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1.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13564, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002334

RESUMO

AIM: There is an increasing awareness of the impact of age and sex on cardiovascular diseases. Differences in physiology are suspected. Beta-adrenoceptors (beta-AR) are an important drug target in cardiovascular disease and potential differences might have significant impact on the treatment of many patients. To investigate whether age and sex affects beta-AR function, we analyzed a large data set on beta-AR-induced inotropy in human atrial trabeculae. METHODS: We performed multivariable analysis of individual atrial contractility data from trabeculae obtained during heart surgery of patients in sinus rhythm (535 trabeculae from 165 patients). Norepinephrine or epinephrine were used in the presence of the beta2 -selective antagonist (ICI 118,551, 50nM) or the beta1 -selective antagonist (CGP 20712A, 300 nM) to stimulate beta1 -AR or beta2 -AR, respectively. Agonist concentration required to achieve half maximum inotropic effects (EC50 ) was taken as a measure of beta-AR sensitivity. RESULTS: Impact of clinical variables was modeled using multivariable mixed model regression. As previously reported, chronic treatment with beta-blockers sensitized beta-AR. However, there was no significant interaction between basal force, maximum force or beta-AR sensitivity when age and sex were modelled continuously. In addition, there was no statistically significant effect of body mass index or diabetes on atrial contractility. CONCLUSION: Our large, multivariable analysis shows that neither age nor sex affects beta-AR-mediated inotropy or catecholamine sensitivity in human atrial trabeculae. These findings may have important clinical implications because beta-adrenoceptors, as a common drug target in cardiovascular disease and heart failure do not behave differently in women and men across age decades.

3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933842

RESUMO

AIM: A variety of consumer-facing wearables, devices and apps are marketed directly to consumers to detect atrial fibrillation (AF). However, their management is not defined. Our aim was to explore their role for AF screening via a survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: An anonymous web-based survey was undertaken by 588 health care professionals (HCPs) (response rate 23.7%). Overall, 57% HCPs currently advise wearables/apps for AF detection in their patients: this was much higher for electrophysiologists and nurses/allied health professionals (74-75%) than cardiologists (57%) or other physicians (34-38%). Approximately 46% recommended handheld (portable) single-lead dedicated ECG devices, or, less frequently, wristband ECG monitors with similar differentials between HCPs . Only 10-15% HCPs advised photoplethysmographic wristband monitors or smartphone apps. In over half of the HCP consultations for AF detected by wearables/apps, the decision to screen was entirely the patient's. About 45% of HCPs perceive a potential role for AF screening in people aged >65 years or in those with risk factors. Almost 70% of HCPs believed we are not yet ready for mass consumer-initiated screening for AF using wearable devices/apps, with patient anxiety, risk of false positives and negatives, and risk of anticoagulant-related bleeding perceived as potential disadvantages, and perceived need for appropriate management pathways. CONCLUSIONS: There is a great potential for appropriate use of consumer-facing wearables/apps for AF screening. However, it appears that there is a need to better define suitable individuals for screening and an appropriate mechanism for managing positive results before they can be recommended by HCPs.

