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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112306, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474857

RESUMO

Osteomyelitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with associated progressive bone loss. This study developed for the first time a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for delivery of doxycycline (DOX) and human platelet lysate (hPL) to fight against S. aureus infection and enhance the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Chitosan-containing CPC scaffolds were fabricated in the absence (CPCC) or presence of DOX (CPCC+DOX). In addition, hPL was encapsulated in alginate microbeads and incorporated into CPCC+DOX (CPCC+DOX+ hPL). Flexural strength of CPCC+DOX + hPL was (5.56 ± 0.55) MPa, lower than (8.26 ± 1.6) MPa of CPCC+DOX (p < 0.05), but exceeding the reported strength of cancellous bone. CPCC+DOX and CPCC+DOX + hPL exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, reducing biofilm CFU by 4 orders of magnitude. The hPDLSCs encapsulated in microbeads were co-cultured with the CPCs. The hPDLSCs were able to be released from the microbeads and showed a high proliferation rate, increasing by about 8 folds at 14 days for all groups. The hPL was released from the scaffold and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. ALP activity was 28.07 ± 5.15 mU/mg for CPCC+DOX + hPL, higher than 17.36 ± 2.37 mU/mg and 1.34 ± 0.37 mU/mg of CPCC+DOX and CPCC, respectively (p < 0.05). At 7 days, osteogenic genes (ALP, RUNX2, COL-1, and OPN) in CPCC+DOX + hPL were 3-10 folds those of control. The amount of hPDLSC-synthesized bone mineral with CPCC+DOX + hPL was 3.8 folds that of CPCC (p < 0.05). In summary, the novel CPC + DOX + hPL-hPDLSCs scaffold exhibited strong antibacterial activity, excellent cytocompatibility and hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation, showing a promising approach for treatment and prevention of bone infection and enhancement of bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal , Biofilmes , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Células-Tronco
2.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 50(9): 919-926, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies point to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a critical mediator of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced renal, cardiac, and ocular complications. T2DM is considered a systemic contributing factor in oral carcinogenesis. Similarly, increased EGFR gene copy number and protein expression strongly predict tumor progression. Yet, the impact of hyperglycemia on EGFR activity in oral potentially malignant disorders remains unclear. We recently reported that fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key de novo lipogenic enzyme, mediates EGFR activation in nicotine-treated oral dysplastic keratinocytes. While in non-malignant tissues FASN expression is extremely low, it is frequently upregulated in several cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. The present study was carried out to investigate whether high glucose conditions trigger pro-oncogenic responses in oral dysplastic keratinocytes via FASN-mediated EGFR activation. METHODS: Cell viability and migration of oral dysplastic keratinocytes were evaluated when exposed to normal (5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose conditions in the presence of FASN and EGFR inhibitors. Western blotting was also performed to assess changes in FASN protein expression and EGFR activation. RESULTS: Oral dysplastic keratinocytes exposed to high glucose led to EGFR activation in a FASN-dependent manner. Likewise, high glucose significantly enhanced cell viability and migration in a FASN/EGFR-mediated fashion. Notably, EGFR inhibition by the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab significantly reduced the proliferation of FASN-overexpressing oral dysplastic keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: These novel findings suggest that FASN may act as a key targetable metabolic regulator of glucose-induced EGFR oncogenic signaling in oral potentially malignant disorders.

