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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is associated with reduced survival in single center studies. An international registry for SAPH (ReSAPH) with long-term follow-up was established to enrich our knowledge of this complication of sarcoidosis. This analysis aims to elucidate factors associated with reduced transplant-free survival in SAPH patients. METHODS: ReSAPH contains prospectively collected outcomes of SAPH patients since the time of registry enrollment. Information analysed includes right heart catheterisation data, pulmonary function testing, chest x-ray Scadding stage, 6 min walk distance (6MWD) among others. Cox regression models were used to identify independent predictors of transplant-free survival. RESULTS: Data from a total of 215 patients followed for a mean of 2.5±1.9 years were available for analysis. In the 159 pre-capillary patients the 1, 3 and 5 year transplant free survival was 98.2.1%, 78.2% and 71.2%, respectively. Incident group 83.5%, 70.3% and 58.3% and prevalent group 94.7%, 72.2%, 66.3% 1,3 and 5 year survival, respectively. Patients with reduced DLCO and 6MWD <300 m in the pre-capillary cohort had significantly worse transplant-free survival. Reduced 6MWD and preserved FEV1/FVC ratio were identified as independent risk factors for reduced transplant-free survival in the pre-capillary cohort. CONCLUSION: Reduced diffusion capacity and 6MWD <300 m at the time of registry enrollment were associated with reduced transplant-free survival in the overall precapillary cohort. Preserved FEV1/FVC ratio was also identified as an independent risk factor for worsened outcomes.

2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198217

RESUMO

A variety of phenotypic categorisations have been developed for sarcoidosis. Phenotyping has been used for genetics studies and to guide treatment selection. The authors participated in a Delphi expert consensus panel to develop a proposed phenotype categorisation and treatment recommendations for pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. Panellists reached consensus that asymptomatic patients with normal pulmonary function and adenopathy alone or normal chest imaging do not require therapy, while symptomatic patients with impaired pulmonary function or infiltrates should be treated. The panel did not reach consensus on asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest imaging or reduced pulmonary function, or symptomatic patients with normal chest imaging and pulmonary function. The proposed phenotype categories and associated treatment recommendations are asymptomatic (no therapy), acute (disease duration <1-2 years, apparently self-limited, corticosteroids), chronic (antimetabolites and other second-line therapies) and advanced (biologics). Some clinical settings, such as dyspnoea/hypoxaemia at rest, severely impaired or rapidly decreasing pulmonary function tests, and severe cardiac, neurologic, ocular or renal involvement warrant immediate therapy.

3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198218

RESUMO

Pulmonary sarcoidosis presents substantial management challenges, with limited evidence on effective therapies and phenotypes. In the absence of definitive evidence, expert consensus can supply clinically useful guidance in medicine. An international panel of 26 experts participated in a Delphi process to identify consensus on pharmacological management in sarcoidosis with the development of preliminary recommendations.The modified Delphi process used three rounds. The first round focused on qualitative data collection with open-ended questions to ensure comprehensive inclusion of expert concepts. Rounds 2 and 3 applied quantitative assessments using an 11-point Likert scale to identify consensus.Key consensus points included glucocorticoids as initial therapy for most patients, with non-biologics (immunomodulators), usually methotrexate, considered in severe or extrapulmonary disease requiring prolonged treatment, or as a steroid-sparing intervention in cases with high risk of steroid toxicity. Biologic therapies might be considered as additive therapy if non-biologics are insufficiently effective or are not tolerated with initial biologic therapy, usually with a tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor, typically infliximab.The Delphi methodology provided a platform to gain potentially valuable insight and interim guidance while awaiting evidenced-based contributions.

