Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 152
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002903, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The precise age distribution and calculated stroke risk of screen-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is not known. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify one treatable new AF case (NNS-Rx) (i.e., Class-1 oral anticoagulation [OAC] treatment recommendation) in each age stratum. If the NNS-Rx is known for each age stratum, precise cost-effectiveness and sensitivity simulations can be performed based on the age distribution of the population/region to be screened. Such calculations are required by national authorities and organisations responsible for health system budgets to determine the best age cutoffs for screening programs and decide whether programs of screening should be funded. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exact yield and calculated stroke-risk profile of screen-detected AF and NNS-Rx in 5-year age strata. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review of Medline, Pubmed, and Embase was performed (January 2007 to February 2018), and AF-SCREEN international collaboration members were contacted to identify additional studies. Twenty-four eligible studies were identified that performed a single time point screen for AF in a general ambulant population, including people ≥65 years. Authors from eligible studies were invited to collaborate and share patient-level data. Statistical analysis was performed using random effects logistic regression for AF detection rate, and Poisson regression modelling for CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Nineteen studies (14 countries from a mix of low- to middle- and high-income countries) collaborated, with 141,220 participants screened and 1,539 new AF cases. Pooled yield of screening was greater in males across all age strata. The age/sex-adjusted detection rate for screen-detected AF in ≥65-year-olds was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.13%-1.82%) and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.31%-0.53%) for <65-year-olds. New AF detection rate increased progressively with age from 0.34% (<60 years) to 2.73% (≥85 years). Neither the choice of screening methodology or device, the geographical region, nor the screening setting influenced the detection rate of AF. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (n = 1,369) increased with age from 1.1 (<60 years) to 3.9 (≥85 years); 72% of ≥65 years had ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. All new AF ≥75 years and 66% between 65 and 74 years had a Class-1 OAC recommendation. The NNS-Rx is 83 for ≥65 years, 926 for 60-64 years; and 1,089 for <60 years. The main limitation of this study is there are insufficient data on sociodemographic variables of the populations and possible ascertainment biases to explain the variance in the samples. CONCLUSIONS: People with screen-detected AF are at elevated calculated stroke risk: above age 65, the majority have a Class-1 OAC recommendation for stroke prevention, and >70% have ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. Our data, based on the largest number of screen-detected AF collected to date, show the precise relationship between yield and estimated stroke risk profile with age, and strong dependence for NNS-RX on the age distribution of the population to be screened: essential information for precise cost-effectiveness calculations.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 296: 65-70, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327519

RESUMO

AIMS: At present, there is little evidence on how to treat subclinical atrial fibrillation (SCAF) or atrial high rate episodes (AHREs) detected by cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Our aim was to assess current practice around oral anticoagulation (OAC) in such patients. METHODS: A web-based survey undertaken by 310 physicians: 59 AF-SCREEN International Collaboration members and 251 non-members. RESULTS: In patients with SCAF/AHRE and a CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 2 in males or ≥ 3 in female the amount of SCAF/AHRE triggering use of OAC was variable but <2% of respondents considered that no AHRE would require OAC. Around one third (34%) considered SCAF/AHRE duration of >5-6 min as the basis for OAC prescription, while 16% and 18% required a burden of at least 5.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The propensity to prescribe OAC for a low burden of AHREs differed according to certain respondent characteristics (greater propensity to prescribe OAC for neurologists). When the clinical scenario included a prior stroke or a prior cardioembolic stroke, stated prescription of OAC was very high. More than 96% felt that any SCAF/AHRE should be treated with OAC. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial heterogeneity in the perception of the risk of stroke/systemic embolism associated with SCAF/AHRE of variable duration. The threshold of AHRE burden that would trigger initiation of OAC is highly variable, and differs according to the clinical scenario (lower threshold in case of previous stroke). Ongoing trials will clarify the real benefit and risk/benefit ratio of OAC in this specific clinical setting.