4.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955677

RESUMO

The management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has rapidly changed with increasing use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and changes in the use of rhythm control therapy. The prevention of thromboembolic events European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation Prolongation Registry (PREFER Prolongation) enrolled consecutive patients with AF on NOACs between 2014 and 2016 in a multicentre, prospective, observational study with one-year follow-up, focusing on the time of introduction of NOACs. Overall, 3783 patients were enrolled, with follow-up information available in 3223 (85%). Mean age was 72.2 ± 9.4 years, 40% were women, mean CHA2DS2VASc score was 3.4 ± 1.6, and 2587 (88.6%) had a CHA2DS2VASc score ≥ 2. Rivaroxaban was used in half of patients, and dabigatran and apixaban were used in about a quarter of patients each; edoxaban was not available for use in Europe at the time. Major cardiovascular event rate was low: serious events occurred in 74 patients (84 events, 2%), including 24 strokes (1%), 62 major bleeds (2%), of which 30 were life-threatening (1%) and 3 intracranial (0.1%), and 28 acute coronary syndromes (1%). Mortality was 2%. Antiarrhythmic drugs were used in about 50% of patients, catheter ablation in 5%. Adverse events were low in this contemporary European cohort of unselected AF patients treated with NOACs already at the time of their first introduction, despite high thromboembolic risk.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of cognitive status on outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is not well defined. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of cognitive impairment in AF patients and evaluate its association with: i) all-cause mortality; ii) a composite endpoint of death, stroke/systemic embolism, hemorrhages, acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, new/worsening heart failure. METHODS: In a cohort study, cognitive status was assessed at baseline by the Mini Mental State examination adjusted for age and education (aMMSE). aMMSE <24 was considered indicative of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The cohort included 437 patients (61.3% male, mean age 73.4 ± 11.7 years). Sixty-three patients (14.4%) had cognitive impairment at baseline aMMSE. Permanent AF (odds ratio [OR] 1.750; 95%CI 1.012-3.025; p = .045), haemoglobin levels (OR 0.827; 95%CI 0.707-0.967; p = .017) and previous treatment with antiplatelet drugs only, without oral anticoagulation, (OR 4.352; 95%CI 1.583-11.963; p = .004) were independently associated with cognitive impairment at baseline. After a median follow-up of 887 days (interquartile range 731-958) 30 patients died (7.1%), and 97 (22.9%) reached the composite endpoint. After adjustment for Elixhauser Comorbidy Measure, aMMSE <24 was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.473, 95%CI 1.062-5.756, p = .036) and with the composite endpoint (HR 1.852, 95%CI 1.106-3.102, p = .019). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF, cognitive impairment (aMMSE <24) is associated with worse outcomes, and the association of adverse outcomes with previous treatment with antiplatelet drugs only, without oral anticoagulation, highlights the potential role of appropriate antithrombotic treatment for improving patient prognosis.

6.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2770-2777, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a common cause of death and a leading cause of disability and morbidity. Stroke risk assessment remains a challenge, but circulating biomarkers may improve risk prediction. Controversial evidence is available on the predictive ability of troponin concentrations and the risk of stroke in the community. Furthermore, reports on the predictive value of troponin concentrations for different stroke subtypes are scarce. METHODS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) concentrations were assessed in 82 881 individuals (median age, 50.7 years; 49.7% men) free of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline from 9 prospective European community cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine relative risks, followed by measures of discrimination and reclassification using 10-fold cross-validation to control for overoptimism. Follow-up was based upon linkage with national hospitalization registries and causes of death registries. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 3033 individuals were diagnosed with incident nonfatal or fatal stroke (n=1654 ischemic strokes, n=612 hemorrhagic strokes, and n=767 indeterminate strokes). In multivariable regression models, hsTnI concentrations were associated with overall stroke (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.21]), ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.20]). Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical cardiovascular risk factors (C indices, 0.809, 0.840, and 0.736 for overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) increased the C index significantly but modestly. In individuals with an intermediate 10-year risk (5%-20%), the net reclassification improvement for overall stroke was 0.038 (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hsTnI concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident stroke in the community, irrespective of stroke subtype. Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical risk factors only modestly improved estimation of 10-year risk of stroke in the overall cohort but might be of some value in individuals at an intermediate risk.

7.
Europace ; 22(10): 1463-1469, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830215

RESUMO

AIMS: Natriuretic peptides are extensively studied biomarkers for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Their role in the pathogenesis of both diseases is not entirely understood and previous studies several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the NPPA-NPPB locus associated with natriuretic peptides have been identified. We investigated the causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and AF as well as HF using a Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (N = 6669), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (N = 6674), and mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) (N = 6813) were measured in the FINRISK 1997 cohort. N = 30 common SNPs related to NT-proBNP, BNP, and MR-proANP were selected from studies. We performed six Mendelian randomizations for all three natriuretic peptide biomarkers and for both outcomes, AF and HF, separately. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on multiple SNPs were used as genetic instrumental variable in Mendelian randomizations. Polygenic risk scores were significantly associated with the three natriuretic peptides. Polygenic risk scores were not significantly associated with incident AF nor HF. Most cardiovascular risk factors showed significant confounding percentages, but no association with PRS. A causal relation except for small causal betas is unlikely. CONCLUSION: In our Mendelian randomization approach, we confirmed an association between common genetic variation at the NPPA-NPPB locus and natriuretic peptides. A strong causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and incidence of AF as well as HF at the community-level was ruled out. Therapeutic approaches targeting natriuretic peptides will therefore very likely work through indirect mechanisms.

