idiopathic short stature. To further evaluate the role of these duplications in SHOX-related disorders, we describe seven patients (five with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and two with short stature) all of whom have duplications of part of the upstream or downstream conserved non-coding element regions, identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In addition, we show data from 32 patients with an apparently identical downstream duplication that includes a proposed putative regulatory element (identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or array comparative genome hybridization), which results in a variable phenotype from normal to mild Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. These additional data provide further evidence that duplications of upstream and downstream long range cis-regulatory DNA elements can result in a SHOX-related phenotype.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura , Adulto Jovem
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