4.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 5(4): 226-236, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198930

RESUMO

AIMS: The combination of oral anticoagulation with a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a high bleeding risk. Dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) with omission of aspirin is a promising option to reduce bleedings, but carries a yet unknown risk of ischaemic events. We therefore sought to systematically review and analyse randomized controlled trials investigating DAT vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) in patients with AF following PCI and/or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included four trials with overall 9317 patients (5039 DAT, 4278 TAT) in our analysis. Dual antithrombotic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding [hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.65; P = 0.0001], while the composite trial-defined ischaemic endpoint did not differ significantly between DAT and TAT (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79-1.22; P = 0.88). There was also no difference regarding the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI; HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.92-1.46; P = 0.21) or stent thrombosis (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69-2.26; P = 0.46). Absolute numbers for MI were 131/4278 (3.1%) with TAT and 182/5039 (3.6%) with DAT, and for stent thrombosis 32/4278 (0.75%) and 52/5039 (1%), respectively. A post hoc power calculation based on the size and event rate of this meta-analysis revealed 80% power to detect a 37% and 100% increase in MI and stent thrombosis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dual antithrombotic therapy significantly reduces bleedings compared with TAT and seems to have a similar effect in preventing ischaemic endpoints in AF patients post-PCI or ACS. Future investigations are needed to determine its applicability specifically in patients at high risk of ischaemic outcomes.

5.
Clin Transplant ; 33(6): e13572, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex differences in panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels in heart transplant recipients and their association with transplant-related outcomes are mostly unknown. METHODS: In 20 181 (24.7% women) first-time heart transplant recipients included from July 2004 to March 2015 in the prospective Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), we studied sex differences in most recent (mr) and peak (p)PRA and outcomes (graft failure, rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy [CAV], retransplantation, and mortality). Median follow-up (all-cause mortality) was 6 years. Analyses are based on OPTN data (March 6, 2017). RESULTS: MrPRA levels were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: class I 1.03, 1.01-1.04, P < 0.001) and acute rejection (class II 1.08, 1.03-1.14, P = 0.0044). PPRA levels were associated with all-cause mortality (class I 1.02, 1.00-1.04, P = 0.015) and CAV (class II 1.03, 1.01-1.06, P = 0.020). Sex interactions were seen for the association of pPRA and graft failure with a higher risk in women, and for pPRA and CAV with a higher risk in men. CONCLUSIONS: PRA were associated with different transplant-related outcomes in both sexes. However, women with elevated pPRA were shown to be at higher risk for graft failure, whereas higher levels of pPRA were more hazardous for men in developing CAV.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e022478, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We identified factors associated with thromboembolic and bleeding events in two contemporary cohorts of anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), treated with either vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre observational study. SETTING: 461 centres in seven European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 5310 patients receiving a VKA (PREvention oF thromboembolic events - European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation (PREFER in AF), derivation cohort) and 3156 patients receiving a NOAC (PREFER in AF Prolongation, validation cohort) for stroke prevention in AF. OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors for thromboembolic events (ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism) and major bleeding (gastrointestinal bleeding, intracerebral haemorrhage and other life-threatening bleeding). RESULTS: The mean age of patients enrolled in the PREFER in AF registry was 72±10 years, 40% were female and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 3.5±1.7. The incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events was 2.34% (95% CI 1.93% to 2.74%) and 2.84% (95% CI 2.41% to 3.33%) after 1-year of follow-up, respectively.Abnormal liver function, prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack, labile international normalised ratio (INR), concomitant therapy with antiplatelet or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heart failure and older age (≥75 years) were independently associated with both thromboembolic and major bleeding events.With the exception of unstable INR values, these risk factors were validated in patients treated with NOACs (PREFER in AF Prolongation Study, 72±9 years, 40% female, CHA2DS2-VASc 3.3±1.6). For each single point decrease on a modifiable bleeding risk scale we observed a 30% lower risk for major bleeding events (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.76, p<0.01) and a 28% lower rate of thromboembolic events (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.82, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Attending to modifiable risk factors is an important treatment target in anticoagulated AF patients to reduce thromboembolic and bleeding events. Initiation of anticoagulation in those at risk of stroke should not be prevented by elevated bleeding risk scores.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

