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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784361

RESUMO

In the absence of vaccines or causal therapies, behavioral measures such as wearing face masks and maintaining social distance are central to fighting Covid-19. Yet, their benefits are often questioned by the population and the level of adherence to the measures is variable. We examined in representative samples across eight countries (N = 7,568) whether adherence reported around June 1, 2020 predicted the increase in Covid-19 mortality by August 31, 2020. Mortality increased 81.3% in low adherence countries (United States, Sweden, Poland, Russia), 8.4% in high adherence countries (Germany, France, Spain, United Kingdom). Across countries adherence and subsequent mortality increases correlated with r = -0.91. No African or South American countries were included in the present study, which limits the generalizability of the findings. While reported Covid-19 mortality is likely to be influenced by other factors, the almost tenfold difference in additional mortality is significant, and may inform decisions when choosing whether to prioritize individual liberty rights or health-protective measures.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284865

RESUMO

Behavioral measures, such as the wearing of facemasks and maintaining of distance to other people, have been central in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic and will continue to be important in curbing its spread. We therefore investigated their perceived usefulness, adherence and their predictors in representative online samples in eight countries (France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K., U.S.). Of the 7,658 participants, 77.4% rated governmental measures (highest: Germany, lowest: France) as useful and 91.7% reported adherence to them. Adherence was lowest in Russia and Poland, where people felt particularly left alone and not well supported, and in the U.S. and Sweden, where governments showed ambivalent attitudes towards the measures. The highest adherence was reported in countries with very high mortality (U.K., Spain, France) or very positively perceived government communication (Germany). Female gender, higher age, belonging to a risk group, being affected physically and mentally, perception of governmental communication as guided by the interests of people, feeling of being well informed and the level of positive mental health positively predicted both outcomes, while being affected economically negatively predicted both outcomes. Country-specific results are considered in the light of the protection motivation theory and the theory of planned behavior together with potential ways to improve active participation of the population. Overall, we recommend the governments and authorities to stress that each individual can contribute to the control of the COVID-19 situation by adherence to the measures in the public communication. Moreover, they should emphasize the risk of unconscious infection of older individuals by younger people, as well as the importance of physical activity for the protection of mental and physical health especially during the pandemic.

3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170081

RESUMO

Bullying experiences in outpatients of a child and adolescent psychotherapy centre - A particularly vulnerable group? Abstract. Objective: Bullying has both short- and long-term effects on physical and mental health. Thus, more victimized children might tend to be found in clinical samples. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of bullying roles and modes in children/adolescents in a psychotherapeutic outpatient setting in Germany. Method: 298 outpatients being treated in a child/adolescent psychotherapy centre (6-20 years, 50.7 % female) completed a questionnaire concerning their bullying experiences over the last 6 months. Results: 24.5 % of the patients reported from a victim's perspective, independent of being perpetrators of bullying. 19.1 % reported solely as victims, 5.4 % as victims who also bullied (bully-victims), and 2.0 % as bullies. More than one-third of those with victim or bully-victim experiences had been polyvictimized, 86.2 % were victims solely of traditional bullying, and 1.4 % solely of cyberbullying. The exploratory comparison to general-population school samples seems to show significantly more patients with victim experiences and significantly less patients who bullied others. There seem to be no significant effects for bully-victims. Compared to an inpatient sample, significantly fewer adolescent patients seem to state being victims or bully-victims. Conclusions: Bullying is a topic of particular importance in the context of psychotherapy. These findings have implications for the psychotherapeutic practice as well as training settings.

4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 426-442, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886049

RESUMO

Assisting the Forgotten Ones - Interventions for Children of Parents with Psychological Disorders Mental diseases are associated with high levels of distress in various areas of life for those, who are affected. Taking a closer look at the social circumstances, not exclusively the people themselves but also their family members are affected, especially children. In adult treatment these children are often neglected, even if they have a higher risk of suffering a mental illness themselves. A huge amount of this risk is related to the special family environment children are often exposed to right after birth. We already find prevention programs helping these children and their parents to protect their mental health. These programs largely differ regarding parental psychopathology, setting or intensity. This article gives an overview of the special circumstances these children may be confronted with and hence derivates possible starting points to support affected families. A few existing programs will be described in detail. Empirical findings presented in the article give hope for the effectiveness of already existing programs and besides highlight the need for further research and changes in the care system.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação
5.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 14: 135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922270

