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1.
Liver Int ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health burden. Risk factors for disease severity include older age, increased body mass index (BMI), diabetes, genetic variants, dietary factors and gut microbiota alterations. However, the interdependence of these factors and their individual impact on disease severity remain unknown. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we performed 16S gene sequencing using fecal samples, collected dietary intake, PNPLA3 gene variants and clinical and liver histology parameters in a well-described cohort of 180 NAFLD patients. Principal component analyses were used for dimensionality reduction of dietary and microbiota data. Simple and multiple stepwise ordinal regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 57 NAFLD patients. In the simple regression analysis, features associated with the metabolic syndrome had the highest importance regarding liver disease severity. In the multiple regression analysis, BMI was the most important factor associated with the fibrosis stage (OR per kg/m2 : 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, P < .001). The PNPLA3 risk allele had the strongest association with the histological grade of steatosis (OR 5.32, 95% CI 1.56-18.11, P = .007), followed by specific dietary patterns. Low abundances of Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella and high abundances of Gemmiger were associated with the degree of inflammation, ballooning and stages of fibrosis, even after taking other cofactors into account. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest association with histological fibrosis, but PNPLA3 gene variants, gut bacterial features and dietary factors were all associated with different histology features, which underscore the multifactorial pathogenesis of NAFLD.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918473

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is a microbial ecosystem which expresses 100 times more genes than the human host and plays an essential role in human health and disease pathogenesis. Since most intestinal microbial species are difficult to culture, next generation sequencing technologies have been widely applied to study the gut microbiome, including 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, metatranscriptomic sequencing and viromic sequencing. Various software tools were developed to analyze different sequencing data. In this review, we summarize commonly used computational tools for gut microbiome data analysis, which extended our understanding of the gut microbiome in health and diseases.

3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672887

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent types of chronic liver diseases globally. Alcohol-related liver disease begins with fatty liver, which further develops into hepatic inflammation, hepatocyte injury, and progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Compositional changes of gut bacteria and fungi were found in patients with alcohol-related liver disease. However, the functional changes of fungi and correlations between fungi and bacteria have not been investigated. In this study, we first examined the functional capacity of fungi in patients with alcohol-related liver disease using shotgun metagenomics. Among 24 MetaCyc pathways contributed by fungi, superpathway of allantoin degradation in yeast was enriched in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Furthermore, we compared the predictive power of bacteria versus fungi and found that bacteria performed better than fungi to separate patients with alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic controls and patients with alcohol use disorder. Finally, we investigated the associations between the intestinal fungi and bacteria in alcoholic hepatitis patients. Positive association between fungi and bacteria was found between Cladosporium and Gemmiger, meanwhile negative association was found between Cryptococcus and Pseudomonas in alcoholic hepatitis patients.

