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1.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study conducted secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial to examine the transgenerational relationship between cognitive-behavioral therapy for child Separation Anxiety Disorder (SepAD) and the mental health of parents. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were compared before and after child treatment between parents of children treated for SepAD and parents of healthy children, who did not receive any treatment. METHODS: One hundred and seven children aged 4-14 years with SepAD received one of two cognitive behavioral treatment programs for SepAD (TAFF; TrennungsAngstprogramm Für Familien; English: Separation Anxiety Family Therapy or CC; Coping Cat). Their parents (N = 189; 101 mothers and 88 fathers) were assessed at baseline and post-treatment for symptoms of separation anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. A comparison group of parents (N = 74; 42 mothers and 32 fathers) of 45 children without SepAD, who did not receive any treatment, were also assessed. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant interaction effect between group and time on mothers' depression and separation anxiety, indicating that maternal symptoms of depression and separation anxiety improved in the child treatment condition in comparison to mothers of healthy children. There was no significant improvement in parental pathology levels among fathers of children treated for SepAD. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment for child SepAD may have subsequent positive effects on mothers' own levels of separation anxiety and depression, though the mechanisms are yet unknown. Future studies are needed that test the transgenerational effect of child SepAD treatment on parental mental health as the primary research question.

4.
Psychosom Med ; 81(2): 155-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impairments in facial emotion recognition are an underlying factor of deficits in emotion regulation and interpersonal difficulties in mental disorders and are evident in eating disorders (EDs). METHODS: We used a computerized psychophysical paradigm to manipulate parametrically the quantity of signal in facial expressions of emotion (QUEST threshold seeking algorithm). This was used to measure emotion recognition in 308 adult women (anorexia nervosa [n = 61], bulimia nervosa [n = 58], healthy controls [n = 130], and mixed mental disorders [mixed, n = 59]). The M (SD) age was 22.84 (3.90) years. The aims were to establish recognition thresholds defining how much information a person needs to recognize a facial emotion expression and to identify deficits in EDs compared with healthy and clinical controls. The stimuli included six basic emotion expressions (fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise), plus a neutral expression. RESULTS: Happiness was discriminated at the lowest, fear at the highest threshold by all groups. There were no differences regarding thresholds between groups, except for the mixed and the bulimia nervosa group with respect to the expression of disgust (F(3,302) = 5.97, p = .001, η = .056). Emotional clarity, ED pathology, and depressive symptoms did not predict performance (RChange ≤ .010, F(1,305) ≤ 5.74, p ≥ .079). The confusion matrix did not reveal specific biases in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, within-subject effects were as expected, whereas between-subject effects were marginal and psychopathology did not influence emotion recognition. Facial emotion recognition abilities in women experiencing EDs compared with women experiencing mixed mental disorders and healthy controls were similar. Although basic facial emotion recognition processes seems to be intact, dysfunctional aspects such as misinterpretation might be important in emotion regulation problems. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS-ID: DRKS00005709.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 248: 147-154, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarianism is linked with better physical health, but also to increased anxiety and depression. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between vegetarianism and both positive and negative mental health, across cultures and over time. METHOD: Self-report questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national cross-sectional sample including 2007 representative adult members of the German population, 3020 representative adults from Russia, and 3038 representative adults from the USA. Participants for the longitudinal analyses include university students from Germany (1608) and China (12,744). Statistical models included multiple linear regression, longitudinal linear models and longitudinal logistic models. RESULTS: Vegetarianism diet is not reliably related to positive or negative mental health in US and Russian representative samples or in German representative or student samples. Vegetarianism is related to slight increases over time in anxiety and depression in Chinese students. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarianism is not associated with mental health in the US, Russia, or Germany, but is associated with anxiety and depression in China in this study. Future studies should examine the nuances of vegetarianism in more detail and their links with mental health, including dietary composition and cultural beliefs and economic circumstances. Future researchers in this area may also want to consider the effects of experimental manipulation of diet on mental health outcomes over time.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/etnologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(4): 566-579, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710313

RESUMO

This study investigates the temporal patterning of infant self-regulatory behaviors (crying/fussing, sleeping) in relation to both infant (age, sex, regulatory problems) and maternal variables (soothing behaviors, mood). Self-regulatory and soothing behaviors were assessed in 121 mother-infant dyads (4-44 weeks) by the Baby's Day Diary at 5 min intervals over 3 days. Further infant characteristics and maternal mood were assessed by questionnaires (DASS, CES-D, STAI) and the Diagnostic Interview for the Assessment of Regulatory Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood. Data were analyzed using generalized additive mixed models. Negative maternal mood was associated with a deviant course of crying/fussing during the day. Body contact was associated with reduced variability in the 24 h course of sleep. Mother-infant transactional processes-above and beyond known relationships with overall levels of crying/fussing and sleeping-might play out on the temporal dimension of infant regulatory behaviors.

