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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805778

RESUMO

Plasma amyloid-beta (Aß) has long been investigated as a blood biomarker candidate for Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA), however previous findings have been inconsistent which could be attributed to the use of less sensitive assays. This study investigates plasma Aß alterations between pre-symptomatic Dutch-type hereditary CAA (D-CAA) mutation-carriers (MC) and non-carriers (NC) using two Aß measurement platforms. Seventeen pre-symptomatic members of a D-CAA pedigree were assembled and followed up 3-4 years later (NC = 8; MC = 9). Plasma Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 were cross-sectionally and longitudinally analysed at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) and were found to be lower in MCs compared to NCs, cross-sectionally after adjusting for covariates, at both T1(Aß1-40: p = 0.001; Aß1-42: p = 0.0004) and T2 (Aß1-40: p = 0.001; Aß1-42: p = 0.016) employing the Single Molecule Array (Simoa) platform, however no significant differences were observed using the xMAP platform. Further, pairwise longitudinal analyses of plasma Aß1-40 revealed decreased levels in MCs using data from the Simoa platform (p = 0.041) and pairwise longitudinal analyses of plasma Aß1-42 revealed decreased levels in MCs using data from the xMAP platform (p = 0.041). Findings from the Simoa platform suggest that plasma Aß may add value to a panel of biomarkers for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic CAA, however, further validation studies in larger sample sets are required.

2.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(2): E247-E257, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729739

RESUMO

Background: Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric condition for which specific genetic factors remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used combined whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis to identify risk loci and dissect the contribution of common and rare variants in families with a high density of illness. Methods: Overall, 117 participants from 15 Australian extended families with bipolar disorder (72 with affective disorder, including 50 with bipolar disorder type I or II, 13 with schizoaffective disorder-manic type and 9 with recurrent unipolar disorder) underwent whole-exome sequencing. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis using MERLIN and conditional linkage analysis using LAMP. We assessed the contribution of potentially functional rare variants using a genebased segregation test. Results: We identified a significant linkage peak on chromosome 10q11-q21 (maximal single nucleotide polymorphism = rs10761725; exponential logarithm of the odds [LODexp] = 3.03; empirical p = 0.046). The linkage interval spanned 36 protein-coding genes, including a gene associated with bipolar disorder, ankyrin 3 (ANK3). Conditional linkage analysis showed that common ANK3 risk variants previously identified in genome-wide association studies - or variants in linkage disequilibrium with those variants - did not explain the linkage signal (rs10994397 LOD = 0.63; rs9804190 LOD = 0.04). A family-based segregation test with 34 rare variants from 14 genes under the linkage interval suggested rare variant contributions of 3 brain-expressed genes: NRBF2 (p = 0.005), PCDH15 (p = 0.002) and ANK3 (p = 0.014). Limitations: We did not examine non-coding variants, but they may explain the remaining linkage signal. Conclusion: Combining family-based linkage analysis with next-generation sequencing data is effective for identifying putative disease genes and specific risk variants in complex disorders. We identified rare missense variants in ANK3, PCDH15 and NRBF2 that could confer disease risk, providing valuable targets for functional characterization.

3.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 309: 111258, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529975

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is associated with cognitive deficits and cortical changes for which the developmental dynamics are not well understood. The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been associated with both psychiatric disorders and cognitive variability. Here we examined the mediating role of brain structure in the relationship between DRD2 genomic variation and cognitive performance, with target cortical regions selected based on evidence of association with DRD2, bipolar disorder and/or cognition from prior literature. Participants (n = 143) were aged 12-30 years and comprised 62 first-degree relatives of bipolar patients (deemed 'at-risk'), 55 controls, and 26 patients with established bipolar disorder; all were unrelated Caucasian individuals with complete data across the three required modalities (structural magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and genetic data). A DRD2 haplotype was derived from three functional polymorphisms (rs1800497, rs1076560, rs2283265) associated with alternative splicing (i.e., D2-short/-long isoforms). Moderated mediation analyses explored group differences in relationships between this DRD2 haplotype, three structural brain networks which subsume the identified cortical regions of interest (frontoparietal, dorsal-attention, and ventral-attention), and three cognitive indices (intelligence, attention, and immediate memory). Controls who were homozygous for the DRD2 major haplotype demonstrated greater cognitive performance as a result of dorsal-attention network mediation. However, this association was absent in the 'at-risk' group. This study provides the first evidence of a functional DRD2-brain-cognition pathway. The absence of typical brain-cognition relationships in young 'at-risk' individuals may reflect biological differences that precede illness onset. Further insight into early pathogenic processes may facilitate targeted early interventions.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1155, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441847