4.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672832

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases in the United States. Early stages of alcohol-related liver disease are characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of alcohol-related liver disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify patients who are at greatest risk of death using serum lipids. First, we performed lipidomics analysis on serum samples collected from 118 patients with alcoholic hepatitis to identify lipid markers that are associated with high risk of death. Next, we performed gene set enrichment analysis on liver transcriptomics data to identify dysregulated lipid metabolism in patients who received liver transplantation. Finally, we built a random forest model to predict 30-day mortality using serum lipids. A total of 277 lipids were annotated in the serum of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, among which 25 were significantly different between patients in the deceased and alive groups. Five chemical clusters were significantly altered between the two groups. In particular, acylcarnitine cluster was enriched in the deceased group. Several hepatic lipid metabolism pathways were dysregulated in patients with alcoholic hepatitis who received liver transplantation. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the fatty acid transport into mitochondria and ß-oxidation were also dysregulated. When predicting 30-day mortality in alcoholic hepatitis patients using serum lipids, we found that the area under the curve achieved 0.95. Serum lipids such as acylcarnitines may serve as biomarkers to identify alcoholic hepatitis patients at the greatest risk of death.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2)-mediated intestinal α1- 2-fucosylation is important for host-microbe interactions and has been associated with several diseases, but its role in obesity and hepatic steatohepatitis is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Fut2 in a Western-style diet-induced mouse model of obesity and steatohepatitis. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and Fut2-deficient littermate mice were used and features of the metabolic syndrome and steatohepatitis were assessed after 20 weeks of Western diet feeding. RESULTS: Intestinal α1-2-fucosylation was suppressed in WT mice after Western diet feeding, and supplementation of α1-2-fucosylated glycans exacerbated obesity and steatohepatitis in these mice. Fut2-deficient mice were protected from Western diet-induced features of obesity and steatohepatitis despite an increased caloric intake. These mice have increased energy expenditure and thermogenesis, as evidenced by a higher core body temperature. Protection from obesity and steatohepatitis associated with Fut2 deficiency is transmissible to WT mice via microbiota exchange; phenotypic differences between Western diet-fed WT and Fut2-deficient mice were reduced with antibiotic treatment. Fut2 deficiency attenuated diet-induced bile acid accumulation by altered relative abundance of bacterial enzyme 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases metabolizing bile acids and by increased fecal excretion of secondary bile acids. This also was associated with increased intestinal farnesoid X receptor/fibroblast growth factor 15 signaling, which inhibits hepatic synthesis of bile acids. Dietary supplementation of α1-2-fucosylated glycans abrogates the protective effects of Fut2 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: α1-2-fucosylation is an important host-derived regulator of intestinal microbiota and plays an important role for the pathogenesis of obesity and steatohepatitis in mice.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition with poor short-term prognosis. Specific treatment with corticosteroids slightly improves short-term survival but is associated with infection and is not used in many centers. A reliable method to identify patients who will recover spontaneously will minimise the numbers of patients who experience side effects of available treatments. METHODS: We analysed the trajectory of serum bilirubin concentration over the course of hospital admissions in patients with AH to predict spontaneous survival and the need for treatment. RESULTS: data from 426 patients were analysed. Based on bilirubin trajectory, patients were categorized into three groups: 'fast fallers' (bilirubin <0.8 x admission value at day 7), 'static' (bilirubin of >0.9 - <1.2 x admission value) and 'rapid risers' (bilirubin of ≥1.2 x admission bilirubin). Fast fallers had significantly better 90-day survival compared to other groups (log rank p < .001), and showed no benefit of corticosteroid therapy (OR for survival at 28 days of treatment, 0.94, 95% CI 0.06 - 8.41). These findings remained even amongst patients with severe disease based on initial DF, GAHS or MELD scores. CONCLUSIONS: We present an intuitive method of classifying patients with AH based on the trajectory of bilirubin over the first week of admission. It is complimentary to existing scores that identify candidates for corticosteroid treatment or assess response to treatment. This method identifies a group of patients with AH who recover spontaneously and can avoid corticosteroid therapy.

7.
Transl Res ; 227: 1-14, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553670

RESUMO

Alcohol-associated liver disease is accompanied by dysregulation of bile acid metabolism and gut barrier dysfunction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ) agonists are key metabolic regulators and have anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of the selective PPAR-delta agonist seladelpar (MBX-8025) on gut barrier function and bile acid metabolism in a mouse model of ethanol-induced liver disease. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were fed LieberDeCarli diet containing 0%-36% ethanol (caloric) for 8 weeks followed by a single binge of ethanol (5 g/kg). Pair fed mice received an isocaloric liquid diet as control. MBX-8025 (10 mg/kg/d) or vehicle were added to the liquid diet during the entire feeding period (prevention), or during the last 4 weeks of Lieber DeCarli diet feeding (intervention). In both prevention and intervention trials, MBX-8025 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver disease, characterized by lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, hepatic triglycerides, and inflammation. Chronic ethanol intake disrupted bile acid metabolism by increasing the total bile acid pool and serum bile acids. MBX-8025 reduced serum total and secondary bile acids, and the total bile acid pool as compared with vehicle treatment in both prevention and intervention trials. MBX-8025 restored ethanol-induced gut dysbiosis and gut barrier dysfunction. Data from this study demonstrates that seladelpar prevents and treats ethanol-induced liver damage in mice by direct PPARδ agonism in both the liver and the intestine.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , PPAR delta/agonistas , Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Cancer Discov ; 11(5): 1248-1267, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323397

