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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types of SOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2228-2232, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321892

RESUMO

Primrose syndrome (PRIMS), a rare genetic disorder with several clinical findings including intellectual disability, macrocephaly, typical facial features, and muscle wasting, is caused by heterozygous variants in the ZBTB20 gene. We report the cases of two males diagnosed with PRIMS at different ages, emphasizing the likely progressive nature of the disorder, as well as the differences and similarities of presentation during infancy and adulthood. Patient 1 is a 2-year-old American male with a medical history marked by impaired hearing, developmental delays, and fainting spells. Patient 2 is a 28-year-old Brazilian male, who presents with a phenotype similar to that seen in Patient 1 with additional features of ectopic calcifications and prominent muscular and skeletal abnormalities. Additionally, Patient 2 has a history of fainting spells and diminished body height and weight, with the latter features having only been reported in one PRIMS patient so far. Both Patients 1 and 2 were found to carry heterozygous likely pathogenic missense variants, detected in the last coding exon of ZBTB20 (c.1822T>C, p.Cys608Arg, de novo, and c.1873A>G, p.Met625Val, respectively), consistent with PRIMS. Overall, these case reports highlight PRIMS's likely progressive nature and contribute to the understanding of the natural history of this condition.

3.
Brain ; 142(9): 2617-2630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327001

RESUMO

The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1225-1234, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976111

RESUMO

The DOCK3 gene encodes the Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) protein, which belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and is expressed almost exclusively in the brain and spinal cord. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the molecular cause of developmental delay and hypotonia in three unrelated probands. WES identified truncating and splice site variants in Patient 1 and compound heterozygous and homozygous missense variants in Patients 2 and 3, respectively. We studied the effect of the three missense variants in vitro by using site-directed mutagenesis and pull-down assay and show that the induction of Rac1 activation was significantly lower in DOCK3 mutant cells compared with wild type human DOCK3 (P < 0.05). We generated a protein model to further examine the effect of the two missense variants within or adjacent to the DHR-2 domain in DOCK3 and this model supports pathogenicity. Our results support a loss of function mechanism but the data on the patients with missense variants should be cautiously interpreted because of the variability of the phenotypes and limited number of cases. Prior studies have described DOCK3 bi-allelic loss of function variants in two families with ataxia, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Here, we report on three patients with DOCK3-related developmental delay, wide-based or uncoordinated gait, and hypotonia, further supporting DOCK3's role in a neurodevelopmental syndrome and expanding the spectrum of phenotypic and genotypic variability.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 582-593, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622326

RESUMO

The Integrator complex subunit 1 (INTS1) is a component of the integrator complex that comprises 14 subunits and associates with RPB1 to catalyze endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs and assist RNA polymerase II in promoter-proximal pause-release on protein-coding genes. We present five patients, including two sib pairs, with biallelic sequence variants in INTS1. The patients manifested absent or severely limited speech, an abnormal gait, hypotonia and cataracts. Exome sequencing revealed biallelic variants in INTS1 in all patients. One sib pair demonstrated a missense variant, p.(Arg77Cys), and a frameshift variant, p.(Arg1800Profs*20), another sib pair had a homozygous missense variant, p.(Pro1874Leu), and the fifth patient had a frameshift variant, p.(Leu1764Cysfs*16) and a missense variant, p.(Leu2164Pro). We also report additional clinical data on three previously described individuals with a homozygous, loss of function variant, p.(Ser1784*) in INTS1 that shared cognitive delays, cataracts and dysmorphic features with these patients. Several of the variants affected the protein C-terminus and preliminary modeling showed that the p.(Pro1874Leu) and p.(Leu2164Pro) variants may interfere with INTS1 helix folding. In view of the cataracts observed, we performed in-situ hybridization and demonstrated expression of ints1 in the zebrafish eye. We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 to make larvae with biallelic insertion/deletion (indel) variants in ints1. The mutant larvae developed typically through gastrulation, but sections of the eye showed abnormal lens development. The distinctive phenotype associated with biallelic variants in INTS1 points to dysfunction of the integrator complex as a mechanism for intellectual disability, eye defects and craniofacial anomalies.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162653

RESUMO

Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified seven unrelated individuals with global developmental delay, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and an increased frequency of short stature, ataxia, and autism with de novo heterozygous frameshift, nonsense, splice, and missense variants in the Early B-cell Transcription Factor Family Member 3 (EBF3) gene. EBF3 is a member of the collier/olfactory-1/early B-cell factor (COE) family of proteins, which are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. COE proteins are highly evolutionarily conserved and regulate neuronal specification, migration, axon guidance, and dendritogenesis during development and are essential for maintaining neuronal identity in adult neurons. Haploinsufficiency of EBF3 may affect brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral differences observed in individuals with a deleterious variant in EBF3.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Ataxia/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sequência Conservada/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Genet ; 135(12): 1399-1409, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681385

RESUMO

Intellectual disabilities are genetically heterogeneous and can be associated with congenital anomalies. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified five different de novo missense variants in the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB) gene in eight unrelated individuals who share an overlapping phenotype of dysmorphic features, macrocephaly, developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID), congenital heart disease, short stature, and skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of a variety of proteins. The PPP1CB gene encodes a PP1 subunit that regulates the level of protein phosphorylation. All five altered amino acids we observed are highly conserved among the PP1 subunit family, and all are predicted to disrupt PP1 subunit binding and impair dephosphorylation. Our data suggest that our heterozygous de novo PPP1CB pathogenic variants are associated with syndromic intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fosforilação/genética
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2383-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311559

RESUMO

We report a 25-year-old female confirmed to have Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) due to a de novo RAI1 variant. Her past history is significant for developmental and intellectual delay, early and escalating maladaptive behaviors, and features consistent with significant sleep disturbance, the etiology of which was not confirmed for over two decades. The diagnosis of SMS was initially suspected in 1998 (at age 12 years), but that was 5 years before the initial report of RAI1 variants as causative of the SMS phenotype; cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization studies failed to confirm an interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. Re-evaluation for suspected SMS was pursued with RAI1 sequencing analysis in response to urgent parental concerns of escalating behaviors and aggression with subsequent incarceration of the subject for assault of a health professional. Genetic analysis revealed a de novo RAI1 (NM_030665.3) nonsense variant, c.5536C>T; p.Q1846X. This case illustrates the importance of confirming the SMS diagnosis, which is associated with cognitive and functional impairment, as well as significant psychiatric co-morbidities and behavioral problems. The diagnosis was particularly relevant to the legal discussion and determination of her competence to stand trial. As other similar cases may exist, this report will help to increase awareness of the possibility of a very late diagnosis of SMS, with the need for re-evaluation of individuals suspected to have SMS who were initially evaluated prior to the identification of the RAI1 gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Tardio , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 963-970, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087320

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and defects involving the brain, eye, ear, heart, and kidney. Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats (RERE) is located in the proximal 1p36 critical region. RERE is a widely-expressed nuclear receptor coregulator that positively regulates retinoic acid signaling. Animal models suggest that RERE deficiency might contribute to many of the structural and developmental birth defects and medical problems seen in individuals with 1p36 deletion syndrome, although human evidence supporting this role has been lacking. In this report, we describe ten individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and/or autism spectrum disorder who carry rare and putatively damaging changes in RERE. In all cases in which both parental DNA samples were available, these changes were found to be de novo. Associated features that were recurrently seen in these individuals included hypotonia, seizures, behavioral problems, structural CNS anomalies, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, and genitourinary abnormalities. The spectrum of defects documented in these individuals is similar to that of a cohort of 31 individuals with isolated 1p36 deletions that include RERE and are recapitulated in RERE-deficient zebrafish and mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutations in RERE cause a genetic syndrome and that haploinsufficiency of RERE might be sufficient to cause many of the phenotypes associated with proximal 1p36 deletions.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
17.
J Dermatol Case Rep ; 10(3): 53-55, 2016 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome due to mutation in fumarate hydratase. Patients with HLRCC frequently develop cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata and are at risk for renal cell carcinoma. Rarely, other malignancies have been reported. MAIN OBSERVATIONS: We report the development of basal cell carcinoma and melanoma in two siblings with genetically-confirmed HLRCC. CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear whether the development of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma in our patients is due directly to their mutations in the gene encoding fumarate hydratase, or genetic susceptibility at another unrelated locus, or whether these are incidental lesions. However this observation has implications for careful and routine skin surveillance in patients with HLRCC for lesions other than cutaneous leiomyomata.

18.
J Med Genet ; 52(11): 754-61, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare de novo mutations have been implicated as a significant cause of idiopathic intellectual disability. Large deletions encompassing 10p11.23 have been implicated in developmental delay, behavioural abnormalities and dysmorphic features, but the genotype-phenotype correlation was not delineated. Mutations in WAC have been recently reported in large screening cohorts of patients with intellectual disability or autism, but no full phenotypic characterisation was described. METHODS: Clinical and molecular characterisation of six patients with loss-of-function WAC mutations identified by whole exome sequencing was performed. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective chart review, parental interviews, direct patient interaction and formal neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS: Five heterozygous de novo WAC mutations were identified in six patients. Three of the mutations were nonsense, and two were frameshift; all are predicted to cause loss of function either through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or protein truncation. Clinical findings included developmental delay (6/6), hypotonia (6/6), behavioural problems (5/6), eye abnormalities (5/6), constipation (5/6), feeding difficulties (4/6), seizures (2/6) and sleep problems (2/6). All patients exhibited common dysmorphic features, including broad/prominent forehead, synophrys and/or bushy eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge and bulbous nasal tip. Posteriorly rotated ears, hirsutism, deep-set eyes, thin upper lip, inverted nipples, hearing loss and branchial cleft anomalies were also noted. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series show that loss-of-function mutations in WAC cause a recognisable genetic syndrome characterised by a neurocognitive phenotype and facial dysmorphism. Our data highly suggest that WAC haploinsufficiency is responsible for most of the phenotypic features associated with deletions encompassing 10p11.23.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Síndrome
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(8): 1833-52, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23813913

RESUMO

Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome.


Assuntos
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/patologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
20.
N Engl J Med ; 367(14): 1321-31, 2012 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22970919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some copy-number variants are associated with genomic disorders with extreme phenotypic heterogeneity. The cause of this variation is unknown, which presents challenges in genetic diagnosis, counseling, and management. METHODS: We analyzed the genomes of 2312 children known to carry a copy-number variant associated with intellectual disability and congenital abnormalities, using array comparative genomic hybridization. RESULTS: Among the affected children, 10.1% carried a second large copy-number variant in addition to the primary genetic lesion. We identified seven genomic disorders, each defined by a specific copy-number variant, in which the affected children were more likely to carry multiple copy-number variants than were controls. We found that syndromic disorders could be distinguished from those with extreme phenotypic heterogeneity on the basis of the total number of copy-number variants and whether the variants are inherited or de novo. Children who carried two large copy-number variants of unknown clinical significance were eight times as likely to have developmental delay as were controls (odds ratio, 8.16; 95% confidence interval, 5.33 to 13.07; P=2.11×10(-38)). Among affected children, inherited copy-number variants tended to co-occur with a second-site large copy-number variant (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.66; P<0.001). Boys were more likely than girls to have disorders of phenotypic heterogeneity (P<0.001), and mothers were more likely than fathers to transmit second-site copy-number variants to their offspring (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple, large copy-number variants, including those of unknown pathogenic significance, compound to result in a severe clinical presentation, and secondary copy-number variants are preferentially transmitted from maternal carriers. (Funded by the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative and the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fatores Sexuais
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