8.
Stroke ; 50(3): 610-617, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786848

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and a marker of cardiac function used in the detection of heart failure. Given the link between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, NT-proBNP is a candidate marker of stroke risk. Our aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with stroke and to determine the predictive value beyond a panel of established risk factors. Methods- Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe-Consortium, we analyzed data of 58 173 participants (50% men; mean age 52 y) free of stroke from 6 community-based cohorts. NT-proBNP measurements were performed in the central Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe laboratory. The outcomes considered were total stroke and subtypes of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic). Results- During a median follow-up time of 7.9 years, we observed 1550 stroke events (1176 ischemic). Increasing quarters of the NT-proBNP distribution were associated with increasing risk of stroke ( P for trend <0.0001; multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for risk factors and cardiac diseases). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quarter (NT-proBNP >82.2 pg/mL) had 2-fold (95% CI, 75%-151%) greater risk of stroke than individuals in the lowest quarter (NT-proBNP <20.4 pg/mL). The association remained unchanged when adjusted for interim coronary events during follow-up, and though it was somewhat heterogeneous across cohorts, it was highly homogenous according to cardiovascular risk profile or subtypes of stroke. The addition of NT-proBNP to a reference model increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.006 ( P=0.0005), yielded a categorical net reclassification improvement of 2.0% in events and 1.4% in nonevents and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.007. Conclusions- In European individuals free of stroke, levels of NT-proBNP are positively associated with risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, independently from several other risk factors and conditions. The addition of NT-proBNP to variables of established risk scores improves prediction of stroke, with a medium effect size.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 162-173, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528622

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common in the general population. It often coincides with myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) which are also diseases in older adults. All three conditions share common cardiovascular risk factors. While hypertension and obesity are central risk factors for all three diseases, smoking and diabetes appear to have less impact on AF. To date, age is the single most important risk factor for AF in the general population. Further, epidemiological studies suggest a strong association of AF to MI and HF. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and not fully understood. Both MI and HF can trigger development of AF, mainly by promoting structural and electrical atrial remodeling. On the other hand, AF facilitates HF and MI development via multiple mechanisms, resulting in a vicious circle of cardiac impairment and adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Consequently, to prevent and treat the coincidence of AF and HF or MI a strict optimization of cardiovascular risk factors is required.

11.
J Hypertens ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation in the community. Whether noninvasively measured conduit artery function and peripheral vascular reactivity are related to atrial fibrillation remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 15 010 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55 ±â€Š11 years, 50.5% men, we determined noninvasive vascular function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) in relation to manifest atrial fibrillation (N = 466). Patients with atrial fibrillation exhibited a higher mean brachial artery diameter [4.81 mm (4.17, 5.33) in atrial fibrillation vs. 4.31 mm (3.67, 4.93)] and baseline pulse amplitude in arbitrary units [6.35 (5.76, 6.78) in atrial fibrillation vs. 6.09 (5.36, 6.71)] as well as a reduced FMD in arbitrary units [1.29 (1.26, 1.33) in atrial fibrillation vs. (1.31 (1.26, 1.37)] and PAT ratio [0.42 (0.19, 0.77) in atrial fibrillation vs. 0.67 (0.33, 0.94)] compared with individuals without atrial fibrillation (all PWilcoxon rank-sum test). In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted logistic regression analyses, only baseline brachial artery diameter [odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.37; P = 0.012] and PAT ratio (OR 0.83; 0.74-0.94; P = 0.0029) were associated with atrial fibrillation. In risk factor and heart rate-adjusted models, there was no statistically significant correlation of atrial fibrillation and brachial artery diameter, FMD and PAT ratio while baseline pulse amplitude was reduced in individuals with atrial fibrillation (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93; P = 0.0034). CONCLUSION: In our large contemporary cohort, peripheral vascular function was compromised in individuals with atrial fibrillation. However, observed associations were mediated by age and classical risk factors. Noninvasive vascular function measures did not improve discriminatory ability for atrial fibrillation.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