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis is commonly observed in patients with cirrhosis and chronic gastrointestinal disorders; however, its effect on antitumor immunity in the liver is largely unknown. Here we studied how the gut microbiome affects antitumor immunity in cholangiocarcinoma. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or colitis, two known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma which promote tumor development in mice, caused an accumulation of CXCR2+ polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC). A decrease in gut barrier function observed in mice with PSC and colitis allowed gut-derived bacteria and lipopolysaccharide to appear in the liver and induced CXCL1 expression in hepatocytes through a TLR4-dependent mechanism and an accumulation of CXCR2+ PMN-MDSCs. In contrast, neomycin treatment blocked CXCL1 expression and PMN-MDSC accumulation and inhibited tumor growth even in the absence of liver disease or colitis. Our study demonstrates that the gut microbiome controls hepatocytes to form an immunosuppressive environment by increasing PMN-MDSCs to promote liver cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: MDSCs have been shown to be induced by tumors and suppress antitumor immunity. Here we show that the gut microbiome can control accumulation of MDSCs in the liver in the context of a benign liver disease or colitis.See related commentary by Chagani and Kwong, p. 1014.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 995.

9.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(1): 4-17, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318628

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is a complex and plastic consortium of microorganisms that are intricately connected with human physiology. The liver is a central immunological organ that is particularly enriched in innate immune cells and constantly exposed to circulating nutrients and endotoxins derived from the gut microbiota. The delicate interaction between the gut and liver prevents accidental immune activation against otherwise harmless antigens. Work on the interplay between the gut microbiota and liver has assisted in understanding the pathophysiology of various liver diseases. Of immense importance is the step from high-throughput sequencing (correlation) to mechanistic studies (causality) and therapeutic intervention. Here, we review the gut microbiota, liver immunology, and the interaction between the gut and liver. In addition, the impairment in the gut-liver axis found in various liver diseases is reviewed here, with an emphasis on alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver disease (AILD). On the basis of growing evidence from these preclinical studies, we propose that the gut-liver axis paves the way for targeted therapeutic modalities for liver diseases.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21732, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303806

RESUMO

Poor wound closure due to diabetes, aging, stress, obesity, alcoholism, and chronic disease affects millions of people worldwide. Reasons wounds will not close are still unclear, and current therapies are limited. Although stem cell factor (SCF), a cytokine, is known to be important for wound repair, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SCF in wound closure remain poorly understood. Here, we found that SCF expression in the epidermis is decreased in mouse models of delayed wound closure intended to mimic old age, obesity, and alcoholism. By using SCF conditionally knocked out mice, we demonstrated that keratinocytes' autocrine production of SCF activates a transient c-kit receptor in keratinocytes. Transient activation of the c-kit receptor induces the expression of growth factors and chemokines to promote wound re-epithelialization by increasing migration of skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) and immune cells (neutrophils) to the wound bed 24-48 h post-wounding. Our results demonstrate that keratinocyte-produced SCF is essential to wound closure due to the increased recruitment of a unique combination of skin cells and immune cells in the early phase after wounding. This discovery is imperative for developing clinical strategies that might improve the body's natural repair mechanisms for treating patients with wound-closure pathologies.

12.
J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151407

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea) is a complex and diverse ecosystem. It plays an important role in human health, but is involved in several intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Most research to date has focused on the role of bacteria, while studies focusing on fungi (also referred to as "mycobiome" or "fungome") are still in its infancy. In this review, we focus on the existing literature available about the gut mycobiome with an emphasis on compositional mycobiome changes associated with liver diseases, the impact on pathogenesis of disease, and its potential use as therapeutic targets. We also provide insights into current methodologies of studying mycobiome, and we highlight the interkingdom interactions in the context of disease and how they affect health of the host. Herein, by focusing on the gut mycobiome, this review provides novel insights and directions for liver research.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236315

