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1.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(6)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610227

RESUMO

Objective: Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, topiramate, and venlafaxine have previously shown efficacy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in randomized clinical trials. Two prior studies using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records data show these medications are also effective in routine practice. Using an expanded retrospective cohort, we assessed the possibility of differential patterns of response based on patient and clinical factors.Methods: We identified 6,839 VA outpatients with clinical diagnoses of PTSD between October 1999 and September 2019 who initiated one of the medications and met pre-specified criteria for treatment duration and dose, combined with baseline and endpoint PTSD checklist (PCL) measurements. We compared 12-week changes in PCL score within clinical subgroups defined by sex, race and ethnicity, and military exposures, as well as comorbidities. Comorbidities were identified using International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes and grouped according to major diagnostic classifications in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (eg, Psychotic Disorders, Depressive Disorders). We used a propensity score weighting approach to balance covariates among medication arms within each clinical subgroup. In our exploratory analyses using unweighted data for the overall cohort, we built penalized logistic regression models to identify covariates that predicted meaningful improvement.Results: There were no significant differences between medications in our weighted subgroup analyses. In unweighted exploratory analyses, higher baseline PCL scores and concurrent receipt of evidence-based psychotherapy predicted meaningful improvement, while high levels of disability predicted not realizing meaningful improvement.Conclusions: In the largest real-world study of medications for PTSD to date, we did not observe a pattern of differential response among clinical subgroups. All patients taking medications for PTSD, especially those with the highest levels of disability, should consider combined treatment with evidence-based psychotherapy.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with better health behavior such as better medication adherence and greater use of nutrition and weight loss programs. However, it is not known if reducing PTSD severity is associated with smoking cessation, a poor health behavior common in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) medical record data (2008 to 2015) were used to identify patients with PTSD diagnosed in specialty care. Clinically meaningful PTSD improvement, was defined as ≥20 point PTSD Checklist (PCL) decrease from the first PCL ≥ 50 and the last available PCL within 12 months and at least 8 weeks later. The association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and smoking cessation within 2-years after baseline among 449 smokers was estimated in Cox proportional hazard models. Entropy balancing controlled for confounding. RESULTS: On average, patients were 39.4 (SD=12.9) years of age, 86.6% were male and 71.5% were white. We observed clinically meaningful PTSD improvement in 19.8% of participants. Overall, 19.4% quit smoking in year 1 and 16.6% in year 2. More patients with vs. without clinically meaningful PTSD improvement stopped smoking (n=36, cumulative incidence=40.5% vs. 111, cumulative incidence=30.8%; respectively). After controlling for confounding, patients with vs. without clinically meaningful PTSD improvement were more likely to stop smoking within 2-years (HR=1.57; 95%CI:1.04-2.36). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinically meaningful PTSD improvement were significantly more likely to stop smoking. Further research should determine if targeted interventions are needed or whether improvement in PTSD symptoms is sufficient to enable smoking cessation. IMPLICATIONS: Patients with PTSD are more likely to develop chronic health conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. Poor health behaviors, including smoking, partly explain the risk for chronic disease in this patient population. Our results demonstrate that clinically meaningful PTSD improvement is followed by greater likelihood of smoking cessation. Thus, PTSD treatment may enable healthier behaviors and reduce risk for smoking related disease.

3.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106540, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416369

