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1.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): 442-450, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youth athletes are believed to be more susceptible to white matter (WM) degradation resulting from head impact exposure relative to high school (HS) athletes; this hypothesis has not been objectively tested. The purpose of this study was to determine preseason to postseason changes in WM integrity from repetitive head impacts for youth football (YFB) players compared with HS football players during a competitive football season. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: One season of YFB (grades 7 and 8) and varsity HS football (grades 10-12). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twelve YFB (13.08 ± 0.64 years) and 21 HS (17.5 ± 0.78 years) athletes. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed 2 magnetic resonance imaging sessions: preseason and postseason. Head impact exposure was recorded during practice and games using a helmet-mounted accelerometer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tract-based spatial statistics were used to evaluate group differences in preseason to postseason changes in diffusion tensor imaging, including fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). RESULTS: The HS group exhibited significant preseason to postseason reductions in MD, AD, and RD (P < 0.05, corrected) in widespread WM areas. Significant WM reductions for the YFB group were only observed for AD (P < 0.05, corrected), but was more limited in extent compared with HS. CONCLUSIONS: Significant preseason to postseason AD reduction was found in both YFB and HS groups after one season of competitive play. Our results did not confirm recent speculation that younger children are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of repetitive head impacts compared with their older counterparts.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency, causes, and risk factors of early and late mortality among general adult patients discharged from ICUs. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. SETTING: ICUs of 10 tertiary hospitals in Brazil. PATIENTS: One-thousand five-hundred fifty-four adult ICU survivors with an ICU stay greater than 72 hours for medical and emergency surgical admissions or greater than 120 hours for elective surgical admissions. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcomes were early (30 d) and late (31 to 365 d) mortality. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates and medical records. Twelve-month cumulative mortality was 28.2% (439 deaths). The frequency of early mortality was 7.9% (123 deaths), and the frequency of late mortality was 22.3% (316 deaths). Infections were the leading cause of death in both early (47.2%) and late (36.4%) periods. Multivariable analysis identified age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; p = 0.01), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.59; p = 0.02), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.29; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.008; p = 0.03), ICU-acquired infections (hazard ratio, 2.25; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 3.76; p < 0.001) as risk factors for early mortality. Age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.30; p = 0.03), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 2.28; p < 0.001), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.00; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.010; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratios, 4.10, 4.17, and 1.82 for death between 31 and 60 days, 61 and 90 days, and greater than 90 days after ICU discharge, respectively; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) were associated with late mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Infections are the main cause of death after ICU discharge. Older age, pre-ICU comorbidities, pre-ICU physical dependence, severity of illness at ICU admission, and ICU readmission are associated with increased risk of early and late mortality, while ICU-acquired infections are associated with increased risk of early mortality.

3.
JCI Insight ; 4(20)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619584

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Although the alveolar macrophage (AM) comprises the major resident immune cell in the lung, few studies have investigated its role in lung cancer development. We recently discovered a potentially novel mechanism wherein AMs regulate STAT-induced inflammatory responses in neighboring epithelial cells (ECs) via secretion and delivery of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) within extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we explored the impact of SOCS3 transfer on EC tumorigenesis and the integrity of AM SOCS3 secretion during development of lung cancer. AM-derived EVs containing SOCS3 inhibited STAT3 activation as well as proliferation and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Levels of secreted SOCS3 were diminished in lungs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and in a mouse model of lung cancer, and the impaired ability of murine AMs to secrete SOCS3 within EVs preceded the development of lung tumors. Loss of this homeostatic brake on tumorigenesis prompted our effort to "rescue" it. Provision of recombinant SOCS3 loaded within synthetic liposomes inhibited proliferation and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro as well as malignant transformation of normal ECs. Intratumoral injection of SOCS3 liposomes attenuated tumor growth in a lung cancer xenograft model. This work identifies AM-derived vesicular SOCS3 as an endogenous antitumor mechanism that is disrupted within the tumor microenvironment and whose rescue by synthetic liposomes can be leveraged as a potential therapeutic strategy for lung cancer.

4.
Braz J Phys Ther ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study's purpose was to utilize a prospective dataset to examine differences in functional brain connectivity in male high school athletes who suffered an ACL anterior cruciate ligament injury relative to their non-injured peers. METHODS: Sixty-two male high school football players were evaluated using functional magnetic resonance imaging prior to their competitive season to evaluate resting-state functional brain connectivity. Three athletes later experienced an ACL injury and were matched to 12 teammates who did not go on to sustain an ACL injury (controls) based on school, age, height, weight, and year in school. Twenty-five knee-motor regions of interest (ROIs) were created to identify differences in connectivity between the two groups. Between-subject F and t tests were used to identify significant ROI differences using a false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There was significantly less connectivity between the left secondary somatosensory cortex and the left supplementary motor area (p = 0.025), right pre-motor cortex (p = 0.026), right supplementary motor area (p = 0.026), left primary somatosensory cortex (superior division; p = 0.026), left primary somatosensory cortex (inferior division; p = 0.026), and left primary motor cortex (p = 0.048) for the ACL-injured compared to the control subjects. No other ROI-to-ROI comparisons were significantly different between the groups (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data indicate a potential sensorimotor disruption for male football players who go on to experience an ACL injury. Future studies with larger sample sizes and complimentary measures of neuromuscular control are needed to support these findings.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374092

RESUMO

To demonstrate the feasibility of robotic middle ear access in a clinical setting, nine adult patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss indicated for cochlear implantation were included in this clinical trial. A keyhole access tunnel to the tympanic cavity and targeting the round window was planned based on preoperatively acquired computed tomography image data and robotically drilled to the level of the facial recess. Intraoperative imaging was performed to confirm sufficient distance of the drilling trajectory to relevant anatomy. Robotic drilling continued toward the round window. The cochlear access was manually created by the surgeon. Electrode arrays were inserted through the keyhole tunnel under microscopic supervision via a tympanomeatal flap. All patients were successfully implanted with a cochlear implant. In 9 of 9 patients the robotic drilling was planned and performed to the level of the facial recess. In 3 patients, the procedure was reverted to a conventional approach for safety reasons. No change in facial nerve function compared to baseline measurements was observed. Robotic keyhole access for cochlear implantation is feasible. Further improvements to workflow complexity, duration of surgery, and usability including safety assessments are required to enable wider adoption of the procedure.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 25(11): 3190-3201, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403423

RESUMO

Physical keyboards are common peripherals for personal computers and are efficient standard text entry devices. Recent research has investigated how physical keyboards can be used in immersive head-mounted display-based Virtual Reality (VR). So far, the physical layout of keyboards has typically been transplanted into VR for replicating typing experiences in a standard desktop environment. In this paper, we explore how to fully leverage the immersiveness of VR to change the input and output characteristics of physical keyboard interaction within a VR environment. This allows individual physical keys to be reconfigured to the same or different actions and visual output to be distributed in various ways across the VR representation of the keyboard. We explore a set of input and output mappings for reconfiguring the virtual presentation of physical keyboards and probe the resulting design space by specifically designing, implementing and evaluating nine VR-relevant applications: emojis, languages and special characters, application shortcuts, virtual text processing macros, a window manager, a photo browser, a whack-a-mole game, secure password entry and a virtual touch bar. We investigate the feasibility of the applications in a user study with 20 participants and find that, among other things, they are usable in VR. We discuss the limitations and possibilities of remapping the input and output characteristics of physical keyboards in VR based on empirical findings and analysis and suggest future research directions in this area.

7.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Neurotrauma ; 36(20): 2831-2849, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062655

RESUMO

Competitive sport participation, in contact and collision sports, exposes athletes to repetitive head impacts. Although these impacts do not always result in overt symptomology or a diagnosed "concussion," evidence indicates that cumulative repetitive impacts affect brain pathophysiology. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of prospective, longitudinal trials evaluating repetitive head impact exposure on white matter (WM) microstructure in collision and contact sport athletes to inform clinical care and treatment strategies. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to determine studies that met predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Initially, 2498 abstracts were identified, and 20 studies were critically evaluated herein. The majority of studies demonstrated significant longitudinal changes in anisotropy and/or diffusivity metrics that were associated with the quantity and/or the magnitude of head impact exposure, highlighting the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for measuring changes in WM microstructure. Our review also comments on study methodology and describes how age, sex, sport, and time between sport cessation and DTI measures contribute to divergent findings within the literature. Suggestions for future research are also provided to overcome previous study limitations and maximize our understanding of the role of repetitive head impact exposure on WM integrity and long-term neurological sequela.

9.
J Athl Train ; 54(5): 472-482, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex differences in incidence rates (IRs) of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by sport type (collision, contact, limited contact, and noncontact). DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed (1969-January 20, 2017) and EBSCOhost (CINAHL, SPORTDiscus; 1969-January 20, 2017) and the search terms anterior cruciate ligament AND injury AND (incidence OR prevalence OR epidemiology). STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they provided the number of ACL injuries and the number of athlete-exposures (AEs) by sex or enough information to allow the number of ACL injuries by sex to be calculated. Studies were excluded if they were analyses of previously reported data or were not written in English. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on sport classification, number of ACL injuries by sex, person-time in AEs for each sex, year of publication, sport, sport type, and level of play were extracted for analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: We conducted IR and IR ratio (IRR) meta-analyses, weighted for study size and calculated. Female and male athletes had similar ACL injury IRs for the following sport types: collision (2.10/10 000 versus 1.12/10 000 AEs, IRR = 1.14, P = .63), limited contact (0.71/10 000 versus 0.29/10 000 AEs, IRR = 1.21, P = .77), and noncontact (0.36/10 000 versus 0.21/10 000 AEs, IRR = 1.49, P = .22) sports. For contact sports, female athletes had a greater risk of injury than male athletes did (1.88/10 000 versus 0.87/10 000 AEs, IRR = 3.00, P < .001). Gymnastics and obstacle-course races were outliers with respect to IR, so we created a sport category of fixed-object, high-impact rotational landing (HIRL). For this sport type, female athletes had a greater risk of ACL injury than male athletes did (4.80/10 000 versus 1.75/10 000 AEs, IRR = 5.51, P < .001), and the overall IRs of ACL injury were greater than all IRs in all other sport categories. CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-object HIRL sports had the highest IRs of ACL injury for both sexes. Female athletes were at greater risk of ACL injury than male athletes in contact and fixed-object HIRL sports.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos em Atletas , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 100-117.e6, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965033

RESUMO

Mechanisms that control aging are important yet poorly defined. To discover longevity control genes, we performed a forward genetic screen for delayed reproductive aging in C. elegans. Here, we show that am117 is a nonsense mutation in the phm-2 gene, which encodes a protein homologous to human scaffold attachment factor B. phm-2(lf) mutant worms have an abnormal pharynx grinder, which allows live bacteria to accumulate in the intestine. This defect shortens lifespan on highly pathogenic bacteria but extends lifespan and health span on the standard E. coli diet by activating innate immunity pathways that lead to bacterial avoidance behavior and dietary restriction. eat-2(lf) mutants displayed a similar phenotype, indicating accumulation of live bacteria also triggers extended longevity in this mutant. The analysis of phm-2 elucidates connections between pathogen response and aging by defining a mechanism of longevity extension in C. elegans-bacterial colonization, innate immune activation, and bacterial avoidance behavior.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Longevidade/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Dieta , Escherichia coli/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Longevidade/imunologia
11.
12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(5): 1283-1289, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recent clinical trial has shown the feasibility of robotic cochlear implantation. The electrode was inserted through the robotically drilled tunnel and an additional access through the external auditory canal was created to provide for means of visualization and manipulation. To obviate the need for this additional access, the utilization of multiple robotically drilled tunnels targeting the round window has been proposed. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of electrode insertion through a robotic multiport approach. METHODS: In four ex vivo human head specimens (left side), four trajectories through the facial recess (2x) and the retrofacial and suprameatal region were planned and robotically drilled. Optimal three-port configurations were determined for each specimen by analyzing combinations of three of the four trajectories, where the three trajectories were used for the electrode, endoscopic visualization and manipulative assistance. Finally, electrode insertions were conducted through the optimal configurations. RESULTS: The electrodes could successfully be inserted, and the procedure sufficiently visualized through the facial recess drill tunnels in all specimens. Effective manipulative assistance for sealing the round window could be provided through the retrofacial tunnel. CONCLUSIONS: Electrode insertion through a robotic three-port approach is feasible. Drill tunnels through the facial recess for the electrode and endoscope allow for optimized insertion angles and sufficient visualization. Through a retrofacial tunnel effective manipulation for sealing is possible.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Janela da Cóclea/cirurgia , Meato Acústico Externo/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro
13.
Demography ; 56(2): 451-476, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617947

RESUMO

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. Prior demographic and sociological literature has often measured resources in narrow terms, considering employment and earnings and not more fine-grained measures of job quality. Yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses squarely on declining job quality and rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the life course. Addressing the disconnect between these two important areas of research, this study analyzes data on the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationships between men's and women's job quality and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings and investigating how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs-both jobs with standard work schedules and those that provide fringe benefits-are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job quality explain a significant portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. However, these dimensions of job quality are not predictive of cohabitation.

14.
Dent Traumatol ; 35(2): 115-120, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615258

RESUMO

AIMS: The number of patients suffering maxillofacial trauma remains constant although the affected patients become older. The aim of this study was to illuminate the patterns of maxillofacial fractures in a University Medical Centre and to analyse potential changes in patient population and treatment methods during a 5-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, the records of 573 patients with maxillofacial fractures treated in a level one trauma centre from January 2010 to December 2014 were analysed with regard to gender, age, date and time of hospitalization as well as discharge, aetiology, type of fracture, surgery details, complications and further injuries. Causes were subdivided into assaults, falls, epileptic seizure, work-related, traffic accident by car or bicycle, sport-associated or others (eg caused by explosions, horse kicks or unknown). RESULTS: The most common causes for fractures were assaults (28.8%; n = 165), followed by falls (23.9%; n = 137), although falls became the main reason for maxillofacial fractures in 2013 and 2014. The mean age for patients suffering from facial fractures due to falls was significantly higher compared to those injured by other causes. Most commonly, fractures of the zygomatico-maxillary complex with or without orbital floor involvement were seen (31.6%; n = 291) followed by fractures of the mandible (20.6%; n = 190) and fractures of the nose (15.2%; n = 140). Most patients were treated surgically (89.5%; n = 513) even though an increase in non-surgical treatment was found over the examination period, especially in older patients. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillofacial fractures are mostly seen in younger male patients. Assaults were the main pattern of injury during the whole examination period, although falls became the main cause in older patients over the last 2 years.

15.
Am Heart J ; 209: 79-87, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risks for cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are elevated in people with HIV infection (PWH). However, no trials of statin utilization with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points have been completed in PWH, and there are sparse real-world data regarding statin use and lipid-lowering effectiveness. We therefore used a unique cohort of PWH and uninfected controls to evaluate (1) differences in statin types used for PWH versus uninfected persons; (2) lipid lowering achieved by statin use for PWH versus uninfected persons; and (3) racial and ethnic disparities in appropriate statin use among PWH and uninfected persons. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 5,039 PWH and 10,011 uninfected demographically matched controls who received care at a large urban medical center between January 1, 2000, and May 17, 2017. Medication administration records, prescription data, and validated natural language processing algorithms were used to determine statin utilization. Statins were categorized by generic active ingredient name and intensity (high, moderate, or low). Lipid values collected in routine clinical care were available for analysis. The first set of analyses was restricted to PWH and uninfected matched controls taking statins and compared (1) differences in statin type and (2) difference in cholesterol levels after versus before statin initiation by HIV status. For the second set of analyses, we first used prevalent CVD risk factors to determine participants with statin indications and then determined how many of these participants were taking statins. We then compared statin utilization among persons with indications for statins by race/ethnic group for PWH and uninfected matched controls using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Among people prescribed statins, PWH were more likely than controls to have ever taken pravastatin (34.8% vs 12.3%, P < .001) or atorvastatin (72.2% vs 65.6%, P = .002) and less likely to have ever taken simvastatin (14.2% vs 39.5%, P < .001). Among PWH with indications for statin utilization, 55.7% of whites, 39.4% of blacks, and 45.8% of Hispanics were prescribed statins (P < .001). These differences in statin prescription by race/ethnicity remained significant after adjustment for demographics (including insurance status), cardiovascular risk factors, antiretroviral therapy use, HIV viremia, and CD4 count. These racial/ethnic disparities in statin utilization were less pronounced among uninfected persons. CONCLUSIONS: Among PWH with statin indication(s), blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to have been prescribed a statin. These racial/ethnic disparities were less pronounced among uninfected persons. There were significant differences in type of statin used for PWH compared to uninfected matched controls. Future efforts addressing disparities in CVD prevention among PWH are warranted.

16.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 2018 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited information is known on how right ventricular function affects outcomes after stage 2 palliation. We evaluated the impact of different right ventricular indices prior to stage 2 palliation on morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective study design. SETTING: Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Data Set. PATIENT: Any variant of stage 1 palliation and all anatomic hypoplastic left heart syndrome variants in the trial were evaluated. Echocardiograms prior to stage 2 palliation were analyzed and compared between those who failed and those who survived. INTERVENTION: None. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality was defined as death, listed for transplant, or transplanted after stage 2 palliation. Morbidity was evaluated as hospital length of stay and duration of intubation. RESULTS: A total of 283 patients met criteria for analysis. Of those, only 18 patients failed stage 2. Right ventricular fractional area change was less in those who failed (30% vs 34%, P = .039) and right ventricular indexed end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were larger in those who failed (142.74 mL/ BSA1.3 vs 111.29 mL/BSA1.3 , P = .023, 88.45 mL/ BSA1.3 vs 62.75 mL/ BSA1.3 , P = .025, respectively). Larger right ventricular indexed end-diastolic and systolic volumes were associated with failure (OR 1.17 [1.01-1.35] P = .021, OR 1.25 [1.03-1.52] P = .021, respectively). Every 10% increase in RV ejection fraction had a 63% decrease in length of stay and a 68% decrease in duration of intubation (P = .014, and P = .039, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with decreased right ventricular fractional area change and larger right ventricular indexed end-diastolic and systolic volumes were more likely to fail stage 2 palliation. Those with preserved right ventricular function had a shorter hospital length of stay and duration of intubation. Echocardiographic measurements of right ventricular indices during the interstage period can be utilized to determine the prognosis following stage 2 palliation.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(21): e009985, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571387

RESUMO

Background HIV is associated with elevated risk of heart failure ( HF ). Despite poor agreement between automated, administrative code-based HF definitions and physician-adjudicated HF , no studies have evaluated incident adjudicated HF for people living with HIV ( PLWH ). Methods and Results We analyzed PLWH and uninfected controls receiving care in an urban medical system from January 1, 2000, to July 12, 2016. Physicians reviewed data from medical records to adjudicate HF diagnoses. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to analyze incident HF for PLWH versus controls and HIV -related factors associated with incident HF . We also analyzed the performance of automated versus physician-adjudicated HF definitions. Incident adjudicated HF occurred in 97 of 4640 PLWH (2.1%; mean: 6.8 years to HF ) and 55 of 4250 controls (1.3%; mean: 6.7 years to HF ; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-3.21). Among PLWH , higher HIV viral load ( hazard ratio per log10 higher time-updated viral load: 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.33) was associated with greater HF risk and higher CD 4+ T cell count was associated with lower HF risk ( hazard ratio per 100 cells/mm3 higher time-updated CD 4 count: 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.92). In exploratory analyses, the most accurate automated HF definitions had sensitivities of 67% to 75% and positive predictive values of 54% to 60%. Conclusions In a cohort with rigorous HF adjudication, PLWH had greater risks of HF than uninfected people after adjustment for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Higher HIV viral load and lower CD 4+ T cell count were associated with higher HF risk among PLWH . Automated methods of HF ascertainment exhibited poor accuracy for PLWH and uninfected people.

18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

19.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 428, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405380

RESUMO

Shifts of attention within working memory based on retroactive (retro-) cues were shown to facilitate performance in working memory tasks. Although posterior asymmetries in the EEG, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), have been used to study the active storage of lateralized working memory representations, results on the relation of such asymmetric effects to retro-cue benefits remain inconclusive. We recorded EEG in a retro-cue working memory task with lateralized items and a continuous performance response. Following either a selective or neutral retro-cue, participants adjusted the orientation of a central memory probe to the cued item. Selective retro-cues elicited an early posterior contralateral negativity (PCN), anterior directing attention negativity (ADAN) and a later modulation of CDA indicating that active storage was concentrated on the cued information. By dividing all trials into three within-condition performance quantiles, we could further show that high working memory accuracy was associated with a sustained increase of the CDA effect following the retro-cue. These results suggest that focusing resources on the active storage of relevant representations is an important factor regarding retro-cue benefits in working memory tasks.

20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare conventional (CSP) versus customized virtual surgical planning (VSP) in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. The primary goal was to compare the accuracy of defined angles. The secondary purpose was to analyze the accuracy of the splints, the time required for surgery, and the costs of both methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 21 patients (nCSP = 12; nVSP = 9) treated by two-jaw orthognathic surgery were analyzed prospectively between the years 2014 and 2016. Customized VSP consisted of virtual planning as well as CAD/CAM printing of splints and pre-bent osteosynthesis plates. The evaluated parameters were the difference between planned and postoperative situation (SNA/SNB/ANB), accuracy of splints, time required for surgery (min), and total costs of planning (€). RESULTS: When compared to CSP, VSP appears to be a more accurate method for orthognathic treatment planning with significant differences in the angle outcome (SNA p < 0.001; SNB p = 0.002; ANB p < 0.001). There were significant differences in splint accuracy in favor of CAD/CAM splints (p = 0.007). VSP significantly reduced the duration of operation (p = 0.041). Nevertheless, VSP increased the total costs (481.80 € vs. 884.00 €). CONCLUSIONS: When using virtual 3D technology in combination with printed acrylic splints, 3D models of the jaws and pre-bent osteosynthesis, there is a noticeable reduction in the duration of the operation in conjunction with an improvement in accuracy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Virtual model surgery and the prefabrication of splints and plates may replace traditional orthognathic surgery as it becomes cost-effective.

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