8.
Circ Res ; 127(1): 4-20, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716709

RESUMO

Accompanying the aging of populations worldwide, and increased survival with chronic diseases, the incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) are rising, justifying the term global epidemic. This multifactorial arrhythmia is intertwined with common concomitant cardiovascular diseases, which share classical cardiovascular risk factors. Targeted prevention programs are largely missing. Prevention needs to start at an early age with primordial interventions at the population level. The public health dimension of AF motivates research in modifiable AF risk factors and improved precision in AF prediction and management. In this review, we summarize current knowledge in an attempt to untangle these multifaceted associations from an epidemiological perspective. We discuss disease trends, preventive opportunities offered by underlying risk factors and concomitant disorders, current developments in diagnosis and risk prediction, and prognostic implications of AF and its complications. Finally, we review current technological (eg, eHealth) and methodological (artificial intelligence) advances and their relevance for future prevention and disease management.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015218, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351154

RESUMO

Background Differences in risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are incompletely understood. Aim of this study was to understand whether risk factors and biomarkers show different associations with incident AF and HF and to investigate predictors of subsequent onset and mortality. Methods and Results In N=58 693 individuals free of AF/HF from 5 population-based European cohorts, Cox regressions were used to find predictors for AF, HF, subsequent onset, and mortality. Differences between associations were estimated using bootstrapping. Median follow-up time was 13.8 years, with a mortality of 15.7%. AF and HF occurred in 5.0% and 5.4% of the participants, respectively, with 1.8% showing subsequent onset. Age, male sex, myocardial infarction, body mass index, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) showed similar associations with both diseases. Antihypertensive medication and smoking were stronger predictors of HF than AF. Cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were associated with HF, but not with AF. No variable was exclusively associated with AF. Population-attributable risks were higher for HF (75.6%) than for AF (30.9%). Age, male sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and NT-proBNP were associated with subsequent onset, which was associated with the highest all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions Common risk factors and biomarkers showed different associations with AF and HF, and explained a higher proportion of HF than AF risk. As the subsequent onset of both diseases was strongly associated with mortality, prevention needs to be rigorously addressed and remains challenging, as conventional risk factors explained only 31% of AF risk.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(8): e015452, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299288

RESUMO

Background Risk stratification among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is of considerable interest due to the potential to guide secondary preventive therapies. Thus, we evaluated the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with CAD. Methods and Results Plasma levels of suPAR were measured in a cohort of 1703 patients with documented CAD as evidenced by coronary angiography-including 626 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 1077 patients with stable angina pectoris. Cardiovascular death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction were defined as main outcome measures. During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, suPAR levels reliably predicted cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction in CAD, evidenced by survival curves stratified for tertiles of suPAR levels. In Cox regression analyses, the hazard ratio for the prediction of cardiovascular death and/or myocardial infarction was 2.19 (P<0.001) in the overall cohort and 2.56 in the acute coronary syndrome cohort (P<0.001). Even after adjustment for common cardiovascular risk factors, renal function and the biomarkers C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin I suPAR still enabled a reliable prediction of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction with a hazard ratio of 1.61 (P=0.022) in the overall cohort and 2.22 (P=0.005) in the acute coronary syndrome cohort. Conclusions SuPAR has a strong and independent prognostic value in secondary prevention settings, and thereby might represent a valuable biomarker for risk estimation in CAD.