RESUMO

The diverse human gut microbiome is comprised of approximately 40 trillion microorganisms representing up to 1000 different bacterial species. The human microbiome plays a critical role in gut epithelial health and disease susceptibility. While the interaction between gut microbiome and gastrointestinal pathology is increasingly understood, less is known about the interaction between the microbiome and the aerodigestive tract. This review of the microbiome of the aerodigestive tract in health, and alterations in microbiome across esophageal pathologies highlights important findings and areas for future research. First, microbiome profiles are distinct along the aerodigestive tract, spanning the oral cavity to the stomach. In patients with reflux-related disease such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma, investigators have observed an overall increase in gram negative bacteria in the esophageal microbiome compared to healthy individuals. However, whether differences in microbiome promote disease development, or if these shifts are a consequence of disease remains unknown. Interestingly, use of proton pump inhibitor therapy is also associated with shifts in the microbiome, with distinct shifts and patterns along the aerodigestive tract. The relationship between the human gut microbiome and esophageal pathology is a ripe area for investigation, and further understanding of these pathways may promote development of novel targets in prevention and therapy for esophageal diseases.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 584342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195339

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Liver test abnormalities are common in COVID-19 patients. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors for different liver injury patterns and to evaluate the relationship between liver injury patterns and prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted between January 1st to March 10th, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and followed them up to April 20th, 2020. Information of clinical features of patients was collected for analysis. Results: As a result, a total of 838 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, including 48.8% (409/838) patients with normal liver function and 51.2% (429/838) patients with liver injury were analyzed. Abnormal liver function tests are associated with organ injuries, hypoxia, inflammation, and the use of antiviral drugs. Hepatocellular injury pattern was associated with hypoxia. The mortality of the hepatocellular injury pattern, cholestatic pattern and mixed pattern were 25, 28.2, and 22.3%, respectively, while the death rate was only 6.1% in the patients without liver injury. Multivariate analyses showed that liver injury with cholestatic pattern and mixed pattern were associated with increased mortality risk. Conclusions: Our study confirmed that hepatocellular injury pattern that may be induced by hypoxia was not risk factor for mortality in SARS-COV-2 infection, while liver injury with mixed pattern and cholestatic pattern that might be induced by SARS-CoV-2 directly might be potential risk factors for increased mortality in COVID-19 patients.

15.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060124

RESUMO

Cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterised by development of the decompensating events of ascites, encephalopathy, portal hypertensive bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome, which arise in a setting of cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID) and define morbidity and prognosis. CAID describes the dichotomous observations that systemic immune cells are primed and display an inflammatory phenotype, while failing to mount robust responses to pathogen challenge. Bacterial infections including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are common complications of advanced chronic liver disease and can precipitate variceal haemorrhage, hepatorenal syndrome and acute-on-chronic liver failure; they frequently arise from gut-derived organisms and are closely linked with dysbiosis of the commensal intestinal microbiota in advanced chronic liver disease.Here, we review the links between cirrhotic dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction and deficits of host-microbiome compartmentalisation and mucosal immune homoeostasis that occur in settings of advanced chronic liver disease. We discuss established and emerging therapeutic strategies targeted at restoring intestinal eubiosis, augmenting gut barrier function and ameliorating the mucosal and systemic immune deficits that characterise and define the course of decompensated cirrhosis.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(33): 4933-4944, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage liver disease caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the second leading indication for liver transplantation. To date, only moderately effective pharmacotherapies exist to treat NASH. Understanding the pathogenesis of NASH is therefore crucial for the development of new therapies. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is important for the progression of liver disease. TNF signaling via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) has been hypothesized to be important for the development of NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma in whole-body knockout animal models. AIM: To investigate the role of TNFR1 signaling in hepatocytes for steatohepatitis development in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. METHODS: NASH was induced by a western-style fast-food diet in mice deficient for TNFR1 in hepatocytes (TNFR1ΔHEP) and their wild-type littermates (TNFR1fl/fl). Glucose tolerance was assessed after 18 wk and insulin resistance after 19 wk of feeding. After 20 wk mice were assessed for features of NASH and the metabolic syndrome such as liver weight, liver steatosis, liver fibrosis and markers of liver inflammation. RESULTS: Obesity, liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis was not different between TNFR1ΔHEP and TNFR1fl/fl mice. However, Tnfr1 deficiency in hepatocytes protected against glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that deficiency of TNFR1 signaling in hepatocytes does not protect from diet-induced NASH. However, improved insulin resistance in this model strengthens the role of the liver in glucose homeostasis.