RESUMO

Associative learning can be observed from the neonatal period onward, providing opportunities to examine changes in basic learning and memory abilities. One method that is suitable to study associative learning is classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) which is dependent on the cerebellum. Extinction learning can be systematically investigated in this paradigm by varying the context during learning and extinction. Because of methodological difficulties and ethical challenges, no studies have compared extinction learning using EBC across human development. Our goal was to test feasibility of a 3-day delay EBC paradigm that can be used from infancy to adulthood. Acceptance/safety was tested especially for infancy by investigating attrition rates and parental report on infant wellbeing. On a paradigm side, we tested if the paradigm leads to successful acquisition and extinction. An air puff served as unconditional stimulus (US) and a tone as conditional stimulus (CS). On day 1 during acquisition, participants received 36 US-CS pairings in context A. On day 2, participants received 12 acquisition trials in context A to consolidate association learning, followed by 48 extinction trials (tone alone presentations) in context B. Renewal was assessed on day 3 and incorporated 12 CS alone trials presented in both the acquisition context and the extinction context. Eyeblink responses were videotaped and coded offline. The protocol was tested with 12-36-months-old infants (N = 72), adolescents (N = 8), and adults (N = 8). Concerning the acceptance/safety side, attrition ranged from 21 to 58% in infant samples due to the complex preparation of the children for the paradigm. However, attrition is equal to or lower than other infant learning paradigms. Parents of infant samples were very interested in the paradigm and reported low levels of infant stress, exhaustion, and negative feelings during the sessions. Data quality was very high, and no participant had to be excluded because of insufficient data. Concerning the paradigm side, participants showed successful acquisition and extinction as a group. The procedure is ethically sound, feasible, tolerated by many infants, and acceptable among parents. The data show successful acquisition and extinction rates, making the paradigm a valuable tool for investigating developmental changes in extinction learning over the lifespan.

6.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-13, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The desire to have children has been declining globally, especially in industrialized nations. This study examines the physical health correlates, and positive and negative mental health correlates of the wish to have a child across time and in two countries. METHOD: Questionnaire data were obtained from large-scale university samples of 12,574 participants in Germany and China. RESULTS: The wish to have a child (child wish) is related to positive and negative mental health in China and, to a lesser degree, in Germany. Child wish is positively related to some aspects of mental and somatic health for Chinese women and men, negatively to depression for Chinese and German men and Chinese women, and positively to stress for German men, with generally small effects. Effects hold when controlling for age, partnership status, and family affluence. Most relationships were almost equal between women and men (in both China and Germany), and between countries with the exception of two different paths in each gender group. That is, having a partner is associated with a higher child wish in both Chinese and German female students. In China, older female students are more likely to want to have a child, while older female students in Germany are less likely to want to have a child. Neither partnership nor age predict child wish for the next year. CONCLUSION: In sum, Chinese students reported feeling more positively about having children when they were happy and healthy, with the exception that highly satisfied Chinese males report lower child wish in the next year. More depressed Chinese and German men and Chinese women reported lowered child wish, and stressed German men reported more child wish. Older students reported more (Chinese) or less (German) child wish depending on country.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948972

RESUMO

Contrary to the well-documented link between parental and offspring clinical anxiety, little is known about the relationship between parental everyday-life anxieties (e.g., concerning family, finances, health) and offspring anxieties. To close this gap, we assessed the frequency of parental symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and everyday-life anxieties, as well as the frequency of offspring anxiety symptoms in a representative sample by self-report. Parents reported that 48.4% of the children were free of specific symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders within the last 12 months, 39.2% showed low symptom load (1-3 symptoms) and 12.4% were moderately or severely strained (4-10 symptoms). Replicating previous studies, parental DSM-IV symptoms increased offspring risk for the same symptoms. In addition, parental everyday-life anxieties showed a positive relationship with offspring symptom severity. Demographic variables (female sex, low socioeconomic status and younger age) and parental anxiety markers explained 18% of variance in offspring symptom severity. The data are discussed in light of current models of familial transmission.

8.
Child Dev ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813886

RESUMO

Why do infants remember some things and not others? Human infants frequently cycle through different states such as calm attentiveness, wakeful activity, and crying. Given that cognitive processes do not occur in isolation, such fluctuations in internal state might influence memory processing. In the present experiment, declarative memory in 9-month-old infants (N = 96) was heavily state dependent. Infants exhibited excellent retention of a deferred imitation task after a 15-min delay if their state at encoding was identical to their state at retrieval (e.g., calm). Infants failed to exhibit retention if their state at encoding was different from their state at retrieval (e.g., calm vs. animated). Infant memory processing depends on internal cues.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234997, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574202

RESUMO

The present study examines a broad range of longitudinal predictors of dimensional positive mental health (PMH) and negative mental health (NMH), using data from the BOOM study. Participants were drawn from university student samples in Germany (1,608), Russia (677) and China (12,057). A structural equation model was conducted with four groups of predictors and PMH/NMH as criteria (outcomes). Five of the six salutogenic predictors were predictive of both positive mental health (positively) and negative mental health, as measured by depression (negatively). Pathogenic predictors anxiety and depression were related to future depression, but not to positive mental health. Stress at baseline was related to both future positive mental health (negatively) and future depression (positively). Being male in this study was associated with increased future depression. Results hold across Germany, Russia, and China. Results support the conceptualization of positive and negative mental health as related, but independent dimensions across three cultures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Otimismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 96, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children and adolescents, anxiety disorders (ADs) are among the most prevalent mental disorders. While there is a solid empirical foundation to support CBT as an evidence-based treatment for childhood ADs, the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of CBT are not well explored. Exposure is assumed to be vital to the efficacy of CBT in ADs, but empirical evidence (e.g., dismantling studies) showing that exposure is indeed a vital element of effective treatments is relatively scarce. The proposed meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of exposure in reducing symptoms of anxiety among children and adolescents. METHODS: A systematic search of several electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Psyndex plus, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE will be conducted (from inception onwards). We will include randomized and non-randomized clinical trials examining exposure and anxiety among children and adolescents. If feasible, we will also include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. The primary outcome will be improvement in anxiety levels (recovery or change in anxiety rating scale) after exposure. Three reviewers will independently screen all citations, abstract data, and full-text articles. The methodological quality (or risk of bias) of individual studies will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct mixed effects meta-analysis. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., dose of exposure, age group, methodological quality). DISCUSSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will examine the role of exposure in reducing symptoms of anxiety among youth. The review will provide information on the working mechanisms underlying the efficacy of CBT. Our findings will be of interest to mental health professionals, researchers, and policy makers who wish to support children and adolescents with anxiety disorders by guiding well-informed treatment decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42019128667).

11.
Mhealth ; 6: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190614

RESUMO

Access to psychological interventions during early stages of psychosis is essential for ameliorating outcomes and improving prognosis. However, reaching and engaging individuals at these stages of the illness can be very challenging for early intervention teams. Recent digital technological advances have emerged to overcome some of these challenges and to improve access to psychological interventions. The aim of the present literature review is to summarise main findings of relevant studies published during the last 10 years on the utilization of digital technologies (i.e., virtual reality, smartphone technology and web-based interventions) to enhance psychological treatment outcomes in early psychosis. A literature search from January 2009 to June 2019 was performed to identify relevant papers. Of 1,502 studies identified, nine met inclusion criteria for the review and only five presented results from finalised trials. Overall, these studies showed positive feasibility and acceptability results, along with preliminary evidence of improved therapy outcomes. The present review offers a state-of-the-art summary of the main features of these user-centered digital interventions for early stages of psychosis and a critical discussion about their future implementation in mental health services.

12.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736826

RESUMO

Problems in infant mental health such as the ability to experience, regulate, and express emotional states is expressed in behavioral problems like excessive crying, feeding, and sleeping problems. Parenting programs are popular but their effectiveness on infant mental health remains uncertain. Possibly, because recent studies have focused only on parental and parent-child measures while they miss to assess infant behavioral measures. The goal of this pilot study is to fill in this gap by assessing infantile behavioral measures. We investigated the acceptance and first indicators of efficacy of the universal group parenting training Baby Triple P (BTP) compared to a care as usual (CAU) control condition focusing on early behavioral problems. In all, 49 couples were randomly allocated to receive either eight BTP sessions before birth and per telephone after birth or to take part in CAU. Infant behavior was assessed with a diary and a structured diagnostic interview. Parental self-report measures of partnership quality and parental competence were assessed before birth, 10 weeks after birth and at 6-month follow-up. Since the parent training was conducted before the birth of the child, the child's mental health could not be assessed before the parent training. Thus, for this variable no within measurement (pre-post) could be carried out and intention-to-treat analysis was not possible. However, a between group analysis comparing BTP against CAU took place to assess effectiveness of BTP on children's mental health. Mothers and fathers rated the program as feasible and relevant. Results indicate significant group differences in crying behavior 6 months after birth to the benefit of the intervention group. No beneficial outcomes were found for feeding and sleeping problems in infants or partnership quality, parental sense of competence in parents. Due to an unrepresentative high level of education of the participating parents and the small sample size, these findings can be considered preliminary. Nevertheless, these results allow to further investigate the effectivity of BTP in large-scale clinical trials. Behavioral diaries or diagnostic interviews for early mental health problems should be routinely implemented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order not to miss possible behavioral changes in infants. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02313493.

13.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
15.
SSM Popul Health ; 7: 100392, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989104

RESUMO

Prevalence rates for mental health problems are higher when an individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is low, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. We investigated associations between education as indicator for SES and depressive symptoms as well as positive mental health (PMH). Moreover, we hypothesized that low education is associated with a lack of psychosocial resources and more daily hassles, which in turn mediate the relationships between education and mental health. In a German representative sample (N = 7937), we cross-sectionally first examined whether a person's educational level was associated with depressive symptoms and PMH. Educational level was defined as the highest academic qualification achieved. Second, we investigated whether also sense of control, resilience, delay of gratification, cultural activity and daily hassles followed gradients along the educational level. Third, we investigated whether they mediated the relationship between education and mental health. Results showed that depressive symptoms measured by items from the DASS-42 depression subscale were more prevalent for persons with a low educational level, PMH operationalized by the Positive Mental Health Scale was equally distributed, and all psychosocial characteristics followed the gradient of educational level. In addition, the group with a high school diploma was particularly burdened. Structural equation modeling indicated that the associations between education and mental health were mediated by all psychosocial characteristics and daily hassles, apart from the delay of gratification. In the group with the lowest educational level the model fit indices for depressive symptoms and PMH were acceptable (χ2 = 10007.243 (627), CFI = 0.869, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI [0.04, 0.04], SRMR = 0.05; and χ2 = 12779.968 (741), CFI = 0.86, RMSEA = 0.05 (90% CI [0.05, 0.05], SRMR = 0.05), respectively). The effect size Pm refers to the proportion of the total effect that is mediated by one or more variables ("M"), and the effect size of all indirect effects in the model for depressive symptoms was Pm = .80 and for PMH it was Pm = .68. The results support our hypotheses that low education is associated with less psychosocial resources, which in turn serve together with daily hassles as pathways between education and depressive symptoms as well as PMH. Building on these findings, longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate causality.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study conducted secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial to examine the transgenerational relationship between cognitive-behavioral therapy for child Separation Anxiety Disorder (SepAD) and the mental health of parents. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were compared before and after child treatment between parents of children treated for SepAD and parents of healthy children, who did not receive any treatment. METHODS: One hundred and seven children aged 4-14 years with SepAD received one of two cognitive behavioral treatment programs for SepAD (TAFF; TrennungsAngstprogramm Für Familien; English: Separation Anxiety Family Therapy or CC; Coping Cat). Their parents (N = 189; 101 mothers and 88 fathers) were assessed at baseline and post-treatment for symptoms of separation anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. A comparison group of parents (N = 74; 42 mothers and 32 fathers) of 45 children without SepAD, who did not receive any treatment, were also assessed. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant interaction effect between group and time on mothers' depression and separation anxiety, indicating that maternal symptoms of depression and separation anxiety improved in the child treatment condition in comparison to mothers of healthy children. There was no significant improvement in parental pathology levels among fathers of children treated for SepAD. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment for child SepAD may have subsequent positive effects on mothers' own levels of separation anxiety and depression, though the mechanisms are yet unknown. Future studies are needed that test the transgenerational effect of child SepAD treatment on parental mental health as the primary research question.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/terapia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/diagnóstico , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Psychosom Med ; 81(2): 155-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impairments in facial emotion recognition are an underlying factor of deficits in emotion regulation and interpersonal difficulties in mental disorders and are evident in eating disorders (EDs). METHODS: We used a computerized psychophysical paradigm to manipulate parametrically the quantity of signal in facial expressions of emotion (QUEST threshold seeking algorithm). This was used to measure emotion recognition in 308 adult women (anorexia nervosa [n = 61], bulimia nervosa [n = 58], healthy controls [n = 130], and mixed mental disorders [mixed, n = 59]). The M (SD) age was 22.84 (3.90) years. The aims were to establish recognition thresholds defining how much information a person needs to recognize a facial emotion expression and to identify deficits in EDs compared with healthy and clinical controls. The stimuli included six basic emotion expressions (fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise), plus a neutral expression. RESULTS: Happiness was discriminated at the lowest, fear at the highest threshold by all groups. There were no differences regarding thresholds between groups, except for the mixed and the bulimia nervosa group with respect to the expression of disgust (F(3,302) = 5.97, p = .001, η = .056). Emotional clarity, ED pathology, and depressive symptoms did not predict performance (RChange ≤ .010, F(1,305) ≤ 5.74, p ≥ .079). The confusion matrix did not reveal specific biases in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, within-subject effects were as expected, whereas between-subject effects were marginal and psychopathology did not influence emotion recognition. Facial emotion recognition abilities in women experiencing EDs compared with women experiencing mixed mental disorders and healthy controls were similar. Although basic facial emotion recognition processes seems to be intact, dysfunctional aspects such as misinterpretation might be important in emotion regulation problems. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS-ID: DRKS00005709.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(4): 566-579, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710313

RESUMO

This study investigates the temporal patterning of infant self-regulatory behaviors (crying/fussing, sleeping) in relation to both infant (age, sex, regulatory problems) and maternal variables (soothing behaviors, mood). Self-regulatory and soothing behaviors were assessed in 121 mother-infant dyads (4-44 weeks) by the Baby's Day Diary at 5 min intervals over 3 days. Further infant characteristics and maternal mood were assessed by questionnaires (DASS, CES-D, STAI) and the Diagnostic Interview for the Assessment of Regulatory Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood. Data were analyzed using generalized additive mixed models. Negative maternal mood was associated with a deviant course of crying/fussing during the day. Body contact was associated with reduced variability in the 24 h course of sleep. Mother-infant transactional processes-above and beyond known relationships with overall levels of crying/fussing and sleeping-might play out on the temporal dimension of infant regulatory behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adulto , Choro/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Affect Disord ; 248: 147-154, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarianism is linked with better physical health, but also to increased anxiety and depression. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between vegetarianism and both positive and negative mental health, across cultures and over time. METHOD: Self-report questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national cross-sectional sample including 2007 representative adult members of the German population, 3020 representative adults from Russia, and 3038 representative adults from the USA. Participants for the longitudinal analyses include university students from Germany (1608) and China (12,744). Statistical models included multiple linear regression, longitudinal linear models and longitudinal logistic models. RESULTS: Vegetarianism diet is not reliably related to positive or negative mental health in US and Russian representative samples or in German representative or student samples. Vegetarianism is related to slight increases over time in anxiety and depression in Chinese students. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarianism is not associated with mental health in the US, Russia, or Germany, but is associated with anxiety and depression in China in this study. Future studies should examine the nuances of vegetarianism in more detail and their links with mental health, including dietary composition and cultural beliefs and economic circumstances. Future researchers in this area may also want to consider the effects of experimental manipulation of diet on mental health outcomes over time.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/etnologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993000

RESUMO

Bullying victimization by peers is highly prevalent in childhood and adolescence. There is convincing evidence that victimization is associated with adverse mental health consequences. In contrast, it has been found that perpetrators suffer no adverse mental health consequences. These findings originate from Western countries such as Germany but have rarely been investigated in collectivistic societies such as China. Furthermore, it has been rarely studied whether positive intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., personal resilience and self-efficacy) and interpersonal positive resources (e.g., social support) may mediate the impact of bullying on mental health. The current study used a path analytic model to examine, firstly, whether previous bullying experiences (both victimization and perpetration) are associated with current positive and negative mental health in university students and, secondly, whether these influences are mediated by social support, resilience, and self-efficacy. The model was tested in 5,912 Chinese and 1,935 German university students. It was found that in both countries, higher victimization frequency was associated with lower levels of social support, personal resilience, and self-efficacy, which in turn predicted poorer mental health. Moreover, and only in China, perpetration was negatively associated with social support and personal resilience but not self-efficacy. In contrast, in the German sample, perpetration experience was found to enhance one's self-efficacy, and the later was associated with better mental health. The results support a mediation model in which social support, personal resilience, and self-efficacy partially mediate the influence of victimization on mental health in both countries. For the relationship between perpetration and mental health, self-efficacy was the only full mediator in Germany, whereas in China, both social support and personal resilience were partial mediators. In conclusion, peer victimization has adverse effects on mental health in both Germany and China. Only in China, however, is perpetration also associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In contrast, getting ahead by bullying in an individualistic society such as Germany is associated with increased self-efficacy and mental health. The differences found between an individualistic country and a collectivistic country have important implications for understanding and planning interventions to reduce bullying.

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