3.
Dent Mater J ; 40(3): 615-624, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814531

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine due to their multi-potent differentiation. SB431542 bioactive molecule can activate bone morphogenetic protein-signalling in osteoblasts. The objectives were to: (1) develop a novel injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-SB431542 scaffold for dental/craniofacial bone engineering; and (2) investigate cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation of hiPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) on CPC-SB431542 scaffold. Three groups were tested: CPC control; CPC with SB431542 inside CPC (CPCSM); CPC with SB431542 in osteogenic medium (CPC+SMM). SB431542 in CPC promoted stem cell proliferation and viability. hiPSC-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals. CPC with SB431542 showed much greater osteo-expressions and more bone minerals than those without SB431542. In conclusion, hiPSC-MSCs on CPC scaffold containing SB431542 showed excellent osteo-differentiation and bone mineral synthesis for the first time. CPC was a suitable scaffold for delivering stem cells and SB431542 to promote bone regeneration in dental/craniofacial applications.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Osteogênese , Cimentos Ósseos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 120: 111688, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major pathogen for osteomyelitis, which can lead to bone necrosis and destruction. There has been no report on antibacterial calcium phosphate cement (CPC) against S. aureus. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop novel antibacterial CPC-chitosan-alginate microbead scaffold; (2) investigate mechanical and antibacterial properties of CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate scaffold; (3) evaluate the encapsulation and delivery of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). Flexural strength, elastic modulus and work-of-fracture of the CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold and CPC-chitosan scaffold were evaluated. Penicillin release profile and antibacterial effects on S. aureus were determined. The hUCMSC delivery and release from penicillin-alginate microbeads were investigated. Injectable CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold was developed for the first time. CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold had a flexural strength of 3.16 ± 0.55 MPa, matching that of cancellous bone. With sustained penicillin release, the new scaffold had strong antibacterial effects on S. aureus, with an inhibition zone diameter of 32.2 ± 2.5 mm, greater than that of penicillin disk control (15.1 ± 2.0 mm) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this injectable and antibacterial scaffold had no toxic effects, yielding excellent hUCMSC viability, which was similar to that of CPC control without antibacterial activity (p > 0.05). CPC-chitosan-penicillin-microbeads scaffold had injectability, good strength, strong antibacterial effects, and good biocompatibility to support stem cell viability for osteogenesis. CPC-chitosan-penicillin-microbeads scaffold is promising for dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications to combat infections and promote bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimentos Ósseos/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Osteogênese , Células-Tronco , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
5.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 15(3): 232-243, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434402

RESUMO

Infectious bone defects remain a significant challenge in orthopedics and dentistry. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) have attracted significant interest in use as local drug delivery system, which with great potential to control release of antibiotics for the treatment of infectious bone defects. Within the current study, a novel antibacterial scaffold of chitosan-reinforced calcium phosphate cement delivering doxycycline hyclate (CPCC + DOX) was developed. Furthermore, the capacity of CPCC + DOX scaffolds for bone regeneration was enhanced by the human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) encapsulated in alginate beads. CPCC + DOX scaffolds were fabricated to contain different concentrations of DOX. Flexural strength of CPCC + DOX ranged from 5.56 ± 0.70 to 6.2 ± 0.72 MPa, which exceeded the reported strength of cancellous bone. Scaffolds exhibited continual DOX release, reaching 80% at 21 days. Scaffold with 5 mg/ml DOX (CPCC + DOX5mg) had a strong antibacterial effect, with a 4-log colony forming unit reduction against S. aureus and P. gingivalis. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs encapsulated in alginate hydrogel microbeads were investigated in culture with CPCC + DOX scaffolds. CPCC + DOX5mg had no negative effect on proliferation of hPDLSCs. Alkaline phosphatase activity, mineral synthesis, and osteogenic gene expressions for CPCC + DOX5mg group were much higher than control group. DOX did not compromise the osteogenic induction. In summary, the novel CPCC + DOX scaffold exhibited excellent mechanical properties and strong antibacterial activity, while supporting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. The CPCC + DOX + hPDLSCs construct is promising to enhance bone regeneration and combat bone infections in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(21)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158111

RESUMO

Decays in the roots of teeth is prevalent in seniors as people live longer and retain more of their teeth to an old age, especially in patients with periodontal disease and gingival recession. The objectives of this study were to develop a biocompatible nanocomposite with nano-sized calcium fluoride particles (Nano-CaF2), and to investigate for the first time the effects on osteogenic and cementogenic induction of periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) from human donors.Nano-CaF2 particles with a mean particle size of 53 nm were produced via a spray-drying machine.Nano-CaF2 was mingled into the composite at 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass. Flexural strength (160 ± 10) MPa, elastic modulus (11.0 ± 0.5) GPa, and hardness (0.58 ± 0.03) GPa for Nano-CaF2 composite exceeded those of a commercial dental composite (p < 0.05). Calcium (Ca) and fluoride (F) ions were released steadily from the composite. Osteogenic genes were elevated for hPDLSCs growing on 20% Nano-CaF2. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) peaked at 14 days. Collagen type 1 (COL1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteopontin (OPN) peaked at 21 days. Cementogenic genes were also enhanced on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite, promoting cementum adherence protein (CAP), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expressions (p < 0.05). At 7, 14 and 21 days, the ALP activity of hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 57-fold, 78-fold, and 55-fold greater than those of control, respectively (p < 0.05). Bone mineral secretion by hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 2-fold that of control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the novel Nano-CaF2 composite was biocompatible and supported hPDLSCs. Nano-CaF2 composite is promising to fill tooth root cavities and release Ca and F ions to enhance osteogenic and cementogenic induction of hPDLSCs and promote periodontium regeneration.

7.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 14(12): 1779-1791, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025745

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen for osteomyelitis. Calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) paste is promising for orthopedic uses. Nanostructured graphene oxide (GO) showed antibacterial effect on Gram-positive bacteria. However, there has been no report of incorporating GO into CPC. The objectives of this study were to (a) develop an injectable and mechanically strong CPC-chitosan paste containing GO and (b) investigate the inhibition of S. aureus infection and the promotion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) for bone regeneration. Injectable CPC-chitosan-GO paste was fabricated. Flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture of the CPC-chitosan and CPC-chitosan-GO bars were evaluated. Antibacterial effects against S. aureus biofilms were determined. hUCMSC growth and viability on disks were investigated. CPC-chitosan-GO bars had a flexural strength of 7.2 ± 1.6 MPa, matching that of CPC-chitosan control without GO. CPC-chitosan-GO had strong antibacterial effects on S. aureus, with an inhibition zone of 55.2 ± 2.5 mm, greater than that of CPC-chitosan control (30.1 ± 2.0 mm) (p < 0.05). CPC-chitosan-GO had potent antibacterial activity on S. aureus biofilms in vitro (p > 0.05). The injectable and antibacterial CPC-GO paste had no toxic effect, yielding excellent hUCMSC growth and viability on disks. The CPC-chitosan-GO had injectability, good strength, strong antibacterial effects, and excellent stem cell attachment and growth. CPC-chitosan-GO is promising for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications to control infections and good biocompatibility to support stem cell viability to enhance bone regeneration.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11907, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681061

RESUMO

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are prefilled, battery-operated products intended to deliver nicotine to the user via an inhaled complex aerosol formed by heating a liquid composed of propylene glycol and glycerol, also referred to as vegetable glycerin and collectively called e-liquid, that contains nicotine and various flavor ingredients. Since their introduction in 2006, the number of ENDS on the market has increased exponentially. Despite their growing ubiquity, the possible health risks associated with ENDS use remain poorly understood. One potential concern is the presence of toxic metals in the e-liquid and aerosol. Herein, we report the evaluation of the metal content in the e-liquids from a series of commercially available cigalike ENDS brands (various flavors) determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following e-liquid extraction. Each brand of cigalike ENDS was purchased at least three times at retail outlets in the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan region over a period of six months (September 2017 to February 2018). This allowed for comparison of batch-to-batch variability. Several potentially toxic metals, including lead, chromium, copper, and nickel were detected in the e-liquids. In addition, high variability in metal concentrations within and between brands and flavors was observed . The internal assembled parts of each cartridge were analyzed by X-ray imaging, before dissembling so that the materials used to manufacture each cartridge could be evaluated to determine the metals they contained. Following washing to remove traces of e-liquid, lead, chromium, copper and nickel were all detected in the cigalike ENDS prefilled cartridges, suggesting one potential source for the metals found in the e-liquids. Collectively, these findings can inform further evaluation of product design and manufacturing processes, including quantification of metal concentrations in e-liquids over foreseeable storage times, safeguards against high concentrations of metals in the e-liquid before and after aerosolization (by contact with a metal heating coil), and control over batch-to-batch variability.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Metais/análise , Imageamento Tridimensional , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Dent ; 92: 103259, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are promising for periodontal regeneration. However, to date, there has been no report of hPDLSC differentiation into the fibrogenic lineage. There has been no report demonstrating hPDLSC differentiation into all three (osteogenic, fibrogenic and cementogenic fibrogenic) lineages in the same report. The objectives of this study were to harvest hPDLSCs from the periodontal ligaments (PDL) of the extracted human teeth, and use the same vial of hPDLSCs to differentiate into all three (osteogenic, fibrogenic and cementogenic) lineages for the first time. METHODS: hPDLSCs were harvested from PDL tissues of the extracted premolars. The ability of hPDLSCs to form bone, cementum and collagen fibers was tested in culture mediums. Gene expressions were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunofluorescence, alizarin red (ARS), Xylenol orange, picro sirius red staining (PSRS), alcian blue staining (ABS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining were evaluated. RESULTS: In osteogenic medium, hPDLSCs had high expressions of osteogenic genes (RUNX2, ALP, OPN and COL1) at 14 and 21 days (15-20 folds of that of control), and produced mineral nodules and ALP activity (5 and 10 folds those of the control). hPDLSCs in fibrogenic medium expressed high levels of PDL fibrogenic genes (COL1, COL3, FSP-1, PLAP-1 and Elastin) at 28 days (20-70 folds of control). They were stained strongly with F-actin and fibronection, and secreted PDL collagen fibers (5 folds of control). hPDLSCs in cementogenic medium showed high expressions of cementum genes (CAP, CEMP1 and BSP) at 21 days (10-15 folds of control) and synthesized mineralized cementum (50 folds via ABS, and 40 folds via ALP staining, compared to those of control). CONCLUSIONS: hPDLSCs differentiated into bone-, fiber- and cementum-forming cells, with potential for regeneration of periodontium to form the bone-PDL-cementum complex.


Assuntos
Cementogênese , Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteínas , Regeneração , Células-Tronco
10.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(4): 2346-2356, 2020 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455311

RESUMO

High glucose condition inhibited osteoblast differentiation could be a main mechanism contributing to the decreased bone repair associated with diabetes. Metformin, a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug, was shown to have osteogenic properties in our previous study. Transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may differentiate into osteoblasts and promote bone regeneration. Our study aimed to combine the benefits of metformin and MSCs transplantation on osteogenesis in high glucose conditions. We developed demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) as a carrier to target deliver metformin and dental pulp-derived MSCs (DPSCs). We collected clinically discarded teeth, isolated DPSCs from the dental pulp, and prepared the DDM from the dentin. The DDM was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was found to have well-distributed tubes. Then, metformin was loaded into the DDM to form the DDM-Met complex (DDM-Met); DDM-Met released metformin at a favorable concentration. The DPSCs seeded with the DDM-Met in a high glucose medium showed satisfactory attachment and viability together with increased mineralization and upregulated osteogenesis-related genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteopontin (OPN). A possible mechanism of the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs was explored, and the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway was found to play a role in the enhancement of osteogenesis. DDM-Met appeared to be a successful metformin and DPSC carrier that allowed for the local delivery of metformin and DPSCs in high glucose conditions. DDM-Met-DPSC construct has promising prospects to promote osteogenesis and enhance the much-needed diabetic bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Metformina , Osteogênese , Polpa Dentária , Dentina , Glucose , Metformina/farmacologia , Células-Tronco
11.
J Dent ; 91: 103220, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) develop a CPC-metformin scaffold with hPDLSC seeding for bone tissue engineering; and (2) investigate the effects of CPC-metformin scaffold on hPDLSC proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix mineralization for the first time. METHODS: hPDLSCs were harvested from extracted teeth. CPC scaffolds (with or without metformin) were prepared. Three groups were tested: (1) control group (growth medium); (2) osteogenic group (osteogenic medium); (3) metformin + osteogenic group (CPC-metformin scaffold, cultured in osteogenic medium). hPDLSC viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization were measured. SEM was used to examine cell morphology. RESULTS: After culturing for 14 days, all three groups demonstrated excellent hPDLSC attachment and viability, as shown in live-dead staining, CCK-8 assay, and SEM examinations. The osteogenic group had 3-8 folds, 5 folds and 6 folds of increases in osteogenic gene expressions, ALP activity and mineral synthesis, compared to control group. Furthermore, the metformin + osteogenic group had 3-fold to 4-fold increases over those of the osteogenic group in osteogenic gene expressions, ALP activity and mineral synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: hPDLSCs were demonstrated to be a potent cell source for bone engineering. The novel CPC-metformin-hPDLSC construct is highly promising to enhance bone repair and regeneration efficacy in dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Metformina , Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte/química , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco
12.
Nanomedicine ; 21: 102069, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351236