17.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 26(4): 595-605, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911590

RESUMO

Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth can lead to a dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism and lower production of indoles. Several of these indole derivatives are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands that, in turn, are involved in antimicrobial defense via induction of interleukin-22 (IL-22). IL-22 increases the expression of intestinal regenerating islet-derived 3 (Reg3) lectins, which maintain low bacterial colonization of the inner mucus layer and reduce bacterial translocation to the liver. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with reduced intestinal expression of Reg3ß and Reg3γ, increased numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and bacterial translocation. Translocated microbial products and viable bacteria reach the liver and activate the innate immune system. Release of inflammatory molecules promotes inflammation, contributes to hepatocyte death and results in a fibrotic response. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which chronic alcohol intake changes the gut microbiota and contributes to alcohol-associated liver disease by changing microbial-derived metabolites.

18.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1168-1182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766476

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease is a major public health burden, and the gut microbiota is an important contributor to disease pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to characterize functional alterations of the gut microbiota and test their performance for short-term mortality prediction in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We integrated shotgun metagenomics with untargeted metabolomics to investigate functional alterations of the gut microbiota and host co-metabolism in a multicenter cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Profound changes were found in the gut microbial composition, functional metagenome, serum, and fecal metabolomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared with nonalcoholic controls. We demonstrate that in comparison with single omics alone, the performance to predict 30-day mortality was improved when combining microbial pathways with respective serum metabolites in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. The area under the receiver operating curve was higher than 0.85 for the tryptophan, isoleucine, and methionine pathways as predictors for 30-day mortality, but achieved 0.989 for using the urea cycle pathway in combination with serum urea, with a bias-corrected prediction error of 0.083 when using leave-one-out cross validation. Conclusion: Our study reveals changes in key microbial metabolic pathways associated with disease severity that predict short-term mortality in our cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(2): 233-244, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791115

RESUMO

The liver communicates with the intestine via the portal vein, biliary system, and mediators in the circulation. Microbes in the intestine maintain liver homeostasis but can also serve as a source of pathogens and molecules that contribute to fatty liver diseases. We review changes in the gut microbiota that can promote development or progression of alcohol-associated and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-the most common chronic liver diseases in Western countries. We discuss how microbes and their products contribute to liver disease pathogenesis, putative microbial biomarkers of disease, and potential treatment approaches based on manipulation of the gut microbiota. Increasing our understanding of interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver might help us identify patients with specific disease subtypes and select specific microbiota-based therapies.

20.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe manifestation of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) with high mortality. Although gut bacteria and fungi modulate disease severity, little is known about the effects of the viral microbiome (virome) in patients with ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We extracted virus-like particles from 89 patients with AH who were enrolled in a multicenter observational study, 36 with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 17 persons without AUD (controls). Virus-like particles from fecal samples were fractionated using differential filtration techniques, and metagenomic sequencing was performed to characterize intestinal viromes. We observed an increased viral diversity in fecal samples from patients with ALD, with the most significant changes in samples from patients with AH. Escherichia-, Enterobacteria-, and Enterococcus phages were over-represented in fecal samples from patients with AH, along with significant increases in mammalian viruses such as Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae. Antibiotic treatment was associated with higher viral diversity. Specific viral taxa, such as Staphylococcus phages and Herpesviridae, were associated with increased disease severity, indicated by a higher median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and associated with increased 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, intestinal viral taxa are altered in fecal samples from patients with AH and associated with disease severity and mortality. Our study describes an intestinal virome signature associated with AH.

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