RESUMO

Predicting lithium response prior to treatment could both expedite therapy and avoid exposure to side effects. Since lithium responsiveness may be heritable, its predictability based on genomic data is of interest. We thus evaluate the degree to which lithium response can be predicted with a machine learning (ML) approach using genomic data. Using the largest existing genomic dataset in the lithium response literature (n = 2210 across 14 international sites; 29% responders), we evaluated the degree to which lithium response could be predicted based on 47,465 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms using a supervised ML approach. Under appropriate cross-validation procedures, lithium response could be predicted to above-chance levels in two constituent sites (Halifax, Cohen's kappa 0.15, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.07, 0.24]; and Würzburg, kappa 0.2 [0.1, 0.3]). Variants with shared importance in these models showed over-representation of postsynaptic membrane related genes. Lithium response was not predictable in the pooled dataset (kappa 0.02 [- 0.01, 0.04]), although non-trivial performance was achieved within a restricted dataset including only those patients followed prospectively (kappa 0.09 [0.04, 0.14]). Genomic classification of lithium response remains a promising but difficult task. Classification performance could potentially be improved by further harmonization of data collection procedures.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 134: 138-149, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385632

RESUMO

This study assessed the effectiveness of cognitive and emotional brain training and transfer effects to wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. 352 healthy adult twins were randomised to a training group where they were asked to play brain training games over a 30-day period, or a waitlist control group. This study focused on the impact of the brain training on explicit and implicit emotional cognition, and analysed effects using both Intention-To-Treat (ITT) and Per-Protocol (PP) approaches. Both analyses revealed significant training effects for improvement in the explicit identification of fear expressions (ITT: p < 0.001, d = 0.33; PP training 3 h+: p < 0.001, d = 0.55), and a reduction in implicit bias for anger expressions amongst males (ITT: p < 0.001, d = 0.94; PP training 3 h+: p = 0.04, d = 0.90). Female participants also showed improvements in implicit bias for happy expressions (ITT: p = 0.003, d = 0.34; PP training 3 h+: p = 0.03, d = 0.47). Improvements resulting from training in emotional cognition did not directly improve wellbeing, depression or anxiety symptoms. Regression modelling also suggested training improvements in emotional cognition yielded no indirect transfer effects for the mental health and wellbeing measures. The results suggest brain training in healthy populations has potential for improving emotional cognition, but the subsequent impact on improving wellbeing and mental health symptoms is still equivocal.

6.
Neurology ; 96(12): e1632-e1645, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inherent clinical risks associated with the presence of cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs) or cerebral microbleeds and characterize individuals at high risk for developing hemorrhagic amyloid-related imaging abnormality (ARIA-H), we longitudinally evaluated families with dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease (DIAD). METHODS: Mutation carriers (n = 310) and noncarriers (n = 201) underwent neuroimaging, including gradient echo MRI sequences to detect CMHs, and neuropsychological and clinical assessments. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses evaluated relationships between CMHs and neuroimaging and clinical markers of disease. RESULTS: Three percent of noncarriers and 8% of carriers developed CMHs primarily located in lobar areas. Carriers with CMHs were older, had higher diastolic blood pressure and Hachinski ischemic scores, and more clinical, cognitive, and motor impairments than those without CMHs. APOE ε4 status was not associated with the prevalence or incidence of CMHs. Prevalent or incident CMHs predicted faster change in Clinical Dementia Rating although not composite cognitive measure, cortical thickness, hippocampal volume, or white matter lesions. Critically, the presence of 2 or more CMHs was associated with a significant risk for development of additional CMHs over time (8.95 ± 10.04 per year). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights factors associated with the development of CMHs in individuals with DIAD. CMHs are a part of the underlying disease process in DIAD and are significantly associated with dementia. This highlights that in participants in treatment trials exposed to drugs, which carry the risk of ARIA-H as a complication, it may be challenging to separate natural incidence of CMHs from drug-related CMHs.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Machine learning models were used to discover novel disease trajectories for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), and fluorodeoxyglucose PET were acquired in 131 mutation carriers and 74 non-carriers from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network; the groups were matched for age, education, sex, and apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE ε4). A deep neural network was trained to predict disease progression for each modality. Relief algorithms identified the strongest predictors of mutation status. RESULTS: The Relief algorithm identified the caudate, cingulate, and precuneus as the strongest predictors among all modalities. The model yielded accurate results for predicting future Pittsburgh compound B (R2  = 0.95), fluorodeoxyglucose (R2  = 0.93), and atrophy (R2  = 0.95) in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers. DISCUSSION: Results suggest a sigmoidal trajectory for amyloid, a biphasic response for metabolism, and a gradual decrease in volume, with disease progression primarily in subcortical, middle frontal, and posterior parietal regions.

8.
Brain Connect ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430685

RESUMO

Aim: Identify a global resting-state functional connectivity (gFC) signature in mutation carriers (MC) from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN). Assess the gFC with regard to amyloid (A), tau (T), and neurodegeneration (N) biomarkers, and estimated years to symptom onset (EYO). Introduction: Cross-sectional measures were assessed in MC (n = 171) and mutation noncarrier (NC) (n = 70) participants. A functional connectivity (FC) matrix that encompassed multiple resting-state networks was computed for each participant. Methods: A global FC was compiled as a single index indicating FC strength. The gFC signature was modeled as a nonlinear function of EYO. The gFC was linearly associated with other biomarkers used for assessing the AT(N) framework, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), positron emission tomography (PET) molecular biomarkers, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The gFC was reduced in MC compared with NC participants. When MC participants were differentiated by clinical dementia rating (CDR), the gFC was significantly decreased in MC CDR >0 (demented) compared with either MC CDR 0 (cognitively normal) or NC participants. The gFC varied nonlinearly with EYO and initially decreased at EYO = -24 years, followed by a stable period followed by a further decline near EYO = 0 years. Irrespective of EYO, a lower gFC associated with values of amyloid PET, CSF Aß1-42, CSF p-tau, CSF t-tau, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, and hippocampal volume. Conclusions: The gFC correlated with biomarkers used for defining the AT(N) framework. A biphasic change in the gFC suggested early changes associated with CSF amyloid and later changes associated with hippocampal volume. Impact statement This project focused on creating and evaluating a global functional connectivity (FC) signature that may serve as an outcome measure in clinical trials. This global FC signature encompassed multiple resting-state networks that included both inter- and intranetworks. Prior studies that focus on a single network may overlook important changes seen within and between networks. Our analysis is a logical progression from previous work that demonstrated that intra- and internetwork brain connections across multiple networks were affected with progression to cognitive impairment in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease. This work revealed that FC disruption exhibits a nonlinear time course that was consistent with proposed biomarker models.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(2): 895-903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is one of the major causes of intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular dementia in older adults. Early diagnosis will provide clinicians with an opportunity to intervene early with suitable strategies, highlighting the importance of pre-symptomatic CAA biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of pre-symptomatic CAA related blood metabolite alterations in Dutch-type hereditary CAA mutation carriers (D-CAA MCs). METHODS: Plasma metabolites were measured using mass-spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ® p400 HR kit) and were compared between pre-symptomatic D-CAA MCs (n = 9) and non-carriers (D-CAA NCs, n = 8) from the same pedigree. Metabolites that survived correction for multiple comparisons were further compared between D-CAA MCs and additional control groups (cognitively unimpaired adults). RESULTS: 275 metabolites were measured in the plasma, 22 of which were observed to be significantly lower in theD-CAAMCs compared to D-CAA NCs, following adjustment for potential confounding factors age, sex, and APOE ε4 (p < 00.05). After adjusting for multiple comparisons, only spermidine remained significantly lower in theD-CAAMCscompared to theD-CAA NCs (p  < 0.00018). Plasma spermidine was also significantly lower in D-CAA MCs compared to the cognitively unimpaired young adult and older adult groups (p < 0.01). Spermidinewas also observed to correlate with CSF Aß40 (rs = 0.621, p = 0.024), CSF Aß42 (rs = 0.714, p = 0.006), and brain Aß load (rs = -0.527, p = 0.030). CONCLUSION: The current study provides pilot data on D-CAA linked metabolite signals, that also associated with Aß neuropathology and are involved in several biological pathways that have previously been linked to neurodegeneration and dementia.

10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A biphasic model for brain structural changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) could reconcile some conflicting and paradoxical findings in observational studies and anti-amyloid clinical trials. METHODS: In this study we tested this model fitting linear versus quadratic trajectories and computed the timing of the inflection points vertexwise of cortical thickness and cortical diffusivity-a novel marker of cortical microstructure-changes in 389 participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. RESULTS: In early preclinical AD, between 20 and 15 years before estimated symptom onset, we found increases in cortical thickness and decreases in cortical diffusivity followed by cortical thinning and cortical diffusivity increases in later preclinical and symptomatic stages. The inflection points 16 to 19 years before estimated symptom onset are in agreement with the start of tau biomarker alterations. DISCUSSION: These findings confirm a biphasic trajectory for brain structural changes and have direct implications when interpreting magnetic resonance imaging measures in preventive AD clinical trials.

11.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954344

RESUMO

Structural grey matter covariance networks provide an individual quantification of morphological patterns in the brain. The network integrity is disrupted in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and network properties show associations with the level of amyloid pathology and cognitive decline. Therefore, these network properties might be disease progression markers. However, it remains unclear when and how grey matter network integrity changes with disease progression. We investigated these questions in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers, whose conserved age at dementia onset allows individual staging based upon their estimated years to symptom onset. From the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational cohort, we selected T1-weighted MRI scans from 269 mutation carriers and 170 non-carriers (mean age 38 ± 15 years, mean estimated years to symptom onset -9 ± 11), of whom 237 had longitudinal scans with a mean follow-up of 3.0 years. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted, and we calculated for each individual the network properties which describe the network topology, including the size, clustering, path length and small worldness. We determined at which time point mutation carriers and non-carriers diverged for global and regional grey matter network metrics, both cross-sectionally and for rate of change over time. Based on cross-sectional data, the earliest difference was observed in normalized path length, which was decreased for mutation carriers in the precuneus area at 13 years and on a global level 12 years before estimated symptom onset. Based on longitudinal data, we found the earliest difference between groups on a global level 6 years before symptom onset, with a greater rate of decline of network size for mutation carriers. We further compared grey matter network small worldness with established biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (i.e. amyloid accumulation, cortical thickness, brain metabolism and cognitive function). We found that greater amyloid accumulation at baseline was associated with faster decline of small worldness over time, and decline in grey matter network measures over time was accompanied by decline in brain metabolism, cortical thinning and cognitive decline. In summary, network measures decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, which is alike sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and the properties show decline over time prior to estimated symptom onset. These data suggest that single-subject networks properties obtained from structural MRI scans form an additional non-invasive tool for understanding the substrate of cognitive decline and measuring progression from preclinical to severe clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Neurology ; 95(23): e3104-e3116, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ordering of changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional data, including CSF analytes, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar ß-amyloid (Aß) with PET using the [11C] benzothiazole tracer Pittsburgh compound B (PiB), MRI-based brain structures, and clinical/cognitive outcomes harmonized from 8 studies, collectively involving 3,284 cognitively normal individuals 18 to 101 years of age, were analyzed. The age at which each marker exhibited an accelerated change (called the change point) was estimated and compared across the markers. RESULTS: Accelerated changes in CSF Aß1-42 (Aß42) occurred at 48.28 years of age and in Aß42/Aß40 ratio at 46.02 years, followed by PiB mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) with a change point at 54.47 years. CSF total tau (Tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (Ptau) had a change point at ≈60 years, similar to those for MRI hippocampal volume and cortical thickness. The change point for a cognitive composite occurred at 62.41 years. The change points for CSF Aß42 and Aß42/Aß40 ratio, albeit not significantly different from that for PiB SUVR, occurred significantly earlier than that for CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite. Adjusted analyses confirmed that accelerated changes in CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite occurred at ages not significantly different from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesized early changes of amyloid in preclinical AD and suggest that changes in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration markers occur close in time to cognitive decline.

14.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(8): e12694, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785990

RESUMO

Wellbeing, a key aspect of mental health, is moderately heritable with varying estimates reported from independent studies employing a variety of instruments. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled the construction of polygenic scores (PGS) for wellbeing, providing the opportunity for direct comparisons of the variance explained by PGS for different instruments commonly employed in the field. Nine wellbeing measurements (multi-item and single-item), two personality domains (NEO-FFI neuroticism and extraversion), plus the depression domain of the DASS-42 were drawn from a larger self-report battery applied to the TWIN-E study-an Australian longitudinal twin cohort (N = 1660). Heritability was estimated using univariate twin modeling and 12-month test-retest reliability was estimated using intra-class correlation. PGS were constructed using wellbeing GWAS summary-statistics from Baselmans et al. (Nat Genet. 2019), and the variance explained estimated using linear models. Last, a GWAS was performed using COMPAS-W, a quantitative composite wellbeing measure, to explore its utility in genomic studies. Heritability estimates ranged from 23% to 47% across instruments, and multi-item measures showed higher heritability and test-retest reliability than single-item measures. The variance explained by PGS was ~0.5% to 1.5%, with considerable variation between measures, and within each measure over 12 months. Five loci with suggestive association (p < 1 × 10-5 ) were identified from this initial COMPAS-W wellbeing GWAS. This work highlights the variability across measures currently employed in wellbeing research, with multi-item and composite measures favored over single-item measures. While wellbeing PGS are useful in a research setting, they explain little of the phenotypic variance, highlighting gaps for improved gene discovery.

15.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2111-2121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings. METHODS: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (NBEAL), 10q23.1 (TSPAN14/FAM231A), and 10q24.33 (SH3PXD2A). In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 (NOS3) and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: CALCRL (2q32.1), KLHL24 (3q27.1), VCAN (5q27.1), and POLR2F (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 126: 114-121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450375

RESUMO

Alterations to electroencephalography (EEG) power have been reported for psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety, but not for mental wellbeing in a healthy population. This study examined the resting EEG profiles associated with mental wellbeing, and how genetics and environment contribute to these associations using twin modelling. Mental wellbeing was assessed using the COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale which measures both subjective and psychological wellbeing. In 422 healthy adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins aged 18-61 years, we examined the association between mental wellbeing and EEG power (alpha, beta, theta, delta) using linear mixed models. This was followed by univariate and multivariate twin modelling to assess the heritability of wellbeing and EEG power, and whether the association was driven by shared genetics or environment. A significant association between wellbeing and an interaction of alpha, beta, and delta (ABD) power was found (ß = -0.33, p < 0.001) whereby a profile of high alpha and delta and low beta was associated with higher wellbeing, independent of depression and anxiety symptoms. This finding was supported by a five-fold cross-validation analysis. A significant genetic correlation (rG = -0.43) was found to account for 94% of the association between wellbeing and the EEG power interaction. Together, this study has identified a novel EEG profile with a common genetic component that may be a potential biomarker of mental wellbeing. Future studies need to clarify the causal direction of this association.

18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(5): 277-288, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369270

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing evidence documenting the psychosocial implications of living with a familial risk of an adult-onset psychiatric disorder. Six databases were searched systematically to identify qualitative and quantitative studies, which explored perspectives of those at increased risk for psychiatric disorders, as well as the general public. Thematic analysis was used to identify major themes. Thirty-five articles met the eligibility criteria and reported on the views of 4,896 participants. The literature demonstrates strong interest in psychiatric genetic testing of adults as well as children, whereas attitudes toward prenatal testing were much less positive. Predictors of interest in testing, as well as perceived advantages and disadvantages were identified. Very few studies are available on anticipated and actual reactions to receiving results. Studies show that the majority of participants feel that having a genetic explanation would alleviate some of the stigma associated with mental illness. This review shows that interest in, and predictors of attitudes toward, psychiatric genetic testing are well researched, but the extent to which attitudes will translate into actual testing uptake is unknown. Future research also needs to assess the actual behavioral and psychological impact of genetic testing.

19.
Inf Fusion ; 58: 153-167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284705

RESUMO

Despite subjects with Dominantly-Inherited Alzheimer's Disease (DIAD) represent less than 1% of all Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cases, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) initiative constitutes a strong impact in the understanding of AD disease course with special emphasis on the presyptomatic disease phase. Until now, the 3 genes involved in DIAD pathogenesis (PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP) have been commonly merged into one group (Mutation Carriers, MC) and studied using conventional statistical analysis. Comparisons between groups using null-hypothesis testing or longitudinal regression procedures, such as the linear-mixed-effects models, have been assessed in the extant literature. Within this context, the work presented here performs a comparison between different groups of subjects by considering the 3 genes, either jointly or separately, and using tools based on Machine Learning (ML). This involves a feature selection step which makes use of ANOVA followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine which features would be realiable for further comparison purposes. Then, the selected predictors are classified using a Support-Vector-Machine (SVM) in a nested k-Fold cross-validation resulting in maximum classification rates of 72-74% using PiB PET features, specially when comparing asymptomatic Non-Carriers (NC) subjects with asymptomatic PSEN1 Mutation-Carriers (PSEN1-MC). Results obtained from these experiments led to the idea that PSEN1-MC might be considered as a mixture of two different subgroups including: a first group whose patterns were very close to NC subjects, and a second group much more different in terms of imaging patterns. Thus, using a k-Means clustering algorithm it was determined both subgroups and a new classification scenario was conducted to validate this process. The comparison between each subgroup vs. NC subjects resulted in classification rates around 80% underscoring the importance of considering DIAN as an heterogeneous entity.

20.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 398-407, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161412

RESUMO

Development of tau-based therapies for Alzheimer's disease requires an understanding of the timing of disease-related changes in tau. We quantified the phosphorylation state at multiple sites of the tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid markers across four decades of disease progression in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. We identified a pattern of tau staging where site-specific phosphorylation changes occur at different periods of disease progression and follow distinct trajectories over time. These tau phosphorylation state changes are uniquely associated with structural, metabolic, neurodegenerative and clinical markers of disease, and some (p-tau217 and p-tau181) begin with the initial increases in aggregate amyloid-ß as early as two decades before the development of aggregated tau pathology. Others (p-tau205 and t-tau) increase with atrophy and hypometabolism closer to symptom onset. These findings provide insights into the pathways linking tau, amyloid-ß and neurodegeneration, and may facilitate clinical trials of tau-based treatments.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fosforilação , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Solubilidade , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
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