RESUMO

There are currently no validated pharmacotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related insomnia. The purpose of the National Adaptive Trial for PTSD-Related Insomnia (NAP Study) is to efficiently compare to placebo the effects of three insomnia medications with different mechanisms of action that are already prescribed widely to veterans diagnosed with PTSD within U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. This study plans to enroll 1224 patients from 34 VA Medical Centers into a 12- week prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing trazodone, eszopiclone, and gabapentin. The primary outcome measure is insomnia, assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index. A novel aspect of this study is its adaptive design. At the recruitment midpoint, an interim analysis will be conducted to inform a decision to close recruitment to any "futile" arms (i.e. arms where further recruitment is very unlikely to yield a significant result) while maintaining the overall study recruitment target. This step could result in the enrichment of the remaining study arms, enhancing statistical power for the remaining comparisons to placebo. This study will also explore clinical, actigraphic, and biochemical predictors of treatment response that may guide future biomarker development. Lastly, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, this study will allow the consenting process and follow-up visits to be conducted via video or phone contact if in-person meetings are not possible. Overall, this study aims to identify at least one effective pharmacotherapy for PTSD-related insomnia, and, perhaps, to generate definitive negative data to reduce the use of ineffective insomnia medications. NATIONAL CLINICAL TRIAL (NCT) IDENTIFIED NUMBER: NCT03668041.

5.
J Trauma Stress ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291832

RESUMO

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of daily life and required a rapid and unprecedented shift in psychotherapy delivery from in-person to telemental health. In the present study, we explored the impact of the pandemic on individuals' ability to participate in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy and the association between the impact of COVID-19 impact on health and financial well-being and psychotherapy participation. Participants (N = 161, 63.2% male, Mage = 42.7 years) were United States military veterans (n = 108), active duty military personnel (n = 12), and civilians (n = 6), who were participating in one of nine PTSD treatment trials. The results indicate a predominately negative COVID-19 impact on therapy participation, although some participants (26.1%) found attending therapy sessions through telehealth to be easier than in-person therapy. Most participants (66.7%) reported that completing in vivo exposure homework became harder during the pandemic. Moreover, the impact of the pandemic on PTSD symptom severity and daily stress were each associated with increased difficulty with aspects of therapy participation. The findings highlight the unique challenges to engaging in PTSD treatment during the pandemic as well as a negative impact on daily stress and PTSD severity, both of which were related to treatment engagement difficulties.

7.
Behav Res Ther ; 142: 103872, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051626

RESUMO

PTSD treatment guidelines recommend several treatments with extensive empirical support, including Prolonged Exposure (PE), a trauma-focused treatment and Present-Centered Therapy (PCT), a non-trauma-focused therapy. Research to inform treatment selection has yielded inconsistent findings with single prognostic variables that are difficult to integrate into clinical decision-making. We examined whether a combination of prognostic factors can predict different benefits in a trauma-focused vs. a non-trauma-focused psychotherapy. We applied a multi-method variable selection procedure and developed a prognostic index (PI) with a sample of 267 female veterans and active-duty service members (mean age 45; SD = 9.37; 53% White) with current PTSD who began treatment in a randomized clinical trial comparing PE and PCT. We conducted linear regressions predicting outcomes (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score) with treatment condition, the PI, and the interaction between the PI and treatment condition. The interaction between treatment type and PI moderated treatment response, moderated post-treatment symptom severity, b = 0.30, SEb = 0.15 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.60], p = .049. For the 64% of participants with the best prognoses, PE resulted in better post-treatment outcomes; for the remainder, there was no difference. Use of a PI may lead to optimized patient outcomes and greater confidence when selecting trauma-focused treatments.

8.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(3): 398-406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914556

RESUMO

Consensus reports have called for interventions to educate civilians about the reintegration challenges that veterans experience. The current study describes veterans' perspectives of what the public should know and what the public can do to help veterans reintegrate into civilian life. We conducted thematic analysis of written essays from a stratified random sample of 100 US veterans (half women, half deployed from National Guard or Reserves) from Afghanistan and Iraq military operations who had participated in the control writing condition from a randomized controlled trial of expressive writing to improve reintegration outcomes. Veterans described a military-civilian divide that makes reintegration difficult and recommended that the public help bridge this divide. The divide was attributable to the uniqueness of military culture and bonds, the personal changes associated with deployment, and the time it takes for veterans to reacclimate. Five themes captured what the public can do to foster veteran reintegration: understand deployment hardships; appreciate deployment accomplishments; assist veterans in getting professional help; listen, don't judge; and recognize that employment is critical to reintegration. Themes were present across groupings by gender, type of military service and screening status for posttraumatic stress disorder. Findings can inform interventions that target the public's understanding of and response to returning veteran. Consistent with an ecological model of reintegration, such interventions have the potential to foster successful reintegration. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(4): 889-894, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743184

RESUMO

Validated retrospective self-report symptom rating scales are recommended for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening and treatment. However, such reports may be affected by a respondent's most intense ("peak") or most recent ("end") symptoms. The present study evaluated the correspondence between PTSD symptoms assessed using a standard past-month retrospective rating scale and recorded by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over the same period and tested hypotheses that retrospective scores would be predicted by peak and end-period momentary symptoms. Male U.S. veterans (N = 35) who served post-9/11 completed the PTSD Symptom Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) at baseline and 1 month later. For 28 days during the intervening period, they received quasi-randomly timed text prompts to complete a modified version of the PCL-5 at that moment. Using multiple regression modeling, controlling for the number of completed EMAs and time (days) since the last EMA, we assessed the predictability of follow-up retrospective PCL-5 scores by (a) the mean of all momentary scores and (b) peak and last-day momentary scores. Retrospective PCL-5 scores were closest to peak scores, d = -0.31, and substantially higher than overall mean, d = 0.99, and last-day momentary scores, d = 0.94. In the regression model, peak symptom experiences and last-day momentary symptoms uniquely predicted follow-up PCL-5 scores over and above significant prediction by overall mean momentary symptom scores. In sum, participants' self-reported past-month PTSD symptom severity did not simply reflect an average over time. Additional questioning is needed to understand peak and recent symptom periods reflected in these estimates.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 334-342, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636689

RESUMO

Some narrow patterns of posttraumatic psychiatric comorbidity are well-established (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use). However, broad multi-diagnosis profiles of posttraumatic comorbidity are poorly characterized. The goal of the current study was to use latent class analysis (LCA) to identify profiles of posttraumatic psychopathology from 11 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic categories (e.g., stress, substance, depressive, psychosis, personality). Danish national registries were used to identify 166,539 individuals (median age = 41 years, range = <1 to >100) who experienced a traumatic event between 1994 and 2016 and were diagnosed with one or more mental disorders within 5 years. Two through 14-class LCA solutions were evaluated. A 13-class solution (a) provided the best fit, with the Bayes and Akaike Information Criteria reaching a minimum, (b) was broadly consistent with prior LCA studies, and (c) included several novel classes reflecting differential patterns of posttraumatic psychopathology. Three classes were characterized by high comorbidity: broad high comorbidity (M # diagnoses = 4.3), depression with stress/substance use/personality/neurotic disorders (M# diagnoses = 3.8), and substance use with personality/stress/psychotic disorders (M # diagnoses = 3.1). The other 10 classes were characterized by distinct patterns of mild comorbidity or negligible comorbidity. Compared to the mild and negligible comorbidity classes, individuals in high comorbidity classes were younger, had lower income, and had more pre-event psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that several different comorbidity patterns should be assessed when studying and treating posttraumatic psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Teorema de Bayes , Comorbidade , Humanos , Lactente , Psicopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036733, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538826

RESUMO

Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health disorder that can be effectively treated with empirically based practices. PTSD screening is essential for identifying undetected cases and providing patients with appropriate care. Objective: To determine whether the Primary Care PTSD screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (PC-PTSD-5) is a diagnostically accurate and acceptable measure for use in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study enrolled participants from May 19, 2017, to September 26, 2018. Participants were recruited from primary care clinics across 2 VA Medical Centers. Session 1 was conducted in person, and session 2 was completed within 30 days via telephone. A consecutive sample of 1594 veterans, aged 18 years or older, who were scheduled for a primary care visit was recruited. Data analysis was performed from March 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: In session 1, participants completed a battery of questionnaires. In session 2, a research assistant administered the PC-PTSD-5 to participants, and then a clinician assessor blind to PC-PTSD-5 results conducted a structured diagnostic interview for PTSD. Main Outcomes and Measures: The range of PC-PTSD-5 cut points overall and across gender was assessed, and diagnostic performance was evaluated by calculating weighted κ values. Results: In total, 495 of 1594 veterans (31%) participated, and 396 completed all measures and were included in the analyses. Participants were demographically similar to the VA primary care population (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [15.5] years; age range, 21-93 years) and were predominantly male (333 participants [84.1%]) and White (296 of 394 participants [75.1%]). The PC-PTSD-5 had high levels of diagnostic accuracy for the overall sample (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.927; 95% CI, 0.896-0.959), men (AUC, 0.932; 95% CI, 0.894-0.969), and women (AUC, 0.899, 95% CI, 0.824-0.974). A cut point of 4 ideally balanced false negatives and false positives for the overall sample and for men. However, for women, this cut point resulted in high numbers of false negatives (6 veterans [33.3%]). A cut point of 3 fit better for women, despite increasing the number of false positives. Participants rated the PC-PTSD-5 as highly acceptable. Conclusions and Relevance: The PC-PTSD-5 is an accurate and acceptable screening tool for use in VA primary care settings. Because performance parameters will change according to sample, clinicians should consider sample characteristics and screening purposes when selecting a cut point.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am Psychol ; 76(1): 26-38, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119331

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the need for psychological care in the global population and has created new barriers to accessing services. Hospitals, mental health facilities, and other clinics face the challenge of providing continued care to a population that is under severe stress, while minimizing in-person visits that risk spreading the virus. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is the largest integrated health care system in the United States, providing care at 1,286 sites. VHA ensured the continuity of mental health services after the COVID-19 outbreak by rapidly expanding its use of telemental health methods in the first weeks after the U.S. pandemic outbreak. VHA provided nearly 1.2 million telephone and video encounters to veterans in April 2020 and reduced in-person visits by approximately 80% when compared with the October 2019 to February 2020 period before the pandemic. By June 2020, VHA had an 11-fold increase in encounters using direct-to-home video and a fivefold increase in telephone contacts relative to before the pandemic. This article discusses research on the effectiveness of telemental health, VHA policies before COVID-19 that facilitated the use of telemental health systemwide, and VHA's actions that rapidly scaled use of telemental health during the first months of the outbreak. Key challenges and lessons learned from VHA's experience and implications for providers and health care systems regarding the use of telemental health to meet patients' mental health care needs during the pandemic are also discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Telemedicina/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Veteranos
13.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 48(1): 70-87, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394096

RESUMO

We sought to develop a quality standard for the prescription of antidepressants for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is both consistent with the underlying evidence supporting antidepressants as a treatment for PTSD and associated with the best levels of symptom improvement. We quantified antidepressant initiation during the first year of PTSD treatment in a 10-year national cohort of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) users, and compared outcomes in a subgroup who completed patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) as part of routine practice. We added progressively stringent measurement requirements. Prescribing quality for PTSD in the VA was stable over time. Use of PROM was rare in the case of antidepressant treatment, limiting our assessment of outcomes.

14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108365, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials reveal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) improvement leads to decreased substance use among patients with comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Using administrative medical record data, we determined whether clinically meaningful PTSD Checklist (PCL) (≥20 points) score decreases were positively associated with SUD treatment utilization. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) medical record data (2008-2015). PTSD Checklist (PCL) scores were used to categorize patients into those with a clinically meaningful PTSD improvement (≥20 point decrease) or not (<20 point decrease or increase). PTSD and SUD were measured by ICD-9 codes. Propensity score weighting controlled for confounding in logistic and negative binomial models that estimated the association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and use of SUD treatment and number of SUD clinic visits. RESULTS: The 699 eligible patients were, on average, 40.4 (±13.2) years old, 66.2% white and 33.1% were married. After controlling for confounding, there was a 56% increased odds of any SUD treatment utilization among those with a PCL decrease ≥20 vs < 20 (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 1.04-2.33) but there was no association with number of SUD treatment visits. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically meaningful reductions in PTSD symptoms were associated with any SUD treatment utilization but not amount of utilization. Improvement in PTSD symptoms, independent of the treatment modality, may enable SUD treatment seeking.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Lista de Checagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 48(3): 450-463, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944814

RESUMO

To evaluate an implementation intervention to increase the uptake, referred to as reach, of two evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) PTSD specialty clinics. The implementation intervention was external facilitation guided by a toolkit that bundled strategies associated with high EBP reach in prior research. We used a prospective quasi-experimental design. The facilitator worked with local champions at two low-reach PTSD clinics. Each intervention PTSD clinic was matched to three control clinics. We compared the change in EBP reach from 6-months pre- to post-intervention using Difference-in-Difference (DID) effect estimation. To incorporate possible clustering effects and adjust for imbalanced covariates, we used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of EBP receipt. Analyses were conducted separately for PTSD and other mental health clinics. 29,446 veterans diagnosed with PTSD received psychotherapy in the two intervention and six control sites in the two 6-month evaluation periods. The proportion of therapy patients with PTSD receiving an EBP increased by 16.98 percentage points in the intervention PTSD clinics compared with .45 percentage points in the control PTSD clinics (DID = 16.53%; SE = 2.26%). The adjusted odd ratio of a patient receiving an EBP from pre to post intervention was almost three times larger in the intervention than in the control PTSD clinics (RoR 2.90; 95% CI 2.22-3.80). EBP reach was largely unchanged in other (not PTSD specialty) mental health clinics within the same medical centers. Toolkit-guided external facilitation is a promising intervention to improve uptake of EBPs in VHA. Toolkits that pre-specify targets for clinic change based on prior research may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of external facilitation. Trial registration ISRCTN registry identifier: ISRCTN65119065. Available at https://www.isrctn.com/search?q=ISRCTN65119065 .

16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 101: 106251, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326878

RESUMO

Guilt, shame, and moral injury (MI) are common reactions following exposure to traumatic events and are associated with greater severity of several mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, increased risk of suicidal ideation and poorer psychosocial functioning. Trauma-Informed Guilt Reduction (TrIGR) is a transdiagnostic psychotherapy to address guilt, shame, and MI stemming from traumatic events. The primary goals of TrIGR are to help patients accurately appraise their trauma and to re-engage with their values in order to lead a more meaningful life. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methodology of a two-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of TrIGR compared to Supportive Care Therapy (SCT) in a sample of U.S. veterans (N = 145) who endorse guilt related to a traumatic event that occurred during military deployment. This study is the first RCT powered to investigate TrIGR's efficacy on reducing posttraumatic guilt, as measured by the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), in comparison to an active control condition. In addition, the study will examine a range of secondary and exploratory outcomes including shame, quality of life, suicidal ideation, substance use, and PTSD and depression symptoms. Findings from this efficacy study will be essential in informing future efficacy and effectiveness trials.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Culpa , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Vergonha , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
17.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, topiramate, and venlafaxine have previously shown efficacy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One prior study using US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records data to compare these agents found no differences in symptom reduction in clinical practice. The current study addresses several weaknesses in that study, including limited standardization of treatment duration, inability to account for prior treatment receipt, use of an outdated symptomatic assessment for PTSD, and lack of functional outcome. METHODS: A total of 834 VA outpatients were identified with DSM-5 clinical diagnoses of PTSD between October 2016 and March 2018 who initiated one of the medications and met prespecified criteria for treatment duration and dose, combined with baseline and endpoint DSM-5 PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) measurements. Twelve-week acute-phase changes in PCL-5 score and remission of PTSD symptoms were compared among patients receiving the different medications, as was use of acute psychiatric services in the subsequent 6-month continuation phase. RESULTS: In the acute phase, patients improved by a mean of 6.8-10.1 points on the PCL-5 and 0.0%-10.9% achieved remission of PTSD symptoms. Those taking venlafaxine were significantly more likely to achieve remission (P = .008 vs fluoxetine and P < .0001 vs paroxetine, sertraline, and topiramate). In the continuation phase, there were no differences in acute psychiatric care use between medications. Those who continued their medication were less likely to use acute psychiatric services (HR = 0.55; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: There may be an advantage to venlafaxine over other agents in achieving acute-phase remission for DSM-5 PTSD in routine clinical practice, but this finding requires further study. Regardless of the agent chosen, medication cessation during the continuation phase is associated with a higher risk of acute psychiatric care use.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Sertralina/farmacologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Topiramato/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Paroxetina/administração & dosagem , Indução de Remissão , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Sertralina/administração & dosagem , Topiramato/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/administração & dosagem
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670099

RESUMO

Background: In the aftermath of disaster, a large proportion of people will develop psychosocial difficulties that impair recovery, but for which presentations do not meet threshold criteria for disorder. Although these adjustment problems can cause high distress and impairment, and often have a trajectory towards mental health disorder, few evidence-based interventions are available to facilitate recovery. Objective: This paper describes the development and pilot testing of an internationally developed, brief, and scalable psychosocial intervention that targets distress and poor adjustment following disaster and trauma. Method: The Skills fOr Life Adjustment and Resilience (SOLAR) program was developed by an international collaboration of trauma and disaster mental health experts through an iterative expert consensus process. The resulting five session, skills-based intervention, deliverable by community-based or frontline health or disaster workers with little or no formal mental health training (known as coaches), was piloted with 15 Australian bushfire survivors using a pre-post with follow up, mixed-methods design study. Results: Findings from this pilot demonstrated that the SOLAR program was safe and feasible for non-mental health frontline workers (coaches) to deliver locally after two days of training. Participants' attendance rates and feedback about the program indicated that the program was acceptable. Pre-post quantitative analysis demonstrated reductions in psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and impairment. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence that the delivery of the SOLAR program after disaster by trained, frontline workers with little or no mental health experience is feasible, acceptable, safe, and beneficial in reducing psychological symptoms and impairment among disaster survivors. Randomized controlled trials of the SOLAR program are required to advance evidence of its efficacy.

20.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(4): 477-487, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557843

RESUMO

Although some studies have demonstrated residual symptoms in patients who have participated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment, no studies to date have assessed residual PTSD symptoms following treatment for comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) and PTSD (PTSD/AUD). We examined residual symptoms of PTSD and AUD in 73 veterans with PTSD/AUD who completed a posttreatment assessment after being randomized to receive either Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) or Seeking Safety (SS). We used logistic regression to identify differences (a) in residual PTSD and AUD symptoms among participants randomized to COPE versus SS and (b) among those with versus without a posttreatment PTSD/AUD diagnosis within both treatment conditions. Participants randomized to SS were more likely to report persistent avoidance, inability to experience positive emotions, hypervigilance, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty sleeping, ORs = 3.74-6.21. There were no differences between COPE and SS regarding the likelihood of persistent AUD symptoms. Participants without a posttreatment PTSD diagnosis had lower conditional probabilities of most symptoms, although exaggerated startle, OR = 0.71, and irritability/aggression, OR = 0.58, were most likely to persist. Participants without a posttreatment AUD diagnosis had lower conditional probabilities of most symptoms, although withdrawal, OR = 0.21; unsuccessful quit attempts, OR = 0.04; and higher intake, OR = 0.01, were most likely to persist. Findings indicate hyperarousal may warrant additional intervention following PTSD treatment. Residual AUD symptoms may relate to the enduring nature of some AUD symptoms rather than a lack of treatment efficacy.

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