4.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198219

RESUMO

In patients treated with repository corticotrophin injection (RCI) for pulmonary sarcoidosis, effective management of adverse events may improve adherence. However, management of adverse events may be challenging due to limitations in real-world clinical experience with RCI and available published guidelines.We surveyed 12 physicians with a modified Delphi process using three questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 consisted of open-ended questions. Panellists' answers were developed into a series of statements for Questionnaires 2 and 3. In these, physicians rated their agreement with the statements using a Likert scale.Key consensus recommendations included a starting dose of 40 units twice a week for patients with less severe disease, continued at a maintenance dose for patients who responded, particularly those with chronic refractory sarcoidosis. Panellists reached consensus that concomitant steroids should be quickly tapered in patients receiving RCI, but that concomitant use of immunosuppressive medications should be continued. Panellists developed consensus recommendations for adverse event management, and reached consensus that RCI should be down-titrated or discontinued if other interventions for the adverse effects fail or if the adverse effect is severe.In the absence of clinical evidence, our Delphi consensus opinions may provide practical guidance to physicians on the management of RCI to treat pulmonary sarcoidosis.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(1): 25-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has a central role in the process of fibrosis. This study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pamrevlumab (FG-3019), a fully recombinant human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim was to establish whether pamrevlumab could slow, stop, or reverse progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PRAISE trial was done at 39 medical centres in seven countries (Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and the USA). Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of 55% or greater were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) by use of interactive responsive technology to intravenous infusion of pamrevlumab 30 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks over 48 weeks (16 infusions). The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC at week 48. Disease progression (defined as a decline from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC of ≥10%, or death) at week 48 was a key secondary efficacy outcome. All patients in the pamrevlumab group received at least one dose of the study drug and were analysed for safety. Two patients in the placebo group were excluded from the intention-to-treat population for the efficacy analyses because of enrolment error. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01890265. FINDINGS: Between Aug 17, 2013, and July 21, 2017, 103 patients were randomly assigned (50 to pamrevlumab and 53 to placebo). Pamrevlumab reduced the decline in percentage of predicted FVC by 60·3% at week 48 (mean change from baseline -2·9% with pamrevlumab vs -7·2% with placebo; between-group difference 4·3% [95% CI 0·4-8·3]; p=0·033). The proportion of patients with disease progression was lower in the pamrevlumab group than in the placebo group at week 48 (10·0% vs 31·4%; p=0·013). Pamrevlumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to that of placebo. Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were observed in 12 (24%) patients in the pamrevlumab group and eight (15%) in the placebo group, with three patients on pamrevlumab and seven on placebo discontinuing treatment. Of the three (6%) deaths in the pamrevlumab group and six (11%) in the placebo group, none was considered treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Pamrevlumab attenuated progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and was well tolerated. Now in phase 3 development, pamrevlumab shows promise as a novel, safe, and effective treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. FUNDING: FibroGen.

7.
Respir Med ; 150: 120-125, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by irreversible loss of lung function and an unpredictable course of disease progression. METHODS: The safety data for patients with IPF who received placebo in 6 clinical trials were pooled to examine the categories and frequencies of serious adverse events (SAEs) in this population. RESULTS: In 1082 patients with IPF who received placebo, 673 SAEs were reported. Of these, 93 SAEs resulted in death (8.6% of patients). Respiratory-related conditions were the most frequently reported SAE (225 events, 16.33 per 100 patient-exposure years [PEY]), followed by infections and infestations (136 events, 9.87 per 100 PEY) and cardiac disorders (79 events, 5.73 per 100 PEY); these categories also had the most fatal outcomes (60, 10, and 10 deaths, respectively). The most frequently reported fatal respiratory-related SAEs were IPF and respiratory failure (38 and 11 patients, respectively), and the most frequently reported fatal infections and infestations and cardiac disorders were pneumonia (5 patients) and myocardial infarction (3 patients), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis has value as a comparator for safety in future studies of IPF and provides insights in the natural evolution of both IPF and common comorbidities.

8.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 96(12): 1375-1385, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353303

