Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 64
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in day-to-day affect fluctuations of patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies have compared repeated assessments of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across diagnostic groups, and fluctuation patterns were not uniformly defined. The aim of this study is to compare affect fluctuations in patients with a current episode of depressive or anxiety disorder, in remitted patients and in controls, using affect instability as a core concept but also describing other measures of variability and adjusting for possible confounders. METHODS: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data were obtained from 365 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with current (n = 95), remitted (n = 178) or no (n = 92) DSM-IV defined depression/anxiety disorder. For 2 weeks, five times per day, participants filled-out items on PA and NA. Affect instability was calculated as the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Tests on group differences in RMSSD, within-person variance, and autocorrelation were performed, controlling for mean affect levels. RESULTS: Current depression/anxiety patients had the highest affect instability in both PA and NA, followed by remitters and then controls. Instability differences between groups remained significant when controlling for mean affect levels, but differences between current and remitted were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a current disorder have higher instability of NA and PA than remitted patients and controls. Especially with regard to NA, this could be interpreted as patients with a current disorder being more sensitive to internal and external stressors and having suboptimal affect regulation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical characteristics appear limited in their ability to predict course of anxiety disorders, therefore we explored the predictive value of biological parameters on course of anxiety disorders. METHODS: 907 persons with an anxiety (panic, social phobia, generalised anxiety) disorder with a baseline and two-year follow-up measure were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Previously, three course trajectories were distinguished which vary in terms of symptom severity and chronicity. Baseline clinical parameters like anxiety severity, anxiety duration, and disability were limited in their ability to predict the two-year course. This study explored whether metabolic syndrome, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis functioning, inflammation markers, and neuroplasticity were indicators of two-year course and whether these parameters improved the model containing the most predictive clinical parameters only. RESULTS: Baseline diastolic blood pressure of persons with chronic moderate symptoms was significantly higher than of persons with non-chronic mild symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI95%] 1.01 to 1.38). Baseline high-density lipid cholesterol of persons with severe chronic symptoms was significantly lower than of persons with non-chronic mild symptoms (OR = 0.77, CI95% 0.62 to 0.96). The predictive ability of both parameters was however low with concordance statistics of 0.55 and 0.57 respectively. Addition of biological parameters did not improve the predictive ability of the model containing the clinical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to clinical characteristics, biological parameters did not improve the predictive ability of the model for course trajectory of anxiety disorders. Prediction of course trajectory in anxiety disorders remains difficult and warrants further research.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 269: 78-84, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testosterone has been implicated in suicidality in cross-sectional studies. Stress that coincides with a suicide attempt may alter androgen levels, so prospective studies are needed to exclude reverse causation. We aimed to examine the associations of plasma androgens with concurrent and future suicidality, and if present, whether these associations were mediated by a behavioral trait like reactive aggression. METHODS: Baseline plasma levels of total testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate with a radioimmunoassay. Suicidality was assessed using the Suicidal Ideation Scale at baseline and after 2-, 4-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up. Men and women were analyzed separately, and potential confounders were considered. RESULTS: Participants (N = 2861; 66.3% women) had a mean age of 42.0 years (range 18-65) and almost half (46.9%) fulfilled criteria for a major depressive or anxiety disorder. At baseline 13.2% of men and 11.2% of women reported current suicidal ideation. In participants who were non-suicidal at baseline, slightly more men than women reported suicidal ideation during follow-up (14.7% vs. 12.5%), whereas the reverse pattern was observed for suicide attempts (3.6% vs. 4.2%). None of the associations between androgens and current and future suicidality were significant. LIMITATIONS: Androgens were determined once, which may have been insufficient to predict suicidality over longer periods. DISCUSSION: The lack of associations between plasma levels of androgens determined by 'gold-standard' laboratory methods with suicidality do not support previous cross-sectional and smaller studies in adult men and women with values within the physiological range.

4.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052317

RESUMO

We compared the presence of autistic and comorbid psychopathology and functional impairments in young adults who received a clinical diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified or Asperger's Disorder during childhood to that of a referred comparison group. While the Autism Spectrum Disorder group on average scored higher on a dimensional ASD self- and other-report measure than clinical controls, the majority did not exceed the ASD cutoff according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Part of the individuals with an ASD diagnosis in their youth no longer show behaviors that underscribe a clinical ASD diagnosis in adulthood, but have subtle difficulties in social functioning and a vulnerability for a range of other psychiatric disorders.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795046

RESUMO

Insufficient response to treatment is the main cause of prolonged suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Early identification of insufficient response could result in faster and more targeted treatment strategies to reduce suffering. We therefore explored whether baseline alterations within and between resting state functional connectivity networks could serve as markers of insufficient response to antidepressant treatment in two years of follow-up. We selected MDD patients (N = 17) from the NEtherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), who received ≥ two antidepressants, indicative for insufficient response, during the two year follow-up, a group of MDD patients who received only one antidepressant (N = 32) and a healthy control group (N = 19) matched on clinical characteristics and demographics. An independent component analysis (ICA) of baseline resting-state scans was conducted after which functional connectivity within the components was compared between groups. We observed lower connectivity of the right insula within the salience network in the group with ≥ two antidepressants compared to the group with one antidepressant. No difference in connectivity was found between the patient groups and healthy control group. Given the suggested role of the right insula in switching between task-positive mode (activation during attention-demanding tasks) and task-negative mode (activation during the absence of any task), we explored whether right insula activation differed during switching between these two modes. We observed that in the ≥2 antidepressant group, the right insula was less active compared to the group with one antidepressant, when switching from task-positive to task-negative mode than the other way around. These findings imply that lower right insula connectivity within the salience network may serve as an indicator for prospective insufficient response to antidepressants. This result, supplemented by the diminished insula activation when switching between task and rest related networks, could indicate an underlying mechanism that, if not sufficiently targeted by current antidepressants, could lead to insufficient response. When replicated, these findings may contribute to the identification of biomarkers for early detection of insufficient response.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the link between depressive symptoms and inflammation have yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to two factors. First, studies differed regarding the specific inflammatory markers studied and covariates accounted for. Second, specific depressive symptoms may be differentially related to inflammation. We address both challenges using network psychometrics. METHODS: We estimated seven regularized Mixed Graphical Models in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) data (N = 2321) to explore shared variances among (1) depression severity, modeled via depression sum-score, nine DSM-5 symptoms, or 28 individual depressive symptoms; (2) inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (3) before and after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), exercise, smoking, alcohol, and chronic diseases. RESULTS: The depression sum-score was related to both IL-6 and CRP before, and only to IL-6 after covariate adjustment. When modeling the DSM-5 symptoms and CRP in a conceptual replication of Jokela et al., CRP was associated with 'sleep problems', 'energy level', and 'weight/appetite changes'; only the first two links survived covariate adjustment. In a conservative model with all 38 variables, symptoms and markers were unrelated. Following recent psychometric work, we re-estimated the full model without regularization: the depressive symptoms 'insomnia', 'hypersomnia', and 'aches and pain' showed unique positive relations to all inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for differential relations between markers, depressive symptoms, and covariates. Associations between symptoms and markers were attenuated after covariate adjustment; BMI and sex consistently showed strong relations with inflammatory markers.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 727-730, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of sleep deprivation and light therapy, called combined chronotherapy, may yield positive short- and long-term results, even in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). The implementation of combined chronotherapy in daily clinical practice is rare. This study describes the implementation and the effectiveness in a clinical setting. METHODS: Twenty six depressed patients with unipolar or bipolar depression received combined chronotherapy consisting of three nights of sleep deprivation with alternating recovery nights, light therapy, and continuation of antidepressant medication. Inventory of Depressive Symptoms C (IDS-C) scores were determined before chronotherapy and at week 1, 2, and 4. Paired t-tests were used to compare the IDS-C scores over time. RESULTS: The mean pre-treatment IDS-C score was 39.3 ±â€¯9.6, the mean score in week 2 was 28.4 ±â€¯10.2, and 28.6 ±â€¯14.0 in week 4. A subsample of patients with psychiatric co-morbidities showed a reduction in depression severity from a mean score of 42.9 ±â€¯11.0 to a mean score of 34.9 ±â€¯13.0 after 4 weeks. The overall response rate was 34.6%, the remission rate 19.2%. LIMITATIONS: This open label case series has a relative small sample size and no control group CONCLUSION: In a clinical setting patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder benefited significantly from combined chronotherapy. This chronotherapeutic intervention appears to have a rapid effect that lasts for at least several weeks, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity or TRD. Indicating that chronotherapy can be a valuable treatment addition for depressed patients.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Cronoterapia/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Privação do Sono , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Affect Disord ; 242: 159-164, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of chronotype, the individual timing of sleep/activity, has been studied in relation to depressive and anxiety disorders. A cross-sectional association between a depressive episode and evening-type has been identified. However, until now the predicting capacity of chronotype concerning persistence of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Our aim is to examine whether a later chronotype in patients with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder can serve as a predictor of a persistent course. METHODS: A subsample of patients with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis and chronotype data of the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) was used. Diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders (1-month DSM-IV based diagnosis) were determined at baseline (n = 505). From this group persistence was determined at 2-year (FU2) (persistent course: n = 248, non-persistent course: n = 208) and 4-year follow-up (FU4) (persistent course: n = 151, non-persistent course: n = 264). Chronotype was assessed at baseline with the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. RESULTS: A later chronotype did not predict a persistent course of depressive and/or anxiety disorder at FU2 (OR (95% CI) = 0.99 (0.83-1.19), P = 0.92) or at FU4 (OR (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.77-1.15), P = 0.57). LIMITATIONS: Persistence was defined as having a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorder at the two-year and four-year follow-up, patients may have remitted and relapsed between assessments. CONCLUSION: Chronotype, measured as actual sleep timing, of patients with a depressive or anxiety disorder did not predict a persistent course which suggests it might be unsuitable as predictive tool in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Affect Disord ; 242: 22-28, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from changes in mood and cognition, depressive disorders are also characterized by changes in body experience, changes that largely influence daily functioning and aggravate distress. In order to gain more insight into this important issue, three domains of body experience - body attitude, body satisfaction and body awareness - and their associations with symptom severity of depression were studied pre- and post-treatment in a clinical sample of depressed patients in a multidisciplinary setting. METHODS: Body attitude (Dresden Body Image Questionnaire), body satisfaction (Body Cathexis Scale), body awareness (Somatic Awareness Questionnaire) and severity of depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were measured. Differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment scores were studied with paired t-tests. Associations between body experience and depression were analysed with Pearson correlations and partial correlations. RESULTS: At the start of treatment, patients scored significantly lower than a healthy comparison sample on body attitude and body satisfaction, but not on body awareness. After treatment, depression scores decreased with large effect sizes, scores for body attitude and body satisfaction increased with medium effect sizes and body awareness scores increased slightly. Medium pre-treatment and strong post-treatment associations were found between depression severity and body attitude and between depression severity and body satisfaction. LIMITATIONS: The design does not allow to draw causal conclusions. Because of the multidisciplinary treatment no information is available on the specific contribution of interventions targeting body experience. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence for medium to strong associations in clinically depressed patients between body attitude, body satisfaction and depression.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Afeto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 60(11): 766-773, 2018.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rtms) for treatment-resistant depression is sufficiently substantiated to be applied in clinical practice. In the Netherlands, it will be reimbursed when offered in combination with cognitive behavior therapy.
AIM: Proposal for a clinical treatment protocol for rtms in The Netherlands.
METHOD: A study of the literature and a critical appraisal of available international guidelines for rtms.
RESULTS: rtms is a safe treatment for patients suffering from a moderate to severe depressive disorder that is relatively treatment-resistant. The duration of the effect is still unknown. It is advised to stimulate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using an intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold, with a frequency of 10 Hz and using 3000 pulses per session during a total of 20-30 sessions.
CONCLUSION: The proposed treatment protocol is favored based on the available evidence when rtms is used as a treatment aimed to acutely decrease the severity of depressive symptoms. It is further proposed to systematically collect technical and outcome data on treatment with rtms to further improve treatment with rtms in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 346, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although body-related problems are common in patients with somatoform disorder, research focusing on how patients with somatoform disorder perceive and evaluate their body is scarce. The present study compared differences in body image between patients with somatoform disorder and respondents from a general population sample. It also examined differences within the somatoform disorder group between men and women and between the diagnostic subgroups conversion disorder, pain disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder. METHODS: Data were obtained from 657 patients (67.5% female) with somatoform disorder (DSM-IV-TR 300.7, 300.11, 300.81, 300.82) and 761 participants (58.6% female) from the general population. The Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ) was used to assess body image in five domains: body acceptance, vitality, physical contact, sexual fulfilment, and self-aggrandizement. Confirmatory factor analysis and analyses of variance were performed. Since differences in age and sex were found between the somatoform disorder sample and the comparison sample, analyses were done with two samples of 560 patients with somatoform disorder and 351 individuals from the comparison sample matched on proportion of men and women and age. RESULTS: Patients scored significantly lower than the comparison sample on all DBIQ domains. Men scored higher than women. Patients with conversion disorder scored significantly higher on vitality and body acceptance than patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder and pain disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The mostly large differences in body image between patients with somatoform disorder and the comparison sample as well as differences between diagnostic subgroups underline that body image is an important feature in patients with somatoform disorder. The results indicate the usefulness of assessing body image and treating negative body image in patients with somatoform or somatic symptom disorder.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Transtorno Conversivo/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Andrologia ; 50(1)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28266735

RESUMO

Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling. Past research did not reveal consensus regarding the strength of the association, but sample sizes were small. This study aimed to analyse the association in a large cohort. In total, 2,048 participants (age range 18-65 years; 696 males and 1,352 females) were included and saliva (using cotton Salivettes) and plasma were collected for testosterone measurements. Levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay respectively. Free testosterone was calculated by the Vermeulen algorithm. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. Plasma total and free testosterone showed a significant association with salivary testosterone in men (adjusted ß = .09, p = .01; and ß = .15, p < .001, respectively) and in women (adjusted ß = .08, p = .004; and crude ß = .09, p = .002 respectively). The modest associations indicate that there are many influencing factors of both technical and biological origin.


Assuntos
Saliva/química , Testosterona/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioimunoensaio , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Med ; 48(3): 473-487, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To effectively shape mental healthcare policy in modern-day China, up-to-date epidemiological data on mental disorders is needed. The objective was to estimate the prevalence, age-of-onset (AOO) and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders in a representative household sample of the general population (age ⩾ 18) in the Tianjin Municipality in China. METHODS: Data came from the Tianjin Mental health Survey (TJMHS), which was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 using a two-phase design. 11 748 individuals were screened with an expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire and 4438 subjects were selected for a diagnostic interview by a psychiatrist, using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition (SCID). RESULTS: The lifetime and 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder were 23.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Mood disorders (lifetime: 9.3%; 1-month: 3.9%), anxiety disorders (lifetime: 4.5% 1-month: 3.1%) and substance-use disorders (lifetime: 8.8%; 1-month: 3.5%) were most prevalent. The median AOO ranged from 25 years [interquartile range (IQR): 23-32] for substance-use disorders to 36 years (IQR: 24-50) for mood disorders. Not being married, non-immigrant status (i.e. local 'Hukou'), being a farmer, having <6 years of education and male gender were associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder. CONCLUSION: Results from the current survey indicate that mental disorders are steadily reported more commonly in rapidly-developing urban China. Several interesting sociodemographic correlates were observed (e.g. male gender and non-immigrant status) that warrant further investigation and could be used to profile persons in need of preventive intervention.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(6): e1143, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585930

RESUMO

Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders worldwide. Recently, we showed that both relatively short and relatively long cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT) are associated with an increased risk of lifetime depression. However, to what extent the variations in CAG repeat length in the other eight polyglutamine disease-associated genes (PDAGs) are associated with depression is still unknown. We determined the CAG repeat sizes of ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, CACNA1A, ATXN7, TBP, ATN1 and AR in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts-the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons-including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed individuals-aged 18-93 years. The association between PDAG CAG repeat size and the risk for depression was assessed via binary logistic regression. We found that the odds ratio (OR) for lifetime depression was significantly higher for individuals with >10, compared with subjects with ≤10, CAG repeats in both ATXN7 alleles (OR=1.90, confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.85). For TBP we found a similar association: A CAG repeat length exceeding the median in both alleles was associated with an increased risk for lifetime depression (OR=1.33, CI 1.00-1.76). In conclusion, we observed that carriers of either ATXN7 or TBP alleles with relatively large CAG repeat sizes in both alleles had a substantially increased risk of lifetime depression. Our findings provide critical evidence for the notion that repeat polymorphisms can act as complex genetic modifiers of depression.


Assuntos
Ataxina-7/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Ataxinas/genética , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Affect Disord ; 221: 268-274, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized Diagnostic Interviews (SDIs) such as the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) are widely used to systematically screen for psychiatric disorders in research. To support generalizability of results to clinical practice, we assessed agreement between the MINI and clinical diagnoses. METHODS: Agreement was assessed in a large, real life dataset (n = 7016) using concordance statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, efficiency and area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: 41.5% of clinical diagnoses were mood disorders, 26.5% were anxiety disorders. Overall, we found moderate agreement between MINI and clinical diagnoses (median efficiency: 0.92, median AUC: 0.79). For mood disorders, the AUC for all participants showed a range between 0.55 and 0.81 (median: 0.73), and for anxiety disorders the AUC ranged from 0.78 to 0.88 (median: 0.83). The AUC showed better agreement for mood disorders in the single diagnosis group than in the total group (median 0.77 vs. 0.71). For anxiety disorders, the AUC for the single diagnosis group was comparable to the AUC of the total group (median: 0.81 vs. 0.83 respectively). Numbers of false positives were high for both mood and anxiety diagnoses, but less so in the single diagnosis group. LIMITATIONS: Time lag between MINI and clinical diagnosis, the availability of only the primary clinical diagnosis, and relatively high severity of the current sample are limitations of the current study. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between MINI and clinical diagnoses was moderate at best, which partly reflects the difference between the different measures used in the current study.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(5): e1112, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463238

RESUMO

The experience of childhood life events is associated with higher vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. One of the pathways suggested to lead to this vulnerability is activation of the immune system. The aim of this study is to find out whether the association between childhood life events and the development of mood and anxiety disorders is predicted by the activation of the immune system. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort, from which a subgroup was selected (N=1084, 54.3% female, mean age 19.0 (s.d., 0.6)). Childhood life events before age 16 were assessed using questionnaires at age 12, 14, 16 and 19. Immune activation was assessed at age 16 by elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and by levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the herpes viruses herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. At age 19, the presence of mood and anxiety disorders was determined using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Regression analyses were used to study the association between life events, the inflammatory markers and mental health. We found that childhood life events score was associated with risk of mood disorders (B=0.269, P<0.001) and anxiety disorders (B=0.129, P<0.001). Childhood life events score was marginally associated with elevated hsCRP (B=0.076, P=0.006), but not with the antibody levels. This was especially due to separation trauma (P=0.015) and sexual abuse (P=0.019). Associations lost significance after correcting for lifestyle factors such as body mass index and substance abuse (P=0.042). None of the inflammatory markers were associated with development of anxiety disorders or mood disorders. In conclusion, the life event scores predicted the development of anxiety disorders and mood disorders at age 19. Life event scores were associated with elevated hsCRP, which was partly explained by lifestyle factors. Elevated hsCRP was not associated with the development of psychiatric disorders at age 19.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/imunologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Países Baixos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 26(2): 177-188, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075651

RESUMO

AIMS: Timely recognition and treatment of mental disorders with an onset in childhood and adolescence is paramount, as these are characterized by greater severity and longer persistence than disorders with an onset in adulthood. Studies examining time-to-treatment, also referred to as treatment delay, duration of untreated illness or latency to treatment, and defined as the time between disorder onset and initial treatment contact, are sparse and all based on adult samples. The aim of this study was to describe time-to-treatment and its correlates for any health care professional (any care) and secondary mental health care (secondary care), for a broad range of mental disorders, in adolescents. METHODS: Data from the Dutch community-based cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230) were used. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to assess DSM-IV disorders, the age of onset, and the age of initial treatment contact with any health care professional in 1584 adolescents of 18-20 years old. In total 43% of the adolescents (n = 675) were diagnosed with a lifetime DSM-IV disorder. The age of initial treatment contact with secondary care was based on administrative records from 321 adolescents without a disorder onset before the age of 10. Descriptive statistics, cumulative lifetime probability plots, and Cox regression analyses were used analyze time-to-treatment. RESULTS: The proportion of adolescents who reported lifetime treatment contact with any care varied from 15% for alcohol dependence to 82% for dysthymia. Regarding secondary care, proportions of lifetime treatment contact were lower for mood disorders and higher for substance dependence. Time-to-treatment for any care varied considerably between and within diagnostic classes. The probability of lifetime treatment contact for mood disorders was above 90%, whereas for other mental disorders this was substantially lower. An earlier age of onset predicted a longer, and the presence of a co-morbid mood disorder predicted a shorter time-to-treatment in general. Disorder severity predicted a shorter time-to-treatment for any care, but not for secondary care. Time-to-treatment for secondary care was shorter for adolescents from low and middle socioeconomic background than for adolescents from a high socioeconomic background. CONCLUSION: Although the time-to-treatment was shorter for adolescents than for adults, it was still substantial, and the overall patterns were remarkably similar to those found in adults. Efforts to reduce time-to-treatment should therefore be aimed at children and adolescents. Future research should address mechanisms underlying time-to-treatment and its consequences for early-onset disorders in particular.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA