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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e863, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic BRCA1 mutations are regarded either embryonically lethal or to cause Fanconi anemia (FA), a genomic instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental abnormalities, and cancer predisposition. We report biallelic BRCA1 mutations c.181T > G (p.Cys61Gly) and c.5096G > A (p.Arg1699Gln) in a woman with breast cancer diagnosed at the age of 30 years. The common European founder mutation p.Cys61Gly confers high cancer risk, whereas the deleterious p.Arg1699Gln is hypomorphic and was suggested to confer intermediate cancer risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aside from significant toxicity from chemotherapy, the patient showed mild FA-like features (e.g., short stature, microcephaly, skin hyperpigmentation). Chromosome fragility, a hallmark of FA patient cells, was not present in patient-derived peripheral blood lymphocytes. We demonstrated that the p.Arg1699Gln mutation impairs DNA double-strand break repair, elevates RAD51 foci levels at baseline, and compromises BRCA1 protein function in protecting from replication stress. Although the p.Arg1699Gln mutation compromises BRCA1 function, the residual activity of the p.Arg1699Gln allele likely prevents from chromosome fragility and a more severe FA phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the clinical spectrum associated with biallelic BRCA1 mutations, ranging from embryonic lethality to a mild FA-like phenotype and no chromosome fragility.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081934

RESUMO

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.

5.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 574-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For individuals with ovarian cancer (OC), therapy options mainly depend on BRCA1/2 germline status. What is the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants, that is, does genetic tumour testing identify subgroups of individuals who also might benefit from targeted therapy? METHODS: Paired analysis of tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA to determine the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants in OC predisposition genes (ATM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, MSH2/6, PALB2, RAD51C/D and TP53) and the PIK3CA and PTEN genes in individuals with OC (AGO-TR1 study, NCT02222883). Results were complemented by BRCA1, PALB2 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses and stratified by histological subtype; 473 individuals were included. RESULTS: The combined analyses revealed that deleterious germline variants in established OC predisposition genes (all: 125/473, 26.4%; BRCA1/2: 97/473, 20.5%), deleterious somatic variants in established OC predisposition genes excluding TP53 (all: 39/473, 8.2%; BRCA1/2: 30/473, 6.3%) and promoter methylation (all: 67/473, 14.2%; BRCA1: 57/473, 12.1%; RAD51C: 10/473, 2.1%; PALB2: 0/473) were mutually exclusive, with a few exceptions. The same holds true for deleterious somatic PIK3CA and/or PTEN variants (33/473, 7.0%) found to be enriched in endometrioid and clear cell OC (16/35, 45.7%); 84.3 % of the deleterious single-nucleotide/indel germline variants in established OC predisposition genes showed significantly higher variant fractions (VFs) in the tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA, indicating a loss of the wild-type alleles. CONCLUSION: Tumour sequencing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, PIK3CA and PTEN genes along with BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses identified large subgroups of germline mutation-negative individuals who may be addressed in interventional studies using PARP or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02222883.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(1): 217-228, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report on 10 years of high-risk service screening with annual MRI in the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A cohort of 4,573 high-risk, previously unaffected women (954 BRCA1 carriers, 598 BRCA2 carriers, 3021 BRCA1/2 non-carriers) participating in the GC-HBOC surveillance program was prospectively followed. Screening outcomes for 14,142 screening rounds with MRI between 2006 and 2015 were analyzed and stratified by risk group, type of screening round, and age. RESULTS: A total of 221 primary breast cancers (185 invasive, 36 in situ) were diagnosed within 12 months of an annual screening round with MRI. Of all cancers, 84.5% (174/206, 15 unknown) were stage 0 or I. In BRCA1 carriers, 16.9% (10/59, 5 unknown) of all incident cancers (screen-detected and interval cancers combined) and in BRCA2 carriers 12.5% (3/24, 4 unknown) were stage IIA or higher, compared to only 4.8% (2/42, 2 unknown) in high-risk BRCA1/2 non-carriers. Program sensitivity was 89.6% (95% CI 84.9-93.0) with no significant differences in sensitivity between risk groups or by age. Specificity was significantly lower in the first screening round (84.6%, 95% CI 83.6-85.7) than in subsequent screening rounds (91.1%, 95% CI 90.6-91.7), p < 0.001. Cancer detection rates (CDRs) and as a result positive predictive values were strongly dependent on type of screening round, risk group and patient age. CDRs ranged from 43.5‰ (95% CI 29.8-62.9) for the first screening round in BRCA2 carriers to 2.9‰ (95% CI 1.3-6.3) for subsequent screening rounds in high-risk non-carriers in the age group 30 to 39 years. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk screening with MRI was successfully implemented in the GC-HBOC with high sensitivity and specificity. Risk prediction and inclusion criteria in high-risk non-carriers need to be adjusted to improve CDRs and thus screening efficacy in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(10): 949-971, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364388

RESUMO

Summary The first German interdisciplinary S3-guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer was published in April 2018. Funded by German Cancer Aid as part of an Oncology Guidelines Program, the lead coordinators of the guideline were the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG). Purpose The use of evidence-based, risk-adapted therapy to treat low-risk women with endometrial cancer avoids unnecessarily radical surgery and non-useful adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This can significantly reduce therapy-induced morbidity and improve the patient's quality of life as well as avoiding unnecessary costs. For women with endometrial cancer and a high risk of recurrence, the guideline defines the optimal surgical radicality together with the appropriate chemotherapy and/or adjuvant radiotherapy where required. The evidence-based optimal use of different therapeutic modalities should improve survival rates and the quality of life of these patients. The S3-guideline on endometrial cancer is intended as a basis for certified gynecological cancer centers. The aim is that the quality indicators established in this guideline will be incorporated in the certification processes of these centers. Methods The guideline was compiled in accordance with the requirements for S3-level guidelines. This includes, in the first instance, the adaptation of source guidelines selected using the DELBI instrument for appraising guidelines. Other consulted sources include reviews of evidence which were compiled from literature selected during systematic searches of literature databases using the PICO scheme. In addition, an external biostatistics institute was commissioned to carry out a systematic search and assessment of the literature for one area of the guideline. The identified materials were used by the interdisciplinary working groups to develop suggestions for Recommendations and Statements, which were then modified during structured consensus conferences and/or additionally amended online using the DELPHI method with consent being reached online. The guideline report is freely available online. Recommendations Part 1 of this short version of the guideline presents recommendations on epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and hereditary factors, The epidemiology of endometrial cancer and the risk factors for developing endomentrial cancer are presented. The options for screening and the methods used to diagnose endometrial cancer including the pathology of the cancer are outlined. Recommendations are given for the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of hereditary forms of endometrial cancer.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2040-2046, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216591

RESUMO

The Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome (LFS1) presents with a variety of tumor types and the TP53 gene is covered by most diagnostic cancer gene panels. We demonstrate that deleterious TP53 variants identified in blood-derived DNA of 523 patients with ovarian cancer (AGO-TR1 trial) were not causal for the patients' ovarian cancer in three out of six TP53-positive cases. In three out of six patients, deleterious TP53 mutations were identified with low variant fractions in blood-derived DNA but not in the tumor of the patient seeking advice. The analysis of the TP53 and PPM1D genes, both intimately involved in chemotherapy-induced and/or age-related clonal hematopoiesis (CH), in 523 patients and 1,053 age-matched female control individuals revealed that CH represents a frequent event following chemotherapy, affecting 26 of the 523 patients enrolled (5.0%). Considering that TP53 mutations may arise from chemotherapy-induced CH, our findings help to avoid false-positive genetic diagnoses of LFS1.

10.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1349-1358, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522266

RESUMO

The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 265, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus up to which age women with a diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be offered genetic testing for germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (gBRCA) mutations. Here, we explored the association of age at TNBC diagnosis with the prevalence of pathogenic gBRCA mutations in this patient group. METHODS: The study comprised 802 women (median age 40 years, range 19-76) with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative breast cancers, who had no relatives with breast or ovarian cancer. All women were tested for pathogenic gBRCA mutations. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between age at TNBC diagnosis and the presence of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation. RESULTS: A total of 127 women with TNBC (15.8%) were gBRCA mutation carriers (BRCA1: n = 118, 14.7%; BRCA2: n = 9, 1.1%). The mutation prevalence was 32.9% in the age group 20-29 years compared to 6.9% in the age group 60-69 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant increase of mutation frequency with decreasing age at diagnosis (odds ratio 1.87 per 10 year decrease, 95%CI 1.50-2.32, p < 0.001). gBRCA mutation risk was predicted to be > 10% for women diagnosed below approximately 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the general understanding that a heterozygous mutation probability of 10% or greater justifies gBRCA mutation screening, women with TNBC diagnosed before the age of 50 years and no familial history of breast and ovarian cancer should be tested for gBRCA mutations. In Germany, this would concern approximately 880 women with newly diagnosed TNBC per year, of whom approximately 150 are expected to be identified as carriers of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 35, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of next-generation sequencing approaches in clinical diagnostics has led to a tremendous increase in data and a vast number of variants of uncertain significance that require interpretation. Therefore, prediction of the effects of missense mutations using in silico tools has become a frequently used approach. Aim of this study was to assess the reliability of in silico prediction as a basis for clinical decision making in the context of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We tested the performance of four prediction tools (Align-GVGD, SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MutationTaster2) using a set of 236 BRCA1/2 missense variants that had previously been classified by expert committees. However, a major pitfall in the creation of a reliable evaluation set for our purpose is the generally accepted classification of BRCA1/2 missense variants using the multifactorial likelihood model, which is partially based on Align-GVGD results. To overcome this drawback we identified 161 variants whose classification is independent of any previous in silico prediction. In addition to the performance as stand-alone tools we examined the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of combined approaches. RESULTS: PolyPhen-2 achieved the lowest sensitivity (0.67), specificity (0.67), accuracy (0.67) and MCC (0.39). Align-GVGD achieved the highest values of specificity (0.92), accuracy (0.92) and MCC (0.73), but was outperformed regarding its sensitivity (0.90) by SIFT (1.00) and MutationTaster2 (1.00). All tools suffered from poor specificities, resulting in an unacceptable proportion of false positive results in a clinical setting. This shortcoming could not be bypassed by combination of these tools. In the best case scenario, 138 families would be affected by the misclassification of neutral variants within the cohort of patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. CONCLUSION: We show that due to low specificities state-of-the-art in silico prediction tools are not suitable to predict pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance in BRCA1/2. Thus, clinical consequences should never be based solely on in silico forecasts. However, our data suggests that SIFT and MutationTaster2 could be suitable to predict benignity, as both tools did not result in false negative predictions in our analysis.

13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 7, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial. METHODS: To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. RESULTS: BRIP1 LoF mutations confer a high OC risk in familial index patients (odds ratio (OR) = 20.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.02-36.57, P < 0.0001) and in the subgroup of index patients with late-onset OC (OR = 29.91, 95% CI = 14.99-59.66, P < 0.0001). No significant association of BRIP1 LoF mutations with familial BC was observed (OR = 1.81 95% CI = 1.00-3.30, P = 0.0623). In the subgroup of familial BC index patients without a family history of OC there was also no apparent association (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.70-2.90, P = 0.3030). In 1027 familial BC index patients with a family history of OC, the BRIP1 mutation prevalence was significantly higher than that observed in controls (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.43-9.01; P = 0.0168). Based on the negative association between BRIP1 LoF mutations and familial BC in the absence of an OC family history, we conclude that the elevated mutation prevalence in the latter cohort was driven by the occurrence of OC in these families. Compared with controls, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in OC (P = 0.0014) but not in BC (P = 0.0693) patients. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid ambiguous results, studies aimed at assessing the impact of candidate predisposition gene mutations on BC risk might differentiate between BC index patients with an OC family history and those without. In familial cases, we suggest that BRIP1 is a high-risk gene for late-onset OC but not a BC predisposition gene, though minor effects cannot be excluded.

14.
Genet Med ; 20(4): 452-457, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837162

RESUMO

PurposeMonoallelic germ-line mutations in the BRCA1/FANCS, BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN genes confer high risk of breast cancer. Biallelic mutations in these genes cause Fanconi anemia (FA), characterized by malformations, bone marrow failure, chromosome fragility, and cancer predisposition (BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN), or an FA-like disease presenting a phenotype similar to FA but without bone marrow failure (BRCA1/FANCS). FANCM monoallelic mutations have been reported as moderate risk factors for breast cancer, but there are no reports of any clinical phenotype observed in carriers of biallelic mutations.MethodsBreast cancer probands were subjected to mutation analysis by sequencing gene panels or testing DNA damage response genes.ResultsFive cases homozygous for FANCM loss-of-function mutations were identified. They show a heterogeneous phenotype including cancer predisposition, toxicity to chemotherapy, early menopause, and possibly chromosome fragility. Phenotype severity might correlate with mutation position in the gene.ConclusionOur data indicate that biallelic FANCM mutations do not cause classical FA, providing proof that FANCM is not a canonical FA gene. Moreover, our observations support previous findings suggesting that FANCM is a breast cancer-predisposing gene. Mutation testing of FANCM might be considered for individuals with the above-described clinical features.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fragilidade Cromossômica , DNA Helicases/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/diagnóstico , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Consanguinidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 752, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with pathogenic BRCA germline mutations have an increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer that seems to be modified by life-style factors. Though, randomized trials investigating the impact of lifestyle interventions on cancer prevention and prognosis in BRCA carriers are still missing. METHODS: We implemented a multicenter, prospective randomized controlled trial in BRCA1/2 patients, comparing a lifestyle intervention group (IG) with a control group (CG) with the primary aim to prove feasibility. Intervention comprised a structured, individualized endurance training alongside nutrition education based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) for 3 months, plus monthly group training and regular telephone contact during the subsequent 9 months. The CG attended one session on healthy nutrition and the benefits of physical activity. Primary endpoints were feasibility, acceptance and satisfaction over 12 months. Furthermore, effects on physical fitness, diet profile, body mass index (BMI), quality of life and perceived stress were investigated. RESULTS: Sixty-eight participants (mean age 41, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2) were enrolled, of whom 55 (81%, 26 IG, 29 CG) completed 12 months. 73% (n = 26) participated in at least 70% of all intervention sessions. Predictors for drop-outs (19%; n = 13) or non-adherence (27%; n = 7) were not found. 73% rated the program highly and 80% would participate again. Severe adverse events did not occur. Positive effects in the IG compared to the CG were observed for secondary endpoints: BMI, MD eating pattern and stress levels. CONCLUSIONS: This lifestyle intervention was feasible, safe and well accepted. Positive results on eating habits, physical fitness and stress levels warrant a larger randomized trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (reference: NCT02087592 ) on March 12, 2014. The first patient was included on February 24, 2014.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Aptidão Física , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(10): 1378-1385, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715532

RESUMO

Importance: The GeparSixto trial provided evidence that the addition of neoadjuvant carboplatin to a regimen consisting of anthracycline, taxane, and bevacizumab increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status affects treatment outcome remains elusive. Objective: To determine whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status affects therapy response in patients with TNBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial used archived DNA samples and cancer family history of 315 patients with TNBC enrolled between August 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, in the GeparSixto trial. In all, 291 participants (92.4%) were included in this multicenter prospective investigation. DNA samples were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and 16 other cancer predisposition genes. The pCR rates between the carboplatin and noncarboplatin arms were compared. Genetic analyses were performed at the Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Cologne, Germany; data analysis, November 1 through December 31, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients who achieved pCR and disease-free survival after neoadjuvant treatment according to BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status. For pCR rates, the ypT0/is ypN0 definition was used as a primary end point. Results: Of the 291 patients with TNBC, all were women; the mean (SD) age was 48 (11) years. The pCR rate in the carboplatin group was 56.8% (83 of 146) and 41.4% (60 of 145) in the noncarboplatin group (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.97; P = .009). Pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations were present in 50 of the 291 patients (17.2%). In the noncarboplatin arm, the pCR rate was 66.7% (16 of 24) for patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and 36.4% (44 of 121) for patients without (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.39-8.84; P = .008). The high pCR rate observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (16 of 24 [66.7%]) was not increased further by adding carboplatin (17 of 26 [65.4%]). In contrast, carboplatin increased response rates in patients without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: 66 of the 120 patients (55%) without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations achieved pCR in the carboplatin arm vs 44 of the 121 patients (36.4%) in the noncarboplatin arm (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.28-3.58; P = .004). Patients without pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 alterations showed elevated disease-free survival rates when carboplatin was added (without carboplatin, 73.5%; 95% CI, 64.1%-80.8% vs with carboplatin, 85.3%; 95% CI, 77.0%-90.8%; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: Under the nonstandard GeparSixto polychemotherapy regimen, patients without BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations benefited from the addition of carboplatin and those with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations showed superior response rates without additive effects observed for carboplatin. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01426880.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
17.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 12(1): 15-19, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611536

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis and defines a subgroup of patients who do not benefit from endocrine or anti-HER2 therapy. Rather than being a biological entity, TNBC represents a heterogeneous disease, and further subtyping is necessary to establish targeted therapies. Germline mutational status may serve as a robust biomarker predicting therapy response, especially with respect to compounds challenging the DNA repair machinery. Patients with TNBC usually show an early onset of the disease, as well as a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in more than one third of all cases, which suggests that TNBC is closely associated with a hereditary disease cause. In unselected TNBC cases, the prevalence of pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations is approximately twice as high as in breast cancer overall. Early age at diagnosis and positive family history are strong predictors for an increased BRCA1/2 mutation probability, which is up to 40% when both risk factors are considered. Apart from BRCA1/2, the rarely mutated breast cancer predisposition genes PALB2 and FANCM have been associated with TNBC. This review summarizes the role of germline mutational status in TNBC pathogenesis. Clinical trials addressing BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are discussed.

19.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 26(2): 165-169, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622768

RESUMO

Whereas RAD51C mutations increase the relative risk for ovarian cancer (OC) to 5.88 (95% confidence interval=2.91-11.88, P=7.65×10), the associated risks for breast cancer (BC) remain largely unknown, as deleterious RAD51C alterations are extremely rare in BC-only families. Here, we report the results of a RAD51C mutational screening in a large series of German familial index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and the in-vitro characterization of two novel exonic RAD51C splice-site mutations. A total of 610 index cases derived from BC/OC (n=587) or OC-only families (n=23) were screened for potentially deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C. The frequencies of two splice-site mutations were assessed by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in 1410 additional cases not enriched for OC family history. In three independent families, we identified novel splice-site mutations affecting the last nucleotide of exon 2 (c.404G>C, c.404G>T). Both mutations disrupt proper RAD51C pre-mRNA processing and cause a missense substitution immediately followed by a stop codon (p.Cys135Serfs*2; p.Cys135Leufs*2). Even though both mutations have similar effects on the protein level, they are associated with either BC/OC, OC-only, or BC-only family histories. The rare finding of a clearly truncating RAD51C mutation in an early-onset BC patient with a BC-only family history supports the notion that compromised RAD51C function may result in both BC and OC. Large international collaborative studies are needed to quantify the relative risk of RAD51C alterations for BC and to unravel the genetic modifying factors that determine phenotypic variability with respect to cancer site.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Linhagem
20.
Genet Med ; 19(5): 599-603, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). METHODS: Using genotype data from 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. RESULTS: The PRS conferred odds ratios (OR) of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.21-2.09) per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 (1.55-1.62) for noncarriers. No evidence of deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 (0.86-4.78) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers, placing them in the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. The OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 (0.16-1.74), indicating a lifetime risk close to the population average. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify carriers at a high lifetime risk for clinical actions.Genet Med advance online publication 06 October 2016.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Feminino , Genes Modificadores , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Penetrância
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