12.
Circulation ; 141(16): 1307-1317, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While BP is regulated by the function of kidney, vasculature, and sympathetic nervous system, recent experimental data suggest that immune cells may play a role in hypertension. METHODS: We studied the relationship between major white blood cell types and blood pressure in the UK Biobank population and used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using the ≈750 000 UK-Biobank/International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome-Wide Association Studies to examine which leukocyte populations may be causally linked to BP. RESULTS: A positive association between quintiles of lymphocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and increased systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure was observed (eg, adjusted systolic BP mean±SE for 1st versus 5th quintile respectively: 140.13±0.08 versus 141.62±0.07 mm Hg for lymphocyte, 139.51±0.08 versus 141.84±0.07 mm Hg for monocyte, and 137.96±0.08 versus 142.71±0.07 mm Hg for neutrophil counts; all P<10-50). Using 121 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MR, implemented through the inverse-variance weighted approach, we identified a potential causal relationship of lymphocyte count with systolic BP and diastolic BP (causal estimates: 0.69 [95% CI, 0.19-1.20] and 0.56 [95% CI, 0.23-0.90] of mm Hg per 1 SD genetically elevated lymphocyte count, respectively), which was directionally concordant to the observational findings. These inverse-variance weighted estimates were consistent with other robust MR methods. The exclusion of rs3184504 SNP in the SH2B3 locus attenuated the magnitude of the signal in some of the MR analyses. MR in the reverse direction found evidence of positive effects of BP indices on counts of monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils but not lymphocytes or basophils. Subsequent MR testing of lymphocyte count in the context of genetic correlation with renal function or resting and postexercise heart rate demonstrated a positive association of lymphocyte count with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Observational and genetic analyses demonstrate a concordant, positive and potentially causal relationship of lymphocyte count with systolic BP and diastolic BP.

13.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143410

RESUMO

Risk stratification among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is of considerable interest to potentially guide secondary preventive therapies. Cardiac troponins as well as C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and natriuretic peptides have emerged as biomarkers for risk stratification. The question remains if one of these biomarkers is superior in predicting adverse outcomes. Thus, we perform a head-to-head comparison between high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), hsCRP, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with CAD. Plasma levels were measured in a cohort of 2193 patients with documented CAD. The main outcome measures were cardiovascular (CV) death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all three biomarkers were associated with cardiovascular death and/or MI. After adjustments for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) for the prediction of CV death and/or nonfatal MI was 1.39 [95% CI: 1.24-1.57, p < 0.001] for hsTnI, 1.41 [95% CI: 1.24-1.60, p < 0.001] for hsCRP, and 1.64 [95% CI: 1.39-1.92, p < 0.001] for NT-proBNP. However, upon further adjustments for the other two biomarkers, only NT-proBNP was still associated with the combined endpoint with an HR of 1.47 [95% CI: 1.19-1.82, p < 0.001]. Conclusively, NT-proBNP is reliably linked to CV death and MI in patients with CAD and provides incremental value beyond hsCRP and hsTnI.

14.
Europace ; 22(5): 684-694, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011689

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with an increased stroke risk. The use of multivariable prediction models could result in more efficient primary AF screening by selecting at-risk individuals. We aimed to determine which model may be best suitable for increasing efficiency of future primary AF screening efforts. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review on multivariable models derived, validated, and/or augmented for AF prediction in community cohorts using Pubmed, Embase, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) through 1 August 2019. We performed meta-analysis of model discrimination with the summary C-statistic as the primary expression of associations using a random effects model. In case of high heterogeneity, we calculated a 95% prediction interval. We used the CHARMS (Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies) checklist for risk of bias assessment. We included 27 studies with a total of 2 978 659 unique participants among 20 cohorts with mean age ranging from 42 to 76 years. We identified 21 risk models used for incident AF risk in community cohorts. Three models showed significant summary discrimination despite high heterogeneity: CHARGE-AF (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) [summary C-statistic 0.71; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.76], FHS-AF (Framingham Heart Study risk score for AF) (summary C-statistic 0.70; 95% CI 0.64-0.76), and CHA2DS2-VASc (summary C-statistic 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.74). Of these, CHARGE-AF and FHS-AF had originally been derived for AF incidence prediction. Only CHARGE-AF, which comprises easily obtainable measurements and medical history elements, showed significant summary discrimination among cohorts that had applied a uniform (5-year) risk prediction window. CONCLUSION: CHARGE-AF appeared most suitable for primary screening purposes in terms of performance and applicability in older community cohorts of predominantly European descent.