12.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 20(1): 68, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work is to describe the objectives and design of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the single center, prospective, population-based Hamburg City Health study (HCHS). The HCHS aims at improving risk stratification for coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: The HCHS will finally include 45,000 inhabitants of the city of Hamburg (Germany) between 45 and 74 years who undergo an extensive cardiovascular evaluation and collection of biomaterials. Risk-scores for CAD, AF and HF are used to create enriched subpopulations who are invited for CMR. A total number of approximately 12,362 subjects will undergo CMR and incident CAD, AF and HF will be assessed after 6 years follow-up. The standard CMR protocol includes cine-CMR, T1 and T2 mapping, aortic/mitral valve flow measurements, Late gadolinium enhancement, angiographies and measurements of aortic distensibility. A stress-perfusion scan is added in individuals at risk for CAD. The workflow of CMR data acquisition and analyses was evaluated in a pilot cohort of 200 unselected subjects. RESULTS: The obtained CMR findings in the pilot cohort agree with current reference values and demonstrate the ability of the established workflow to accomplish the objectives of HCHS. CONCLUSIONS: CMR in HCHS promises novel insights into major cardiovascular diseases, their subclinical precursors and the prognostic value of novel imaging biomarkers. The HCHS database will facilitate combined analyses of imaging, clinical and molecular data ("Radiomics").

13.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200232

RESUMO

Homoarginine has come into the focus of interest as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality. Whether circulating homoarginine is associated with occurrence or persistence of AF and may serve as a new predictive biomarker remains unknown. We measured plasma levels of homoarginine in the population-based Gutenberg health study (3761 patients included, of them 51.7% males), mean age 55.6 ± 10.9 years-old. Associations between homoarginine and intermediate electrocardiographic and echocardiographic phenotypes and manifest AF were examined. Patients with AF (124 patients, of them 73.4% males) had a mean age 64.8 ± 8.6 years-old compared to a mean age of 55.3 ± 10.9 in the population without AF (p-value < 0.001) and showed a less beneficial risk factor profile. The median homoarginine levels in individuals with and without AF were 1.9 µmol/L (interquartile range (IQR) 1.5⁻2.5) and 2.0 µmol/L (IQR 1.5⁻2.5), respectively, p = 0.56. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses homoarginine was not statistically significantly related to electrocardiographic variables. Among echocardiographic variables beta per standard deviation increase was -0.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23⁻(-0.02); p = 0.024) for left atrial area and -0.01 (95% CI -0.02⁻(-0.003); p = 0.013) for E/A ratio. The odds ratio between homoarginine and AF was 0.91 (95% CI 0.70⁻1.16; p = 0.45). In our large, population-based cross-sectional study, we did not find statistically significant correlations between lower homoarginine levels and occurrence or persistence of AF or most standard electrocardiographic phenotypes, but some moderate inverse associations with echocardiographic left atrial size and E/A. Homoarginine may not represent a strong biomarker to identify individuals at increased risk for AF. Further investigations will be needed to elucidate the role of homoarginine and cardiac function.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 270: 160-166, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on whether antiPLT added to OACs is of advantage in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with concomitant stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is limited. We evaluated clinical outcomes with oral anticoagulant (OAC) monotherapy vs antiplatelet therapy (antiPLT) plus OAC in patients with AF and stable CAD. METHODS: Data on 1058 AF patients on OACs and history (>1 year) of myocardial infarction or coronary stenting were pooled from the PREFER-in-AF and PREFER-in-AF PROLONGATION registries. We primarily compared the 1-year incidence of a net composite endpoint (primary endpoint), including acute coronary syndrome and major bleeding, with or without antiPLT. RESULTS: The incidence of the primary net composite endpoint was significantly higher in patients receiving OACs + antiPLT (N = 348) vs OACs alone (N = 710): 7.9 vs 4.2 per 100 patients/year; adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.84 [1.01-3.37]; p = 0.048. Among the components of the primary endpoint, the greatest relative difference was found for major bleeding (OR [95% CI] 2.28 [95% CI 1.00-5.19]), and especially life-threatening or non-gastrointestinal bleeding. The net clinical outcome with OACs + antiPLT was poorer irrespective of the type of CAD (previous infarction or coronary stenting), the type of stent (bare metal or drug-eluting) or the type of OAC (vitamin K antagonist or non-vitamin K antagonist OAC). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with AF and stable CAD >1-year after the index event, the addition of antiPLT to OAC does not apparently provide added protection against coronary events, but increases major bleeding. OAC monotherapy should thus be considered the antithrombotic therapy of choice for such patients.