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to reduce mortality in COPD patients with severe hypoxemia. However, the Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial (LOTT), a large randomized trial, found no benefit of oxygen therapy in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia. We hypothesized that there may be differences in response to oxygen which depend on genotype or gene expression. In a genome-wide time-to-event analysis of the primary outcome of death or hospitalization in 331 subjects, 97 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed evidence of interaction with oxygen therapy at P < 1e-5, including 7 SNPs near arylsulfatase B (ARSB; P = 6e-6). In microarray expression profiling on 51 whole blood samples from 37 individuals, at screening and/or at 12-month follow-up, ARSB expression was associated with the primary outcome depending on oxygen treatment. The significant SNPs were conditional expression quantitative trait loci for ARSB expression. In a network analysis of genes affected by long-term oxygen, two observed clusters including 26 co-expressed genes were enriched in mitochondrial function. Using data from the observational COPDGene Study, we validated the expression of 25 of these 26 genes, plus ARSB. The effect of long-term oxygen therapy in COPD varied based on ARSB expression and genotype. ARSB has previously been shown to be associated with hypoxemia in human bronchial and colonic epithelial cells and in a mouse model. In peripheral blood, long-term oxygen treatment affected expression of mitochondrial-related genes, a biologically relevant pathway in COPD. SNPs and expression of ARSB are associated with response to long-term oxygen in COPD. The ARSB SNPs were expression quantitative trait loci depending on oxygen therapy. Genes differentially expressed by long-term oxygen were enriched in mitochondrial functions. This suggests a potential biomarker to personalize use of long-term oxygen in COPD.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(9): 707-714, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) is hypothesised to play a role in progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aimed to determine whether treatment of abnormal acid GER with laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery reduces the rate of disease progression. METHODS: The WRAP-IPF trial was a randomised controlled trial of laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery in patients with IPF and abnormal acid GER recruited from six academic centres in the USA. We enrolled patients with IPF, abnormal acid GER (DeMeester score of ≥14·7; measured by 24-h pH monitoring) and preserved forced vital capacity (FVC). We excluded patients with a FVC below 50% predicted, a FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0·65, a history of acute respiratory illness in the past 12 weeks, a body-mass index greater than 35, and known severe pulmonary hypertension. Concomitant therapy with nintedanib and pirfenidone was allowed. The primary endpoint was change in FVC from randomisation to week 48, in the intention-to-treat population with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01982968. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2014, and Sept 30, 2016, we screened 72 patients and randomly assigned 58 patients to receive surgery (n=29) or no surgery (n=29). 27 patients in the surgery group and 20 patients in the no surgery group had an FVC measurement at 48 weeks (p=0·041). Intention-to-treat analysis adjusted for baseline anti-fibrotic use demonstrated the adjusted rate of change in FVC over 48 weeks was -0·05 L (95% CI -0·15 to 0·05) in the surgery group and -0·13 L (-0·23 to -0·02) in the non-surgery group (p=0·28). Acute exacerbation, respiratory-related hospitalisation, and death was less common in the surgery group without statistical significance. Dysphagia (eight [29%] of 28) and abdominal distention (four [14%] of 28) were the most common adverse events after surgery. There was one death in the surgery group and four deaths in the non-surgery group. INTERPRETATION: Laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery in patients with IPF and abnormal acid GER is safe and well tolerated. A larger, well powered, randomised controlled study of anti-reflux surgery is needed in this population. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
10.
Respir Med ; 139: 72-78, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. We established a multi-national registry of sarcoidosis associated PH (SAPH) patients. METHODS: Sarcoidosis patients with PH confirmed by right heart catheterization (RHC) were studied. Patients with pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) of 15 mmHg or less and a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 Hg were subsequently analyzed. Data collected included hemodynamics, forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), chest x-ray, and 6-min walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: A total of 176 patients were analyzed. This included 84 (48%) cases identified within a year of entry into the registry and 94 (53%) with moderate to severe PH. There was a significant correlation between DLCO percent predicted (% pred) andmPAP (Rho = -0.228, p = 0.0068) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (Rho = -0.362, p < 0.0001). PVR was significantly higher in stage 4 disease than in stage 0 or 1 disease (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). About two-thirds of the SAPH patients came from the United States (US). There was a significant difference in the rate of treatment between US (67.5%) versus non-US (86%) (Chi Square 11.26, p = 0.0008) sites. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of SAPH were similar across multiple centers in the US, Europe, and the Middle East. The severity of SAPH was related to reduced DLCO. There were treatment differences between the US and non-US centers.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/complicações , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Sistema de Registros , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/etiologia , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital , Teste de Caminhada , Raios X
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861437

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine if short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) is associated with increased symptoms or lung function decline in fibrotic sarcoidosis. Sixteen patients with fibrotic sarcoidosis complicated by frequent exacerbations completed pulmonary function testing and questionnaires every three months for one year. We compared 7-, 10-, and 14-day average levels of PM2.5 and O3 estimated at patient residences to spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), to forced vital capacity (FVC), episodes of FEV1 decline > 10%) and questionnaire outcomes (Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ), Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and King's Sarcoidosis Questionnaire (KSQ)) using generalized linear mixed effect models. PM2.5 level averaged over 14 days was associated with lower KSQ general health status (score change -6.60 per interquartile range (IQR) PM2.5 increase). PM2.5 level averaged over 10 and 14 days was associated with lower KSQ lung specific health status (score change -6.93 and -6.91, respectively). PM2.5 levels were not associated with FEV1, FVC, episodes of FEV1 decline > 10%, or respiratory symptoms measured by SGRQ or LCQ. Ozone exposure was not associated with any health outcomes. In this small cohort of patients with fibrotic sarcoidosis, PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased severity of respiratory and quality of life symptoms.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 6(Suppl 2): S206-S208, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education about an advance directive is frequently not addressed in the outpatient, ambulatory care setting. The objective of this study was to identify patients that do not have an advance directive in a Chronic Multi-Organ Rare Disease Clinic model, and define the role of a social worker in providing advance care planning (ACP). METHODS: The Chronic Multi-Organ Rare Disease Clinic in-corporates a multi-disciplinary team to provide outpatient care to over 600 patients. A review of advance directives filed in the electronic health record (EHR) prior to hiring a clinic social worker was examined in this high risk population. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (2%) of this patient population were identified as having a completed, active advance directive filed with their EHR prior to hiring a clinic social worker. The clinic social worker began ACP discussions and inquiries about the status of patient advance directives with a total of 162 patients during September 2016-April 2017. Of these 162 patients, 14 patients (8.6%) submitted their completed advance directives for filing with their EHR after advanced care discussions were initiated by the clinic social worker. Two patients who completed an advance directive, died during this 7-month time period. Only three patients declined to complete advance directives during this same time period. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-centered care must incorporate ACP. A clinic social worker is an effective member of a multi-disciplinary team and can incorporate education about advance directives in order to improve health care quality.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/terapia , Doenças Raras/terapia , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Preferência do Paciente , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Utah
14.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 106(4): 86-88, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In systemic sclerosis (SSc) the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) complaint is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which may contribute to oesophagitis, stricture, Barrett's oesophagus, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We used a genealogical resource the Utah Population Database (UPDB) to analyse SSc pedigrees for hereditability of oesophageal disease. METHODS: SSc, GERD, oesophagitis, stricture, Barrett's, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma were defined by ICD Ninth and Tenth Revision codes. Familial aggregation, relative risk (RR) of the GIT disease in SSc proband and their relatives was estimated by Cox regression model. The model (adjusted for sex and birth year) was used to evaluate the effects of having or being related to, a case or control for SSc, on GIT diseases. RESULTS: We identified 2,227 unique SSc patients and 11,136 randomly selected controls matched by birth year, gender, and whether born in Utah, in an approximately 1:5 ratio. A SSc proband had a significant high risk of GERD (RR: 3.28), dysphagia (RR 5.58), oesophageal stricture (RR: 5.16), oesophagitis (RR: 4.86), and Barrett's (RR: 4.52) all with significant p-values <2e-16. First-degree relatives of a SSc proband were at elevated risk of GERD (RR: 1.14, p=6.85e-05), dysphagia (RR: 1.22 p=0.002), and oesophagitis (RR: 1.37, p=2.10e-06). First cousins (RR: 1.09, p=0.03) and spouses (RR; 1.37, p=0.02) were at increased risk of esophagitis and dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that independent of GERD, oesophagitis in SSc patients and their relatives may have both a hereditable and environmental etiology. There does not seem to be a heritable component to Barrett's oesophagus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Esôfago/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/etiologia , Doenças do Esôfago/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Esofagite/etiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos
15.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16077, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28681861

RESUMO

Multinucleate cellular syncytial formation is a hallmark of skeletal muscle differentiation. Myomaker, encoded by Mymk (Tmem8c), is a well-conserved plasma membrane protein required for myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes in mouse, chick, and zebrafish. Here, we report that autosomal recessive mutations in MYMK (OMIM 615345) cause Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome in humans (CFZS; OMIM 254940) by reducing but not eliminating MYMK function. We characterize MYMK-CFZS as a congenital myopathy with marked facial weakness and additional clinical and pathologic features that distinguish it from other congenital neuromuscular syndromes. We show that a heterologous cell fusion assay in vitro and allelic complementation experiments in mymk knockdown and mymkinsT/insT zebrafish in vivo can differentiate between MYMK wild type, hypomorphic and null alleles. Collectively, these data establish that MYMK activity is necessary for normal muscle development and maintenance in humans, and expand the spectrum of congenital myopathies to include cell-cell fusion deficits.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Síndrome de Möbius/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/genética , Mutação , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fusão Celular , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Síndrome de Möbius/metabolismo , Síndrome de Möbius/patologia , Proteínas Musculares/deficiência , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mioblastos/patologia , Linhagem , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/metabolismo , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/patologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência
16.
J Med Pract Manage ; 32(6): 413-416, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637410

RESUMO

Value in healthcare must focus on accessibility, quality, and affordability. This article describes how a healthcare team provides value by meeting the needs of a rare disease patient and underscores the importance of a chronic multiorgan rare disease home. A nurse practitioner can ensure that barriers to evaluation are removed and communication is prioritized in order to provide accessible and affordable care to a patient with rare disease without jeopardizing quality of care.

17.
PLoS Genet ; 12(8): e1006011, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27532455

RESUMO

Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p < 8 X 10-10) pQTLs in 38 (43%) of blood proteins tested. Most pQTL SNPs were novel with low overlap to eQTL SNPs. The pQTL SNPs explained >10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the differences observed between pQTLs and eQTLs SNPs, we recommend that protein biomarker-disease association studies take into account the potential effect of common local SNPs and that pQTLs be integrated along with eQTLs to uncover disease mechanisms. Large-scale blood biomarker studies would also benefit from close attention to the ABO blood group.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Enfisema/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Enfisema/sangue , Enfisema/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 4(9): 708-719, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27469583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 12 months of oral cyclophosphamide has been shown to alter the progression of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease when compared with placebo. However, toxicity was a concern and without continued treatment the efficacy disappeared by 24 months. We hypothesised that a 2 year course of mycophenolate mofetil would be safer, better tolerated, and produce longer lasting improvements than cyclophosphamide. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, parallel group trial enrolled patients from 14 US medical centres with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease meeting defined dyspnoea, pulmonary function, and high-resolution CT (HRCT) criteria. The data coordinating centre at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA, CA, USA), randomly assigned patients using a double-blind, double-dummy, centre-blocked design to receive either mycophenolate mofetil (target dose 1500 mg twice daily) for 24 months or oral cyclophosphamide (target dose 2·0 mg/kg per day) for 12 months followed by placebo for 12 months. Drugs were given in matching 250 mg gel capsules. The primary endpoint, change in forced vital capacity as a percentage of the predicted normal value (FVC %) over the course of 24 months, was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat analysis using an inferential joint model combining a mixed-effects model for longitudinal outcomes and a survival model to handle non-ignorable missing data. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00883129. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2009, and Jan 14, 2013, 142 patients were randomly assigned to either mycophenolate mofetil (n=69) or cyclophosphamide (n=73). 126 patients (mycophenolate mofetil [n=63] and cyclophosphamide [n=63]) with acceptable baseline HRCT studies and at least one outcome measure were included in the primary analysis. The adjusted % predicted FVC improved from baseline to 24 months by 2·19 in the mycophenolate mofetil group (95% CI 0·53-3·84) and 2·88 in the cyclophosphamide group (1·19-4·58). The course of the % FVC did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups based on the prespecified primary analysis using a joint model (p=0·24), indicating that the trial was negative for the primary endpoint. However, in a post-hoc analysis of the primary endpoint, the within-treatment change from baseline to 24 months derived from the joint model showed that the % FVC improved significantly in both the mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide groups. 16 (11%) patients died (five [7%] mycophenolate mofetil and 11 [15%] cyclophosphamide), with most due to progressive interstitial lung disease. Leucopenia (30 patients vs four patients) and thrombocytopenia (four vs zero) occurred more often in patients given cyclophosphamide than mycophenolate mofetil. Fewer patients on mycophenolate mofetil than on cyclophosphamide prematurely withdrew from study drug (20 vs 32) or met prespecified criteria for treatment failure (zero vs two). The time to stopping treatment was shorter in the cyclophosphamide group (p=0·019). INTERPRETATION: Treatment of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease with mycophenolate mofetil for 2 years or cyclophosphamide for 1 year both resulted in significant improvements in prespecified measures of lung function over the 2 year course of the study. Although mycophenolate mofetil was better tolerated and associated with less toxicity, the hypothesis that it would have greater efficacy at 24 months than cyclophosphamide was not confirmed. These findings support the potential clinical effectiveness of both cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil for progressive scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease, and the present preference for mycophenolate mofetil because of its better tolerability and toxicity profile. FUNDING: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health; with drug supply provided by Hoffmann-La Roche and Genentech.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Respir J ; 47(5): 1481-91, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965296

RESUMO

FG-3019 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that interferes with the action of connective tissue growth factor, a central mediator in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.This open-label phase 2 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of two doses of FG-3019 administered by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for 45 weeks in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Subjects had a diagnosis of IPF within the prior 5 years defined by either usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on a recent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan, or a possible UIP pattern on HRCT scan and a recent surgical lung biopsy showing UIP pattern. Pulmonary function tests were performed every 12 weeks, and changes in the extent of pulmonary fibrosis were measured by quantitative HRCT scans performed at baseline and every 24 weeks.FG-3019 was safe and well-tolerated in IPF patients participating in the study. Changes in fibrosis were correlated with changes in pulmonary function.Further investigation of FG-3019 in IPF with a placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted and is underway.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(5): 5061-75, 2015 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985308

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) µmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) µmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Poluição do Ar , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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