7.
Psychosom Med ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impairments in facial emotion recognition are an underlying factor of deficits in emotion regulation and interpersonal difficulties in mental disorders, and are evident in eating disorders (EDs). METHODS: We used a computerized psychophysical paradigm to manipulate parametrically the quantity of signal in facial expressions of emotion (QUEST threshold seeking algorithm). This was used to measure emotion recognition in 311 adult women (anorexia nervosa (AN,n=61), bulimia nervosa (BN,n=58), healthy controls (HC,n=130) and mixed mental disorders (mixed,n=59)). The mean age was 22.84 years (SD=3.90). The aim was to establish recognition thresholds defining how much information a person needs to recognize a facial emotion expression and to identify deficits in EDs compared to healthy and clinical controls. The stimuli included six basic emotion expressions (fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) plus a neutral expression. RESULTS: Happiness was discriminated at the lowest, fear at the highest threshold by all groups. There were no differences regarding thresholds between groups, except for the mixed and the BN group with respect to the expression of disgust (F(3,302)=5.97, p=.001, eta=.056). Emotional clarity, ED pathology and depressive symptoms did not predict performance (RChange≤.010, F(1,305)≤5.74, p≥.079). The confusion matrix did not reveal specific biases in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, within-subject effects were as expected, whereas between-subject effects were marginal and psychopathology did not influence emotion recognition. Facial emotion recognition abilities in women suffering from EDs compared to women suffering from mixed mental disorders and HCs were similar. While basic facial emotion recognition processes seems to be intact, dysfunctional aspects such as misinterpretation might be important in emotion regulation problems. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS-ID: DRKS00005709.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(4): 1411-1421, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585563

RESUMO

Potential long-term associations between repetitive negative thinking and mother-infant interactions have received little attention. The current longitudinal study including N = 62 mother-infant dyads investigated both maternal and infant behavior in face-to-face interactions as a function of pre- and postnatal maternal repetitive negative thinking when infants were aged around 4 months. We hypothesised that mothers with a strong tendency to engage in repetitive negative thinking would react less contingently to their infants' behavior compared to mothers with a weak tendency to engage in repetitive negative thinking. Furthermore, we hypothesised that infants of mothers high in repetitive negative thinking would differ from infants of mothers low in repetitive negative thinking in their reactions in the still-face task. Contrary to expectations, there was no difference in maternal contingency between mothers high versus low in repetitive negative thinking. However, infant behavior in the still-face task differed as a function of maternal repetitive negative thinking status. Specifically, infants of mothers high in repetitive negative thinking spent more time with object/environment engagement than infants of mothers who were low in repetitive negative thinking, and they also protested less frequently. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the intergenerational transmission of mental disorders.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478175

RESUMO

The nematode mutualistic bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica produces a large virulence-associated multifunctional protein toxin named PaTox. A glycosyltransferase domain and a deamidase domain of this large toxin function as effectors that specifically target host Rho GTPases and heterotrimeric G proteins, respectively. Modification of these intracellular regulators results in toxicity toward insects and mammalian cells. In this study, we identified a cysteine protease-like domain spanning PaTox residues 1844-2114 (PaToxP), upstream of these two effector domains and characterized by three conserved amino acid residues (Cys-1865, His-1955, and Asp-1975). We determined the crystal structure of the PaToxP C1865A variant by native single-wavelength anomalous diffraction of sulfur atoms (sulfur-SAD). At 2.0 Å resolution, this structure revealed a catalytic site typical for papain-like cysteine proteases, comprising a catalytic triad, oxyanion hole, and typical secondary structural elements. The PaToxP structure had highest similarity to that of the AvrPphB protease from Pseudomonas syringae classified as a C58-protease. Furthermore, we observed that PaToxP shares structural homology also with non-C58-cysteine proteases, deubiquitinases, and deamidases. Upon delivery into insect larvae, PaToxP alone without full-length PaTox had no toxic effects. Yet, PaToxP expression in mammalian cells was toxic and enhanced the apoptotic phenotype induced by PaTox in HeLa cells. We propose that PaToxP is a C58-like cysteine protease module that is essential for full PaTox activity.

10.
Pain Rep ; 3(Suppl 1): e680, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324172

RESUMO

Introduction: Fear of pain seems to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Interoceptive fear conditioning is assumed to constitute an important mechanism in the origins and maintenance of fear of pain. If conditioned stimuli such as internal bodily sensations are repeatedly paired with pain (unconditioned stimulus), they in turn elicit a conditioned fear response, including defence mobilization such as startle modulation and changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity. Research into emotional imagery suggests that defensive responses can also be elicited through imagery of fear scripts. Objectives: We present 2 novel paradigms adapted from research on anxiety disorders, which allow to test, if perceived or imagined sensations locally proximal to the main pain location trigger heightened defence response mobilization in adolescents with chronic headaches and abdominal pain. Methods: The provocation paradigm includes the anticipation and provocation of locally proximal and locally distal interoceptive sensations through disorder-specific muscle tensing tasks (tightening the neck or the abdominal muscles). The imagery paradigm includes 3 imagery scripts (standard neutral, standard fear, and disorder-specific). Startle probes are presented in both paradigms. Defence response mobilization is assessed using psychophysiological measures (startle response modulation, skin conductance level, and heart rate), as well as self-reported measures of fear. Perspective: The paradigms will give insight into the defence response of adolescents with chronic pain, when confronted with or imagining interoceptive sensations. Results may inform the improvement of clinical interventions aimed to decrease fear of bodily sensations such as interoceptive exposure or interoceptive imagery exposure.

11.
J Sleep Res ; : e12777, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334304

RESUMO

In adults, sleep selectively consolidates those memories that are relevant for future events. The present study tested whether napping after encoding plays a role in selective memory consolidation in infants. Infants aged 15 and 24 months (n = 48 per age) were randomly assigned to a nap or a no-nap demonstration condition, or a baseline control condition. In the demonstration conditions, infants observed an experimenter perform an irrelevant action followed by a relevant action to achieve a desirable outcome on four different toys. Infant imitation of irrelevant and relevant actions was coded at a test session that occurred after a 24-hr delay. The demonstration and test sessions were scheduled around infants' naturally occurring sleeping patterns. When order of actions was not taken into account, infants in both demonstration conditions exhibited retention of the relevant and irrelevant target actions. Contrary to expectations, infants in the nap condition did not perform the relevant action only more often than infants in the no-nap condition. As expected, only infants in the no-nap condition faithfully reproduced the two actions in the demonstrated order: irrelevant action first, followed by the relevant action. Thus, sleep might help infants to selectively "discard" aspects of a learning experience that they identify as being not useful or relevant in the future.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350273

RESUMO

Emotion regulation strategies have been linked to the development of mental disorders. In this experiment, we investigated if imitation is an effective way of learning to increase the usage of the emotion regulation strategy 'distraction' for 22-month-old toddlers. Toddlers in two experimental conditions participated in two waiting situations intended to elicit frustration, with a modeling situation between the first and the second waiting situation. In the modeling situation, toddlers observed how either a familiar model (parent) or an unfamiliar model (experimenter) demonstrated the use of distraction as a strategy to cope with a frustrating situation. Toddlers in an additional age-matched control condition did not witness any modeling between the two waiting situations. Analyses revealed that toddlers in both experimental conditions combined distracted themselves more in the second waiting situation than did toddlers in the control condition. There were no differences with regard to the familiarity of the model. These results suggest that providing structured observational learning situations may be a useful way to teach toddlers about the use of specific emotion regulation strategies.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225797

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila glucosyltransferase SetA, which is introduced into target cells by a type IV secretion system, affects the intracellular traffic of host cells. Here, we characterized the enzyme activity of the Legionella effector. We report that Asp118 and Arg121 of SetA are essential for glucohydrolase and glucotransferase activities. Exchange of Trp36 to alanine reduced the enzyme activity of SetA. All three amino acids were crucial for the cytotoxic effects of SetA in yeast. We observed that phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) increased the glucosyltransferase activity of SetA severalfold, while the glucohydrolase activity was not affected. In the presence of PI3P, we observed the glucosylation of actin, vimentin and the chaperonin CCT5 in the cytosolic fraction of target cells. Studies on the functional consequences of glucosylation of skeletal muscle α-actin in vitro revealed inhibition of actin polymerization by glucosylation.

14.
Psychother Psychosom ; 87(5): 276-284, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007961

RESUMO

Recent years have seen major developments in psychotherapy research that suggest the need to address critical methodological issues. These recommendations, developed by an international group of researchers, do not replace those for randomized controlled trials, but rather supplement strategies that need to be taken into account when considering psychological treatments. The limitations of traditional taxonomy and assessment methods are outlined, with suggestions for consideration of staging methods. Active psychotherapy control groups are recommended, and adaptive and dismantling study designs offer important opportunities. The treatments that are used, and particularly their specific ingredients, need to be described in detail for both the experimental and the control groups. Assessment should be performed blind before and after treatment and at long-term follow-up. A combination of observer- and self-rated measures is recommended. Side effects of psychotherapy should be evaluated using appropriate methods. Finally, the number of participants who deteriorate after treatment should be noted according to the methods that were used to define response or remission.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Psicoterapia/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199769, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulties in emotion regulation have been related to psychological and physiological stress responses such as lower mood and lower parasympathetic activation (HF-HRV) under resting condition, but evidence on the potential link to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and to physiological stress responses during a stress task is still scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate stress responses in young women when confronted to a daily stressor such as exposure to thin ideals and to understand the role of correlates of self-reported trait-like emotion regulation difficulties (ERD). METHODS: Heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol data were collected in a sample of 273 young women aged 18-35 with and without mental disorders during a vivid imagination of thin ideals (experimental condition) or landscapes (control condition). Changes in mood states were measured on a visual analogue scale (0-100). Correlates of trait-like ERD were self-reported using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). RESULTS: Participants with higher ERD showed a stronger decline in self-reported mood after vivid imagination of thin ideals compared to participants with lower ERD in the experimental condition but also a stronger increase of positive mood with increasing ERD in the control condition. ERD were not related to baseline HF-HRV or baseline salivary cortisol levels nor to any physiological response during and after the imagination of thin ideals. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results corroborate the role of ERD regarding the immediate psychological impact of daily stressors. Exposition to daily stressors in the laboratory results in discrepant psychological and physiological reactivity. Future studies should investigate under what conditions the complex interrelations between immediate and long-term ERD and biological activation are amenable to assessment in a laboratory setting. The additive effects of multiple exposition to stressors, such as thin ideals in daily life, also need to be addressed.

16.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 68(9-10): 383-390, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847849

RESUMO

Psychotherapy in children and adolescents is effective, but unwanted effects can occur. Until now, psychotherapy research has neglected this important topic, although children and youths are in need of special protection. Unwanted effects caused by therapy are not systematically investigated and a corresponding conceptualization is missing. The aim of this article is to investigate whether the current classifications of unwanted effects of psychotherapy in adults are applicable to children and adolescents and to identify distinctive features. Furthermore, the adaptation of the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy for children and adolescents (Children-INEP) is presented. Finally, steps for the information and prevention of unwanted, and negative effects of psychotherapy in children and adolescents are pointed out.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573144

RESUMO

Thought-shape fusion (TSF) describes the experience of marked concerns about body weight/shape, feelings of fatness, the perception of weight gain, and the impression of moral wrongdoing after thinking about eating fattening/forbidden foods. This study sets out to evaluate the short version of the TSF trait questionnaire (TSF). The sample consists of 315 healthy control women, 244 women with clinical and subthreshold eating disorders, and 113 women with mixed mental disorders (mixed). The factor structure of the TSF questionnaire was examined using exploratory and subsequent confirmatory factor analyses. The questionnaire distinguishes between a Concept scale and a Clinical Impact scale. However, a lack of measurement invariances refers to significant differences between groups in terms of factor loadings, thresholds, and residuals, which questions cross-group validity. Results indicate that the concept is understood differently in the 3 groups and refers to the suitability of the questionnaire primarily for individuals presenting with symptoms of eating disorders.

18.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(7): 763-772, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several delivery formats of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety have been proposed, however, there is little consensus on the optimal delivery format. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on changes in clinical severity (of the primary problem) during individual CBT, group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The secondary goal was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on rates of remission for the three treatment formats. METHODS: A sample of 1,253 children (5-12 years; Mage = 9.3, SD = 1.7) was pooled from CBT trials carried out at 10 sites. Children had a primary diagnosis of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SoAD), specific phobia (SP) or separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Children and parents completed a semistructured clinical interview to assess the presence and severity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders at preintervention, postintervention and follow-up. Linear mixture modelling was used to evaluate the primary research question and logistic modelling was used to investigate the secondary research question. RESULTS: In children with primary GAD, SAD or SoAD, there were no significant differences between delivery formats. However, children with primary SP showed significantly larger reductions in clinical severity following individual CBT compared to group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The results were mirrored in the analysis of remission responses with the exception that individual CBT was no longer superior to group CBT for children with a primary SP. The difference between individual and group was not significant when follow-up data were examined separately. CONCLUSIONS: Data show there may be greater clinical benefit by allocating children with a primary SP to individual CBT, although future research on cost-effectiveness is needed to determine whether the additional clinical benefits justify the additional resources required.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410705

RESUMO

Theoretical background: Body image distortions such as perception biases are assumed to be precursors of eating disorders (ED). This study aims to investigate body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among a sample of 11-17 year-old students in Germany. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among 1524 students of twelve secondary schools from all school types in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). A naturalistic photograph-rating consisting of photographs of young women's bodies was used to examine children's perceptions of female bodies (i.e., perceived average body size and perceived ideal body size of young women). Also, symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were examined. Results: Compared to statistical data, children and adolescents underestimated the average body size of young women by more than two BMI-points (estimated average BMI = 20), with no differences between boys and girls. Also, girls and boys generally held a slim female thin-ideal (perceived ideal BMI = 19.5), which is nearly three BMI-points below the average body size in the young female population. Girls showed a slightly stronger female thin-ideal than boys. Among all subgroups, early-adolescent girls (13-14 years) displayed the strongest thin-ideal internalization. Nearly one-third of this group perceived a BMI below 18 as ideal female body size. Symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were common among youth and most frequent among adolescent girls (15-17 years). Girls who displayed a bias towards underestimation of female body size and girls who displayed an underweight female thin-ideal were more likely to report harmful dieting behaviors and psychological distress associated with eating, body, and weight. Conclusions: This study found that 11-17 year-old girls and boys do not show accurate judgements regarding the average body size of young women. Instead, there is systematic and significant underestimation, indicating considerable perception biases, which may constitute a risk factor for the development and maintenance of ED. Symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were common, especially among girls, and associated with body-related perceptions. Future research will need to clarify the severity and course of these symptoms.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188186, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that body image disturbance is transmitted from mother to daughter via modeling of maternal body-related behaviors and attitudes (indirect transmission) and via maternal body-related feedback (direct transmission). So far, the transmission of body-related attentional biases, which according to cognitive-behavioral theories play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders, has not been analyzed. The current eye-tracking study applied the concepts of direct and indirect transmission to body-related attentional biases by examining body-related viewing patterns on self- and other-pictures within mother-daughter dyads. METHODS: Eye movements of N = 82 participants (n = 41 healthy female adolescents, mean age 15.82 years, SD = 1.80, and their mothers, mean age 47.78 years, SD = 4.52) were recorded while looking at whole-body pictures of themselves and a control peer. Based on fixations on self-defined attractive and unattractive body areas, visual attention bias scores were calculated for mothers and daughters, representing the pattern of body-related attention allocation. Based on mothers' fixations on their own daughter's and the adolescent peer's body, a second visual attention bias score was calculated, reflecting the mothers' viewing pattern on their own daughter. RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed an attentional bias for self-defined unattractive body areas in adolescents. The girls' visual attention bias score correlated significantly with their mothers' bias score, indicating indirect transmission, and with their mothers' second bias score, indicating direct transmission. Moreover, the girls' bias score correlated significantly with negative body-related feedback from their mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Female adolescents show a deficit-oriented attentional bias for one's own and a peer's body. The correlated body-related attention patterns imply that attentional biases might be transmitted directly and indirectly from mothers to daughters. Results underline the potential relevance of maternal influences for the development of body image disturbance in girls and suggest specific family-based approaches for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Imagem Corporal , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Mães , Adolescente , Família , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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