15.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 18(10): 66, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090997

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with "cryptogenic" stroke, a cohort including about 25% of all ischemic stroke patients and patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). RECENT FINDINGS: A first episode of AF is detected in up to one third of cryptogenic stroke and in up to one fourth of ESUS patients during long-term monitoring. AF prevalence correlates to patient selection, duration, and quality of ECG monitoring. Higher rates of AF were reported in stroke patients with left atrial pathology, specific ECG alterations, or increased natriuretic peptides. While AF detection impacts on medical stroke prevention in the vast majority of patients, patient selection for prolonged monitoring is largely left at the physician's discretion. AF detection after cryptogenic stroke or ESUS is a frequent, potentially causal condition. Whether subsequent oral anticoagulation may improve outcome remains open.

16.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096922

RESUMO

Intrinsic iron release is discussed to have favorable effects in coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of intrinsic iron release in patients with CAD. Intrinsic iron release was based on a definition including hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). In a cohort of 811 patients with angiographically documented CAD levels of hepcidin and sTfR were measured at baseline. Systemic body iron release was defined as low levels of hepcidin (<24 ng/mL) and high levels of sTfR (≥2 mg/L). A commercially available ELISA (DRG) was used for measurements of serum hepcidin. Serum sTfR was determined by using an automated immunoassay (). Cardiovascular mortality was the main outcome measure. The criteria of intrinsic iron release were fulfilled in 32.6% of all patients. Significantly lower cardiovascular mortality rates were observed in CAD patients with systemic iron release. After adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, sex, and age, the hazard ratio for future cardiovascular death was 0.41. After an additional adjustment for surrogates of the size of myocardial necrosis (troponin I), anemia (hemoglobin), and cardiac function and heart failure severity (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide), this association did not change (Hazard ratio 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.14⁻0.99), p = 0.047). In conclusion, significantly lower cardiovascular mortality rates were observed in CAD patients with intrinsic iron release shown during follow-up.

17.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071583

RESUMO

Inflammation may be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Oral infections frequently lead to chronic inflammation, such as gingivitis, periodontitis, and endodontic lesions. In this narrative review, we consider five basic pathogenic mechanisms that involve oral infections and inflammations in the pathogenesis of AF: (1) low level bacteremia by which oral bacteria enter the blood stream at inflamed sites of the oral cavity and invade the heart; (2) Systemic inflammation induced by inflammatory mediators, which are released from the sites of oral inflammation into the blood stream, affecting cardiac remodeling; (3) autoimmunity against molecular structures expressed in the heart caused by the host immune response to specific components of oral pathogens; (4) potentially arrhythmic effects mediated by activation of the autonomous nervous system triggered by oral inflammations; and (5) arrhythmic effects resulting from specific bacterial toxins that are produced by oral pathogenic bacteria. A number of studies support the involvement of all five mechanisms, suggesting a potentially complex contribution of oral inflammations to the pathogenesis of AF.

18.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037035

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While iron deficient heart failure patients are at increased risk of future cardiovascular events and see improvement with intravenous supplementation, the clinical relevance of iron deficiency in acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of iron deficiency in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Levels of ferritin, iron, and transferrin were measured at baseline in 836 patients with ACS. A total of 29.1% was categorized as iron deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was clearly higher in women (42.8%), and in patients with anemia (42.5%). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 111 subjects (13.3%) experienced non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular mortality as combined endpoint. Iron deficiency strongly predicted non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.26; p = 0.037) adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, body-mass-index (BMI) This association remained significant (HR 1.73 (95% CI 1.07⁻2.81; p = 0.026)) after an additional adjustment for surrogates of cardiac function and heart failure severity (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP), for the size of myocardial necrosis (troponin), and for anemia (hemoglobin). Survival analyses for cardiovascular mortality and MI provided further evidence for the prognostic relevance of iron deficiency (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.02⁻2.20)). Our data showed that iron deficiency is strongly associated with adverse outcome in acute coronary syndrome.

19.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958400

RESUMO

Iron is essential in terms of oxygen utilization and mitochondrial function. The liver-derived peptide hepcidin has been recognized as a key regulator of iron homeostasis. Since iron metabolism is crucially linked to cardiovascular health, and low hepcidin was proposed as potential new marker of iron metabolism, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of hepcidin in a large cohort of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Serum levels of hepcidin were determined at baseline in patients with angiographically documented CHD. The main outcome measure was non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death. During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 10.3% experienced an endpoint. In Cox regression analyses for hepcidin the hazard ratio for future cardiovascular death or MI was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91⁻1.18, p = 0.63) after adjustment for sex and age. This association virtually did not change after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and surrogates of cardiac function (NT-proBNP), size of myocardial necrosis (troponin I), and anemia (hemoglobin). In this study, by far the largest evaluating the predictive value of hepcidin, hepcidin levels were not associated with future MI or cardiovascular death. This implicates a limited, if any, role for hepcidin in secondary cardiovascular risk prediction.

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 275: 256-261, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Guidelines recommend a healthy diet as a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Although the Mediterranean diet (MD) is the best studied dietary pattern for CV outcomes, data on association between MD and severity of CAD are limited. Therefore, we analysed dietary data in association with the SYNTAX score in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients from the INTERCATH study. METHODS: The INTERCATH study is an observational study in patients undergoing coronary angiography at the University Heart Center Hamburg. Coronary morphology is assessed by the SYNTAX score. A lifestyle questionnaire collects dietary data with food frequency questions at baseline. Based on seven dietary characteristics, we calculated an established Mediterranean diet score (MDS) with a range of 0-28 points at which 28 points reflect maximal adherence to MD. To investigate the association of MD with severity of CAD, we performed logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Of 1121 patients, 27% were women. The median age was 70.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 61.1,77.0). CV risk factors were distributed as expected for a CAD cohort (31.3% diabetes, 81.1% arterial hypertension, 34.0% smoking, median BMI 26.6 kg/m2 (IQR 24.1, 30.3), median LDL-C 87 mg/dL (IQR 65.0,116,6). Of all variables included, the strongest correlation with MDS was found for log (hs-CRP) (r = -0.21, p < 0.001). Adherence to MD represented by a higher MDS was significantly associated with a reduced probability for a medium/high risk SYNTAX score of ≥23 with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.923 per point increase of MDS (95% confidence interval 0.869-0.979; p = 0.0079). This association remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (OR 0.934, 95% CI 0.877-0.995, p = 0.035). After further adjustment for log (hs-CRP), the association remained no longer significant (OR 0.955 (0.893-1.022, p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary data set, we found an independent association of adherence to MD with a less complex CAD. Hs-CRP correlated significantly with adherence to MD and may be a marker of the vasoprotective effects of MD. These results strengthen the evidence for the protective effect of an MD pattern in CVD prevention.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA