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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 443-456, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852220

RESUMO

In a context where a significant fraction of the population lives near industrial areas, the main objectives of this study are to provide (a) new data on PM2.5 chemical compositions, heavy-metal concentrations and trace gases released by metalworking activities and (b) new information on the near-field evolution (up to about a thousand meters) of such industrial plumes in terms of particle chemical composition and size distribution. For that purpose, a one-month field campaign was performed in an industrial area near the city of Dunkirk (Northern France), combining measurements of atmospheric dynamics and physico-chemical characterization of air masses. Comparisons between several elemental ratios (mainly Mn/Fe), particle size distributions and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations at the stacks and at a near-field site suggest that plumes of a ferromanganese alloy plant were quickly mixed with pollutants emitted by other sources (mainly other industries, possibly traffic and sea spray), in particular a neighboring steelworks, before reaching the sampling site. This led to the emergence of secondary particles related to condensation and/or aggregation phenomena inside the plumes. Metalworking emissions were also identified as a source of new particle formation, formed through the emission of gaseous precursors and their fast transformation and condensation, over a timescale of minutes before reaching the near-field site 800 m downwind. Ultrafine particles emitted at the stacks also quickly agglomerated to form larger particles before reaching the near-field site. These results show that, even over short distances, the chemical composition and size distribution of metalworking plumes may evolve rapidly and the characteristics of particles at the boundary of an industrial area (especially in contiguous urban areas) may differ from those emitted directly at the stacks.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(15): 5013-5017, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791189

RESUMO

Recent reports [Jara-Toro et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 2166 and PCCP 2018, 20, 27885] suggest that the rate coefficient of OH reactions with alcohols would increase by up to two times in going from dry to high humidity. This finding would have an impact on the budget of alcohols in the atmosphere and it may explain differences in measured and modeled methanol concentrations. The results were based on a relative technique carried out in a small Teflon bag, which might suffer from wall reactions. The effect was reinvestigated using a direct fluorescence probe of OH radicals, and no catalytic effect of H2 O could be found. Experiments in a Teflon bag were also carried out, but the results of Jara-Toro et al. were not reproducible. Further theoretical calculations show that the water-mediated reactions have negligible rates compared to the bare reaction and that even though water molecules can lower the barriers of reactions, they cannot make up for the entropy cost.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4343, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341291

RESUMO

Methanol is a benchmark for understanding tropospheric oxidation, but is underpredicted by up to 100% in atmospheric models. Recent work has suggested this discrepancy can be reconciled by the rapid reaction of hydroxyl and methylperoxy radicals with a methanol branching fraction of 30%. However, for fractions below 15%, methanol underprediction is exacerbated. Theoretical investigations of this reaction are challenging because of intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet surfaces - ∼45% of reaction products are obtained via intersystem crossing of a pre-product complex - which demands experimental determinations of product branching. Here we report direct measurements of methanol from this reaction. A branching fraction below 15% is established, consequently highlighting a large gap in the understanding of global methanol sources. These results support the recent high-level theoretical work and substantially reduce its uncertainties.

4.
Indoor Air ; 28(6): 924-935, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022528

RESUMO

The assessment of VOC emission rates and sorption coefficients was performed for ten surfaces present within a classroom, using field and laboratory emission cells (FLEC) coupled to online and off-line VOC quantification techniques. A total of 21 identified VOCs were emitted by the different surfaces. VOC emission rates measured using PTR-ToF-MS were compared to gas chromatographic measurements. The results showed that the two methods are complementary to one another. Sorption parameters were also successfully measured for a mixture of 14 VOCs within a few hours (<17 hours per surface). A study of the spatial and temporal variability of the measured parameters was also carried out on the two surfaces that presented the most potential for interaction with VOCs, accounting for the largest surface areas within the room. The dataset of emission rates and sorption parameters was used in the INCA-Indoor model to predict indoor air concentrations of VOCs that are compared to experimental values measured in the room. Modeling results showed that sorption processes had a limited effect on indoor concentrations of VOCs for these field campaigns. Modeled daily profiles show good agreement with the experimental observations for VOCs such as toluene (indoor source) and xylenes (outdoor source) but underestimate concentrations of methanol (both indoor and outdoor sources).