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to incorporate iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to enhance bone engineering, and to investigate the effects of IONPs as a liquid or powder on stem cells using IONP-CPC scaffold for the first time. IONP-CPCs were prepared by adding 1% IONPs as liquid or powder. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded. Subcutaneous implantation in mice was investigated. IONP-CPCs had better cell spreading, and greater ALP activity and bone mineral synthesis, than CPC control. Subcutaneous implantation for 6 weeks showed good biocompatibility for all groups. In conclusion, incorporating IONPs in liquid or powder form both substantially enhanced hDPSCs on IONP-CPC scaffold and exhibited excellent biocompatibility. IONP incorporation as a liquid was better than IONP powder in promoting osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Incorporating IONPs and chitosan lactate together in CPC enhanced osteogenesis of hDPSCs more than using either alone.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio , Células Imobilizadas , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Células Imobilizadas/citologia , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Células Imobilizadas/transplante , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco/citologia
13.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167434

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a prevalent infectious disease worldwide, causing the damage of periodontal support tissues, which can eventually lead to tooth loss. The goal of periodontal treatment is to control the infections and reconstruct the structure and function of periodontal tissues including cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers, and bone. The regeneration of these three types of tissues, including the re-formation of the oriented PDL fibers to be attached firmly to the new cementum and alveolar bone, remains a major challenge. This article represents the first systematic review on the cutting-edge researches on the regeneration of all three types of periodontal tissues and the simultaneous regeneration of the entire bone-PDL-cementum complex, via stem cells, bio-printing, gene therapy, and layered bio-mimetic technologies. This article primarily includes bone regeneration; PDL regeneration; cementum regeneration; endogenous cell-homing and host-mobilized stem cells; 3D bio-printing and generation of the oriented PDL fibers; gene therapy-based approaches for periodontal regeneration; regenerating the bone-PDL-cementum complex via layered materials and cells. These novel developments in stem cell technology and bioactive and bio-mimetic scaffolds are highly promising to substantially enhance the periodontal regeneration including both hard and soft tissues, with applicability to other therapies in the oral and maxillofacial region.


Assuntos
Cemento Dentário/fisiologia , Ligamento Periodontal/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Periodontite/patologia , Periodontite/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte/química
14.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 9(1): 85-96, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465181

RESUMO

This represents the first report on the development of metformin-containing dental resins. The objectives were to use the resin as a carrier to deliver metformin locally to stimulate dental cells for dental tissue regeneration and to investigate the effects on odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and mineral synthesis. Metformin was incorporated into a resin at 20% by mass as a model system. DPSC proliferation attaching on resins was evaluated. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix phosphoprotein 1 (DMP-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) genes expressions were measured. ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS) of mineral synthesis by the DPSCs on resins were determined. DPSCs on metformin-containing resin proliferated well (mean ± SD; n = 6), and the number of cells increased by 4-fold from 1 to 14 days (p > 0.1). DSPP, ALP, and DMP-1 gene expressions of DPSCs on metformin resin were much higher than DPSCs on control resin without metformin (p < 0.05). ALP activity of metformin group was 70% higher than that without metformin at 14 days (p < 0.05). Mineral synthesis by DPSCs on metformin-containing resin at 21 days was 9-fold that without metformin (p < 0.05). A novel metformin-containing resin was developed, achieving substantial enhancement of odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs and greater mineral synthesis. The metformin resin is promising for deep cavities and perforated cavities to stimulate DPSCs for tertiary dentin formation, for tooth root coatings with metformin release for periodontal regeneration, and for root canal fillings with apical lesions to stimulate bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/citologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Odontogênese , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Calcificação de Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metformina/química , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Exp Cell Res ; 370(2): 343-352, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966661

RESUMO

Despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic management, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patient survival rates have remained relatively unchanged. Thus, identifying early triggers of malignant progression is critical to prevent OSCC development. Traditionally, OSCC initiation is elicited by the frequent and direct exposure to multiple tobacco-derived carcinogens, and not by the nicotine contained in tobacco products. However, other nicotine-containing products, especially the increasingly popular electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), have unknown effects on the progression of undiagnosed tobacco-induced oral premalignant lesions, specifically in regard to the effects of nicotine. Overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key hepatic de novo lipogenic enzyme, is linked to poor OSCC patient survival. Nicotine upregulates hepatic FASN, but whether this response occurs in oral dysplastic keratinocytes is unknown. We hypothesized that in oral dysplastic keratinocytes, nicotine triggers a migratory phenotype through FASN-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, a common pro-oncogenic event supporting oral carcinogenesis. We report that in oral dysplastic cells, nicotine markedly upregulates FASN leading to FASN-dependent EGFR activation and increased cell migration. These results raise potential concerns about e-cig safety, especially when used by former tobacco smokers with occult oral premalignant lesions where nicotine could trigger oncogenic signals commonly associated with malignant progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/métodos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Regulação para Cima
16.
Cytotherapy ; 20(5): 650-659, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicates that metformin, a low-cost and safe orally administered biguanide prescribed to millions of type 2 diabetics worldwide, induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) through the 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. As a highly hydrophilic cationic compound, metformin uptake is facilitated by cell membrane organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier 22A gene family. We hypothesized that to effectively enhance osteogenic differentiation, and ultimately bone regeneration, metformin must gain access into functional OCT-expressing MSCs. METHODS: Data was obtained through immunoblotting, cellular uptake, mineralization and gene expression assays. RESULTS: We demonstrate for the first time that functional OCTs are expressed in human-derived MSCs from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly, an inexhaustible source of nonembryonic MSCs with proven osteogenic potential. A clinically relevant concentration of metformin led to AMPK activation, enhanced mineralized nodule formation and increased expression of the osteogenic transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Indeed, targeting OCT function through pharmacological and genetic approaches markedly blunted these responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that functional OCT expression in UC-MSCs is a biological prerequisite that facilitates the intracellular uptake of metformin to induce an osteogenic effect. Future pre-clinical studies are warranted to investigate whether the expression of functional OCTs may serve as a potential biomarker to predict osteogenic responses to metformin.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 46(sup1): 423-433, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355052

RESUMO

Literature search revealed no systematic report on iron oxide nanoparticle-incorporating calcium phosphate cement scaffolds (IONP-CPC). The objectives of this study were to: (1) use γFe2O3 nanoparticles (γIONPs) and αFe2O3 nanoparticles (αIONPs) to develop novel IONP-CPC scaffolds, and (2) investigate human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) seeding on IONP-CPC for bone tissue engineering for the first time. IONP-CPC scaffolds were fabricated. Physiochemical properties of IONP-CPC scaffolds were characterized. hDPSC seeding on scaffolds, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix mineral synthesis by cells were measured. Our data demonstrated that the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs was markedly enhanced via IONP incorporation into CPC. Substantial increases (about three folds) in ALP activity and osteogenic gene expressions were achieved over those without IONPs. Bone matrix mineral synthesis by the cells was increased by two- to three folds over that without IONPs. The enhanced cellular osteogenesis was attributed to: (1) the surface nanotopography of IONP-CPC scaffold, and (2) the cell internalization of IONPs released from IONP-CPC scaffold. Our results demonstrate that the novel CPC functionalized with IONPs is promising to promote osteoinduction and bone regeneration. In conclusion, it is highly promising to incorporate γIONPs and αIONPs into CPC scaffold for bone tissue engineering, yielding substantially better stem cell attachment, spreading and osteogenic differentiation, and much greater bone mineral synthesis by the seeded cells. Therefore, novel CPC scaffolds containing γIONPs and αIONPs are promising for dental, craniofacial and orthopaedic applications to substantially enhance bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tecidos Suporte/química
18.
J Endod ; 44(4): 576-584, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metformin is a first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes that regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Its effects on human dental pulp cells (DPCs) remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on the proliferation and differentiation of DPCs. METHODS: A live/dead viability assay kit was used to examine the effects of metformin on the cell viability of DPCs. Cell proliferation was analyzed using a cell counting kit (CCK-8; Dojindo, Tokyo, Japan). Levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were quantified by Western blot analysis in response to metformin and the AMPK signaling inhibitor Compound C (EMD Chemicals, San Diego, CA). The effects of Compound C on the metformin-induced odontoblast differentiation of DPCs were determined by alkaline phosphatase activity assay and von Kossa staining, and the expression of odontoblastic markers was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: DPCs exhibited mesenchymal stem cell characteristics using flow cytometry. Different doses of metformin were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs, yielding >90% cell viability. None of the concentrations of metformin up to 50 µmol/L affected cell proliferation. The Western blot assay showed that DPCs express functional organic cation transporter 1, a transmembrane protein that mediates the intracellular uptake of metformin. Metformin significantly activated the AMPK pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity; enhanced mineralized nodule formation; and increased the expression of odontoblastic markers including dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin. Moreover, pretreatment with Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, markedly reversed metformin-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that metformin can induce DPC differentiation and mineralization in an AMPK-dependent manner and that this well-tolerated antidiabetic drug has potential in regenerative endodontics as well as in other regenerative applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Odontoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
19.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 12(2): 437-446, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494141

RESUMO

Metformin, a first-line antidiabetic drug used by millions of patients, has been shown to have potential osteogenic properties. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that clinically relevant doses of metformin promote the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs). iPSC-MSCs were treated with metformin (10 µm) to assess cell viability, osteogenic differentiation, mineralization and activation of the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, a surrogate marker of metformin action. To determine its potential application in MSC-based bone and periodontal tissue engineering, iPSC-MSCs were also treated with metformin when seeded on to calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds. Immunoblotting and cellular uptake assays showed that iPSC-MSCs express functional organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1), a transmembrane protein that mediates the intracellular uptake of metformin. Although metformin treatment did not impair iPSC-MSC viability, it significantly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced mineralized nodule formation and increased expression of osteogenic markers, including Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osterix. Inhibition of LKB1 activity, a common upstream AMPK kinase, markedly reversed metformin-induced AMPK activation, RUNX2 expression and nuclear localization. Moreover, metformin substantially increased mineralized nodule formation of iPSC-MSC seeded on CPC scaffolds. Collectively, functional OCT-expressing iPSC-MSCs responded to metformin by inducing an osteogenic effect in part mediated by the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Considering the widespread use of metformin in diabetics, this work may lead to novel tissue-engineering platforms where autogenous OCT-expressing iPSC-MSCs might be used to enhance bone and periodontal regeneration in diabetic patients prescribed with daily doses of metformin.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química
20.
Stem Cells Int ; 2018: 7173481, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598667

RESUMO

Metformin is an old and widely accepted first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies demonstrate that metformin can stimulate the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Due to the rapid dilution of metformin from the defect area, the aim of this study was to develop a drug delivery system with controlled release of metformin to promote cell viability and odontogenic differentiation of DPCs favoring dentin regeneration. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing chitosan and metformin as a scaffold was synthesized. DPCs were seeded onto the scaffold, and the viability and proliferation were evaluated at several time points. For osteogenic differentiation analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was tested, cells were stained with Alizarin Red, and the expression of odontogenic markers was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. DPCs remained viable and attached well to the CPC-chitosan composite scaffold. Moreover, the addition of metformin to the CPC-chitosan composite did not adversely affect cell proliferation, compared to that of CPC control. Our data further revealed that the novel CPC-chitosan-metformin composite enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of DPCs, as evidenced by higher ALP activity, elevated expression of odontoblastic markers, and strong mineral deposition. These results suggest that the new CPC-chitosan-metformin composite is a highly promising scaffold with the potential for tissue engineering applications including dentin regeneration.

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