15.
Europace ; 22(4): 522-529, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740944

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited evidence is available on the temporal relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic stroke and their impact on mortality in the community. We sought to understand the temporal relationship of AF and ischaemic stroke and to determine the sequence of disease onset in relation to mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across five prospective community cohorts of the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project we assessed baseline cardiovascular risk factors in 100 132 individuals, median age 46.1 (25th-75th percentile 35.8-57.5) years, 48.4% men. We followed them for incident ischaemic stroke and AF and determined the relation of subsequent disease diagnosis with overall mortality. Over a median follow-up of 16.1 years, N = 4555 individuals were diagnosed solely with AF, N = 2269 had an ischaemic stroke but no AF diagnosed, and N = 898 developed both, ischaemic stroke and AF. Temporal relationships showed a clustering of diagnosis of both diseases within the years around the diagnosis of the other disease. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with time-dependent covariates subsequent diagnosis of AF after ischaemic stroke was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-7.54; P < 0.001] which was also apparent when ischaemic stroke followed after the diagnosis of AF (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.90-5.00; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The temporal relations of ischaemic stroke and AF appear to be bidirectional. Ischaemic stroke may precede detection of AF by years. The subsequent diagnosis of both diseases significantly increases mortality risk. Future research needs to investigate the common underlying systemic disease processes.

16.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1834-1850, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765261

RESUMO

Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been proposed to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes. This white paper by experts from the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration summarizes existing evidence and knowledge gaps on searching for AF after a stroke by using ECG monitoring. New AF can be detected by routine plus intensive ECG monitoring in approximately one-quarter of patients with ischemic stroke. It may be causal, a bystander, or neurogenically induced by the stroke. AF after a stroke is a risk factor for thromboembolism and a strong marker for atrial myopathy. After acute ischemic stroke, patients should undergo 72 hours of electrocardiographic monitoring to detect AF. The diagnosis requires an ECG of sufficient quality for confirmation by a health professional with ECG rhythm expertise. AF detection rate is a function of monitoring duration and quality of analysis, AF episode definition, interval from stroke to monitoring commencement, and patient characteristics including old age, certain ECG alterations, and stroke type. Markers of atrial myopathy (eg, imaging, atrial ectopy, natriuretic peptides) may increase AF yield from monitoring and could be used to guide patient selection for more intensive/prolonged poststroke ECG monitoring. Atrial myopathy without detected AF is not currently sufficient to initiate OAC. The concept of embolic stroke of unknown source is not proven to identify patients who have had a stroke benefitting from empiric OAC treatment. However, some embolic stroke of unknown source subgroups (eg, advanced age, atrial enlargement) might benefit more from non-vitamin K-dependent OAC therapy than aspirin. Fulfilling embolic stroke of unknown source criteria is an indication neither for empiric non-vitamin K-dependent OAC treatment nor for withholding prolonged ECG monitoring for AF. Clinically diagnosed AF after a stroke or a transient ischemic attack is associated with significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism, in particular, with additional stroke risk factors, and requires OAC rather than antiplatelet therapy. The minimum subclinical AF duration required on ECG monitoring poststroke/transient ischemic attack to recommend OAC therapy is debated.

17.
JCI Insight ; 4(23)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDThe presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface ECG is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait, but molecular genetic determinants are unknown.METHODSTo identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry.RESULTSWe identified a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) locus in the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 (KCND3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, P = 7.7 × 10-12) but did not reveal additional loci. Colocalization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery.CONCLUSIONSIn this study, we identified for the first time to our knowledge a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene provide insights not only into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies.FUNDINGThis project was funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK Shared Expertise SE081 - STATS). For detailed funding information per study, see the Supplemental Acknowledgments.

18.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002903, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The precise age distribution and calculated stroke risk of screen-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is not known. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify one treatable new AF case (NNS-Rx) (i.e., Class-1 oral anticoagulation [OAC] treatment recommendation) in each age stratum. If the NNS-Rx is known for each age stratum, precise cost-effectiveness and sensitivity simulations can be performed based on the age distribution of the population/region to be screened. Such calculations are required by national authorities and organisations responsible for health system budgets to determine the best age cutoffs for screening programs and decide whether programs of screening should be funded. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exact yield and calculated stroke-risk profile of screen-detected AF and NNS-Rx in 5-year age strata. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review of Medline, Pubmed, and Embase was performed (January 2007 to February 2018), and AF-SCREEN international collaboration members were contacted to identify additional studies. Twenty-four eligible studies were identified that performed a single time point screen for AF in a general ambulant population, including people ≥65 years. Authors from eligible studies were invited to collaborate and share patient-level data. Statistical analysis was performed using random effects logistic regression for AF detection rate, and Poisson regression modelling for CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Nineteen studies (14 countries from a mix of low- to middle- and high-income countries) collaborated, with 141,220 participants screened and 1,539 new AF cases. Pooled yield of screening was greater in males across all age strata. The age/sex-adjusted detection rate for screen-detected AF in ≥65-year-olds was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.13%-1.82%) and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.31%-0.53%) for <65-year-olds. New AF detection rate increased progressively with age from 0.34% (<60 years) to 2.73% (≥85 years). Neither the choice of screening methodology or device, the geographical region, nor the screening setting influenced the detection rate of AF. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (n = 1,369) increased with age from 1.1 (<60 years) to 3.9 (≥85 years); 72% of ≥65 years had ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. All new AF ≥75 years and 66% between 65 and 74 years had a Class-1 OAC recommendation. The NNS-Rx is 83 for ≥65 years, 926 for 60-64 years; and 1,089 for <60 years. The main limitation of this study is there are insufficient data on sociodemographic variables of the populations and possible ascertainment biases to explain the variance in the samples. CONCLUSIONS: People with screen-detected AF are at elevated calculated stroke risk: above age 65, the majority have a Class-1 OAC recommendation for stroke prevention, and >70% have ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. Our data, based on the largest number of screen-detected AF collected to date, show the precise relationship between yield and estimated stroke risk profile with age, and strong dependence for NNS-RX on the age distribution of the population to be screened: essential information for precise cost-effectiveness calculations.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Genet ; 10: 648, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354791

RESUMO

Sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist; however, the molecular mechanisms linking both conditions remain elusive. Mutations in the homeobox-containing SHOX2 gene have been recently associated with early-onset and familial AF. Shox2 is a key regulator of sinus node development, and its deficiency leads to bradycardia, as demonstrated in animal models. To provide an extended SHOX2 gene analysis in patients with distinct arrhythmias, we investigated SHOX2 as a susceptibility gene for SND and AF by screening 98 SND patients and 450 individuals with AF. The functional relevance of the novel mutations was investigated in vivo and in vitro, together with the previously reported p.H283Q variant. A heterozygous missense mutation (p.P33R) was identified in the SND cohort and four heterozygous variants (p.G77D, p.L129=, p.L130F, p.A293=) in the AF cohort. Overexpression of the pathogenic predicted mutations in zebrafish revealed pericardial edema for p.G77D and the positive control p.H283Q, whereas the p.P33R and p.A293= variants showed no effect. In addition, a dominant-negative effect with reduced heart rates was detected for p.G77D and p.H283Q. In vitro reporter assays demonstrated for both missense variants p.P33R and p.G77D significantly impaired transactivation activity, similar to the described p.H283Q variant. Also, a reduced Bmp4 target gene expression was revealed in zebrafish hearts upon overexpression of the p.P33R mutant. This study associates additional rare variants in the SHOX2 gene implicated in the susceptibility to distinct arrhythmias and allows frequency estimations in the AF cohort (3/990). We also demonstrate for the first time a genetic link between SND and AF involving SHOX2. Moreover, our data highlight the importance of functional investigations of rare variants.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 296: 65-70, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327519

RESUMO

AIMS: At present, there is little evidence on how to treat subclinical atrial fibrillation (SCAF) or atrial high rate episodes (AHREs) detected by cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Our aim was to assess current practice around oral anticoagulation (OAC) in such patients. METHODS: A web-based survey undertaken by 310 physicians: 59 AF-SCREEN International Collaboration members and 251 non-members. RESULTS: In patients with SCAF/AHRE and a CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 2 in males or ≥ 3 in female the amount of SCAF/AHRE triggering use of OAC was variable but <2% of respondents considered that no AHRE would require OAC. Around one third (34%) considered SCAF/AHRE duration of >5-6 min as the basis for OAC prescription, while 16% and 18% required a burden of at least 5.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The propensity to prescribe OAC for a low burden of AHREs differed according to certain respondent characteristics (greater propensity to prescribe OAC for neurologists). When the clinical scenario included a prior stroke or a prior cardioembolic stroke, stated prescription of OAC was very high. More than 96% felt that any SCAF/AHRE should be treated with OAC. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial heterogeneity in the perception of the risk of stroke/systemic embolism associated with SCAF/AHRE of variable duration. The threshold of AHRE burden that would trigger initiation of OAC is highly variable, and differs according to the clinical scenario (lower threshold in case of previous stroke). Ongoing trials will clarify the real benefit and risk/benefit ratio of OAC in this specific clinical setting.

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