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(16): 10660-10670, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139501

RESUMO

Xenondifluoride, XeF2, has been photolysed in the presence of methanol, CH3OH. Two reaction pathways are possible: F + CH3OH → CH2OH + HF and F + CH3OH → CH3O + HF. Both products, CH2OH and CH3O, will be converted to HO2 in the presence of O2. The rate constants for the reaction of both radicals with O2 differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, which allows an unequivocal distinction between the two reactions when measuring HO2 concentrations in the presence of different O2 concentrations. The following yields have then been determined from time-resolved HO2 profiles: φCH2OH = (0.497 ± 0.013) and φCH3O = (0.503 ± 0.013). Experiments under low O2 concentrations lead to reaction mixtures containing nearly equal amounts of HO2 (converted from the first reaction) and CH3O (from the second reaction). The subsequent HO2 decays are very sensitive to the rate constants of the reaction between these two radicals and the following rate constants have been obtained: k(CH3O + CH3O) = (7.0 ± 1.4) × 10-11 cm3 s-1 and k(CH3O + HO2) = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1. The latter reaction has also been theoretically investigated on the CCSD(T)//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and CH3OH + O2 have been identified as the main products. Using µVTST, a virtually pressure independent rate constant of k(CH3O + HO2) = 4.7 × 10-11 cm3 s-1 has been obtained, in good agreement with the experiment.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(4): 2170-2177, 2017 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121426

RESUMO

The reaction between CH3O2 and OH radicals has been shown to be fast and to play an appreciable role for the removal of CH3O2 radials in remote environments such as the marine boundary layer. Two different experimental techniques have been used here to determine the products of this reaction. The HO2 yield has been obtained from simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the absolute concentration of CH3O2, OH, and HO2 radicals by cw-CRDS. The possible formation of a Criegee intermediate has been measured by broadband cavity enhanced UV absorption. A yield of ϕHO2 = (0.8 ± 0.2) and an upper limit for ϕCriegee = 0.05 has been determined for this reaction, suggesting a minor yield of methanol or stabilized trioxide as a product. The impact of this reaction on the composition of the remote marine boundary layer has been determined by implementing these findings into a box model utilizing the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2, and constraining the model for conditions found at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in the remote tropical Atlantic Ocean. Inclusion of the CH3O2+OH reaction into the model results in up to 30% decrease in the CH3O2 radical concentration while the HO2 concentration increased by up to 20%. Production and destruction of O3 are also influenced by these changes, and the model indicates that taking into account the reaction between CH3O2 and OH leads to a 6% decrease of O3.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Oceano Atlântico , Metanol , Modelos Teóricos
7.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(45): 8923-8932, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790905

RESUMO

The reaction between CH3O2 and OH radicals has been studied in a laser photolysis cell using the reaction of F atoms with CH4 and H2O for the simultaneous generation of both radicals, with F atoms generated through 248 nm photolysis of XeF2. An experimental setup combining cw-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and high repetition rate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to a laser photolysis cell has been used. The absolute concentration of CH3O2 was measured by cw-CRDS, while the relative concentration of OH(v = 0) radicals was determined by LIF. To remove dubiety from the quantification of CH3O2 by cw-CRDS in the near-infrared, its absorption cross section has been determined at 7489.16 cm-1 using two different methods. A rate constant of k1 = (1.60 ± 0.4) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 has been determined at 295 K, nearly a factor of 2 lower than an earlier determination from our group ((2.8 ± 1.4) × 10-10 cm3 s-1) using CH3I photolysis as a precursor. Quenching of electronically excited I atoms (from CH3I photolysis) in collision with OH(v = 0) is suspected to be responsible for a bias in the earlier, fast rate constant.

8.
Data Brief ; 7: 518-23, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27047988

RESUMO

A test emission chamber called CLIMPAQ has been coupled to a chromatography analyzer GC to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentration during a sorption experiments (Fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials: Part 2 - Comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods, (Rizk et al., In press) [1]). The equations used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the thickness of the boundary layer developed on the surface of a material are presented. In addition, the experimental profiles obtained using the CLIMPAQ chamber is also presented in the presence and the absence of a building material. Finally, the impact of chamber size on the obtained concentration profile using different chambers is shown using 3 types of chambers having different volumes, 1 m(3), 30 m(3) and a micro chamber of 40 mL.

9.
J Chem Phys ; 140(21): 214308, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24908009

RESUMO

Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH3CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO2 radicals by reaction with O2. The CH3 radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH3O2. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO2 profiles, obtained under various O2 concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH3 yield has been determined relative to the CH3 yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH3I. Time resolved HO2 profiles under very low O2 concentrations suggest that another unknown HO2 forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O2. HO2 profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH3CHO + hν(248nm) → CH3CHO*, CH3CHO* → CH3 + HCO ϕ(1a) = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH3CHO* → CH3 + H + CO ϕ(1e) = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH3CHO*[Formula: see text]CH3CO + HO2 ϕ(1f) = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH3O2 quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as ϕ(CH3) = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH3 yields derived from the HO2 measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH3CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO2 and CH3 measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH3CHO* → CH4 + CO ϕ(1b) = 0.6. All experiments can be consistently explained with absence of the formerly considered pathway: CH3CHO* → CH3CO + H ϕ(1c) = 0.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(48): 12802-11, 2013 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24180353

RESUMO

The absorption spectrum of CH3O2 radicals and CH3I molecules has been measured in the range 7473-7497 cm(-1). CH3O2 radicals have been generated by 248 nm laser photolysis of CH3I in the presence of O2, and the relative absorption has been measured by time-resolved continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). Calibration of the relative absorption spectrum has been carried out on three distinct wavelengths by carefully measuring CH3O2 decays under different experimental conditions and extracting the initial radical concentration (and with this the absolute absorption cross sections) by using the well-known rate constant for the CH3O2 self-reaction. The following, pressure-independent absorption cross sections were determined: 3.41 × 10(-20), 3.40 × 10(-20), and 2.11 × 10(-20) cm(2) at 7748.18, 7489.16, and 7493.33 cm(-1). These values are 2-3 times higher than previous determinations ( Pushkarsky, M. B.; Zalyubovsky, S. J.; Miller, T. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112 (24), 10695 - 10698 and Atkinson, D. B.; Spillman, J. L. J. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106 (38), 8891 - 8902). The absorption spectrum of the stable precursor CH3I has also been determined and three characteristic sharp absorption lines with absorption cross sections up to 2 × 10(-21) cm(2) have been observed in this wavelength range.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(50): 20014-7, 2013 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24277836

RESUMO

•OH and •HO2 radicals are known to be the key species in the development of ignition. A direct measurement of these radicals under low-temperature oxidation conditions (T = 550-1,000 K) has been achieved by coupling a technique named fluorescence assay by gas expansion, an experimental technique designed for the quantification of these radicals in the free atmosphere, to a jet-stirred reactor, an experimental device designed for the study of low-temperature combustion chemistry. Calibration allows conversion of relative fluorescence signals to absolute mole fractions. Such radical mole fraction profiles will serve as a benchmark for testing chemical models developed to improve the understanding of combustion processes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidróxidos/análise , Peróxidos/análise , Fluorescência , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(45): 19686-98, 2013 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24135810

RESUMO

The gas-phase oxidation of n-butane has been studied in an atmospheric jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at temperatures up to 950 K. For the first time, continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) in the near-infrared has been used, together with gas chromatography (GC), to analyze the products formed during its oxidation. In addition to the quantification of formaldehyde and water, which is always difficult by GC, cw-CRDS allowed as well the quantification of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A comparison of the obtained mole fraction temperature profiles with simulations using a detailed gas-phase mechanism shows a good agreement at temperatures below 750 K, but an overestimation of the overall reactivity above this temperature. Also, a strong overestimation was found for the H2O2 mole fraction at higher temperatures. In order to improve the agreement between model and experimental results, two modifications have been implemented to the model: (a) the rate constant for the decomposition of H2O2 (+M) ↔ 2OH (+M) has been updated to the value recently proposed by Troe (Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 594-601) and (b) a temperature dependent heterogeneous destruction of H2O2 on the hot reactor walls with assumed rate parameters has been added. The improvement (a) slows down the overall reactivity at higher temperatures, but has a negligible impact on the maximal H2O2 mole fraction. Improvement (b) has also a small impact on the overall reactivity at higher temperatures, but a large effect on the maximal H2O2 mole fraction. Both modifications lead to an improved agreement between model and experiment for the oxidation of n-butane in a JSR at temperatures above 750 K.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(33): 13294-9, 2013 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23898188

RESUMO

The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Modelos Químicos , Ácido Nitroso/química , França , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(29): 11944-7, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22746212

RESUMO

The first reliable quantification of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formed during the low-temperature oxidation of an organic compound has been achieved thanks to a new system that couples a jet stirred reactor to a detection by continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) in the near-infrared. The quantification of this key compound for hydrocarbon low-temperature oxidation regime has been obtained under conditions close to those actually observed before the autoignition. The studied hydrocarbon was n-butane, the smallest alkane which has an oxidation behavior close to that of the species present in gasoline and diesel fuels.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 6231-9, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22500669

RESUMO

The excitation energy dependence of HO(2) radical formation from the 248 nm irradiation of four different aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, and mesitylene) in the presence of O(2) has been studied. HO(2) has been monitored at 6638.20 cm(-1) by cw-CRDS, and the formation of a short-lived, unidentified species, showing broad-band absorption around the HO(2) absorption line, has been observed. For all four hydrocarbons, the same HO(2) formation pattern has been observed: HO(2) is formed immediately on our time scale after the excitation pulse, followed by a formation of more HO(2) on a much longer time scale. Taking into account the absorption of the short-lived species, the yields of both types of HO(2) radicals are in agreement with a formation following 2-photon absorption by the aromatic hydrocarbons. The yields do not much depend on the nature of the aromatic hydrocarbon. For practical use in past and future experiments on aromatic hydrocarbons, an empirical value is given, allowing the estimation of the total concentration of HO(2) radicals formed at 40 Torr He in the presence of around [O(2)] = 1 × 10(17)cm(-3) as a function of the 248 nm excitation energy: [HO(2)]/[aromatic hydrocarbon] ≈ 2 × 10(-6) × E(2) (with E in mJ cm(-2)).

16.
Chem Phys Lett ; 534: 1-7, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23710075

RESUMO

We present the coupling of a jet-stirred reactor to detection by cw-CRDS in the near infrared and first results obtained during the oxidation of methane. The mixture is rapidly expanded from the jet-stirred reactor into a 80 cm-long cw-CRDS cell maintained at a the pressure around 1.33 kPa, thus freezing the reaction and decreasing pressure broadening of the absorption lines. Some stable species (CH4, H2O and CH2O) have been quantified through their well structured spectra around 1506 nm, while H2O2 and HO2 radicals could not be detected.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 115(39): 10720-8, 2011 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21875094

RESUMO

Absolute absorption cross sections for selected lines of the OH stretch overtone 2ν(1) of the cis-isomer of nitrous acid HONO have been measured in the range 6623.6-6645.6 cm(-1) using the continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) technique. HONO has been generated by two different, complementary methods: in the first method, HONO has been produced by pulsed photolysis of H(2)O(2)/NO mixture at 248 nm, and in the second method HONO has been produced in a continuous manner by flowing humidified N(2) over 5.2 M HCl and 0.5 M NaNO(2) solutions. Laser photolysis synchronized with the cw-CRDS technique has been used to measure the absorption spectrum of HONO produced in the first method, and a simple cw-CRDS technique has been used in the second method. The first method, very time-consuming, allows for an absolute calibration of the absorption spectrum by comparison with the well-known HO(2) absorption cross section, while the second method is much faster and leads to a better signal-to-noise ratio. The strongest line in this wavelength range has been found at 6642.51 cm(-1) with σ = (5.8 ± 2.2) × 10(-21) cm(2).

18.
Chemphyschem ; 11(18): 3867-73, 2010 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20979084

RESUMO

The energy dependence of HO(2) radical formation from the irradiation of benzene (C(6)H(6)) in the presence of oxygen (O(2)) at 248 nm is studied. We investigate the origin of the HO(2) radicals, that is, whether they originate from the reaction of O(2) with products obtained by one- or two-photon excitation of C(6)H(6). The concentration-time profiles of HO(2) radicals are monitored by continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) coupled to a laser photolysis reactor. HO(2) radicals are detected in the first vibrational overtone of the OH stretch at 6638.20 cm(-1), using a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. Two well-distinguished HO(2) radical-formation phases are observed: a fast initial formation of HO(2) radicals followed by a slower secondary formation. While the concentration of the initially formed HO(2) species increases linearly with the excitation energy, the concentration of the secondary slow HO(2) radicals appears to vary in accordance with a two-photon process.

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