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1.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(1): 43-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886807

RESUMO

There is a strong need in long-term care for scientific research, so older people and their families, health care professionals, policy makers, and educators can benefit from new advancements and best available evidence in every day care practice. This paper presents the model of a sustainable and successful interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists, care providers and educators in long-term care: the "Living Lab in Ageing and Long-Term Care" by Maastricht University in the Netherlands. Its mission is to contribute with scientific research to improving i) quality of life of older people and their families; ii) quality of care and iii) quality of work of those working in long-term care. Key working mechanisms are the Linking Pins and interdisciplinary partnership using a team science approach, with great scientific and societal impact. A blueprint for the model is discussed, describing its business model and challenges in getting the model operational and sustainable are discussed.

2.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(12): 637-645, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840674

RESUMO

Oral care for older people is an underexposed topic in dentistry as well as in general healthcare, while oral care professionals are increasingly confronted with frail and multimorbid older people with complex care needs. The research agenda 'Oral care for the elderly' was developed to encourage the collaboration of researchers in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium) to do more research in this area and in this way, to achieve an expansion and implementation of knowledge. This will make possible the provision of a socially responsible and robust basis for sustainable oral care for frail older people. The focus of the agenda is on 3 themes, namely oral health and oral function for older people; multi/interdisciplinary collaboration within primary care and the costs, benefits and long-term effect(s) of oral care throughout the entire course of life. This article provides an overview of this research agenda and the way in which it has been established.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Países Baixos , Saúde Bucal
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(12): 647-652, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840675

RESUMO

The Netherlands, like other Western countries, shows an obvious demography of aging, which is associated with many challenges. People age differently, after all. Some remain vital until very old age, while others become frail and disabled much earlier in life. Because of the indicated demographic trend, morbidity is expected to increase and with it, the number of older people needing care. 'Aging in place' has become a central phenomenon in healthcare policies. This means that older people should be empowered to lead a meaningful life in their own living environment as long as possible, even when they are frail and care dependent. Therefore, in the future, most care for older people will actually occur at home. This article aims to present a meaningful care model for the older people. Starting from the 'definition discussion' about frailty and a revaluation of the concept of' resilience, a basis will be provided for a sustainable, proactive and personalised elderly care, close to the living environment of older people, in which dentists and other oral health professionals play an important role as well.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso Fragilizado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Odontólogos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Países Baixos
4.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 23(2): 128-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as low skeletal muscle mass with poor physical performance, representing a strong prognostic factor for mortality in older people. Although highly prevalent in hospitalized geriatric patients, it is unknown whether sarcopenia can also predict mortality in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between sarcopenia according the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), Special Interest Group of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders (SIG) and Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and 2-year mortality in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients. DESIGN: 81 patients (84±5 y) admitted to the acute geriatric ward participated in this study. Body composition assessment (bio-impedance, Maltron Bioscan 920-II) and physical performance tests were performed, and mortality information was retrieved through patient files. RESULTS: Prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 51% (EWGSOP), 75% (IWGS), 69% (SIG), and 27% (FNIH). Based on Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) analysis, 2-year mortality was significantly higher in sarcopenic patients versus non-sarcopenic patients when using the EWGSOP (2-y: HR 4.310; CI-95%:2.092-8.850; P<0.001) and FNIH criteria (2-y: HR 3.571; CI-95%:1.901-6.711; P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass index, fat mass index, body mass index, phase angle and gait speed were significantly lower in the geriatric patients who deceased after 2 years versus those who were still alive. Cox proportional HR analyses showed that higher phase angle (HR 0.678; CI-95%:0.531- 0.864; P=0.002) and higher fat mass index (HR 0.839; CI-95%:0.758-0.928; P=0.001) significantly reduced 2-y mortality probability. Combining sarcopenia criteria and separate patient characteristics finally resulted in a model in which HRs for sarcopenia (EWGSOP and FNIH) as well as phase angle significantly predicted mortality probability. CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is prevalent in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients and is associated with significantly higher 2-year mortality according the EWGSOP and FNIH criteria.

5.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 23(1): 27-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in muscle mass and function can result in adverse health outcomes and subsequent loss of independence. Inadequate nutrition is an important contributor to the aetiology of sarcopenia, and dietary strategies are studied to prevent or delay this geriatric syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether there is an association between biochemical nutrient status markers, muscle parameters and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Data from the cross-sectional Maastricht Sarcopenia study (MaSS) were used, in which skeletal muscle index (SMI), 4 meter gait speed, 5 times chair stand and handgrip strength were assessed among older adults (n=227). Sarcopenia was defined following the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Fasted blood samples were analyses on amino acids levels, RBC phospholipid profile, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), α-tocopherol, magnesium and homocysteine were determined in fasted blood levels. Generalized linear modelling and logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Lower blood levels of essential amino acids (EAA), total branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and leucine were associated with lower SMI (P<0.001), strength (P<0.001) and longer time to complete the chair stand (P<0.05), whereas no association was found for total amino acids (TAA). Lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 25(OH)D and homocysteine were associated with lower muscle parameter values (P<0.05). No significant associations were found for SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-tocopherol-cholesterol ratio and magnesium. Sarcopenia was more frequent among those with lower levels of leucine, BCAA, EAA, EPA, 25(OH)D and higher levels of homocysteine (P<0.05). Age and BMI were identified as relevant covariates. A robust association was only found for lower gait speed and lower 25(OH)D levels. CONCLUSION: Compromised muscle parameters are associated with low blood values of specific amino acids, fatty acids, vitamin D and high homocysteine.

6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 22(10): 1148-1161, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia, defined as an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle function and muscle mass, occurs in approximately 6 - 22 % of older adults. This paper presents evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Research (ICSFR). METHODS: To develop the guidelines, we drew upon the best available evidence from two systematic reviews paired with consensus statements by international working groups on sarcopenia. Eight topics were selected for the recommendations: (i) defining sarcopenia; (ii) screening and diagnosis; (iii) physical activity prescription; (iv) protein supplementation; (v) vitamin D supplementation; (vi) anabolic hormone prescription; (vii) medications under development; and (viii) research. The ICSFR task force evaluated the evidence behind each topic including the quality of evidence, the benefit-harm balance of treatment, patient preferences/values, and cost-effectiveness. Recommendations were graded as either strong or conditional (weak) as per the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Consensus was achieved via one face-to-face workshop and a modified Delphi process. RECOMMENDATIONS: We make a conditional recommendation for the use of an internationally accepted measurement tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia including the EWGSOP and FNIH definitions, and advocate for rapid screening using gait speed or the SARC-F. To treat sarcopenia, we strongly recommend the prescription of resistance-based physical activity, and conditionally recommend protein supplementation/a protein-rich diet. No recommendation is given for Vitamin D supplementation or for anabolic hormone prescription. There is a lack of robust evidence to assess the strength of other treatment options.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarcopenia/patologia
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 22(10): 1246-1252, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nursing home residents often suffer from multi-morbidities and geriatric syndromes leading to lower quality of life or mortality. Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and malnutrition are profound conditions in this complex profile of multi-morbidities and are associated with deprived mental -and physical health status, e.g. aspiration pneumonia or dehydration. This study aimed to assess the association between OD and malnutrition in Dutch nursing home residents. DESIGN: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the annual National Prevalence Measurement of Quality of Care (LPZ). SETTING: The National Prevalence Measurement of Quality of Care was conducted in Nursing Homes in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were nursing home residents age 65 or older and admitted to psychogeriatric- or somatic wards. MEASUREMENTS: The measurements were taken by trained nurses from the participating nursing homes. Anthropometric measurements and unintended weight loss (%) were assessed to determine nutritional status (malnutrition). OD was assessed by means of a standardized questionnaire assessing clinically relevant symptoms of OD such as swallowing problems or sneezing/coughing while swallowing. Cox regression was applied to assess the association between malnutrition and clinically relevant symptoms of OD in older Dutch nursing home residents. RESULTS: Approximately 12% of the residents suffered from swallowing problems and 7% sneezed/coughed while swallowing liquids or solid foods. Approximately 10% of the residents was malnourished. Residents with OD symptoms were more often malnourished compared to residents without OD symptoms. Approximately 17% of the problematic swallowers were concurrently malnourished. Increased risk for malnutrition was found in residents suffering from swallowing problems (PR 1.5, 95%CI 1.2-1.9), as well as in residents that sneezed/coughed while swallowing (PR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.7). Stratification based on wards revealed that problematic swallowers from somatic wards were at a high risk of malnutrition (PR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8). CONCLUSION: Clinically relevant symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia, such as swallowing problems and sneezing/coughing while swallowing are associated with increased risk of malnutrition in psychogeriatric and somatic Dutch nursing home residents.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde/normas , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 22(7): 766-773, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between muscle parameters (mass, strength, physical performance) and activities of daily living (ADL), quality of life (QoL), and health care costs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Maastricht Sarcopenia Study (MaSS). SETTING: Community-dwelling, assisted-living, residential living facility. PARTICIPANTS: 227 adults aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle mass, hand grip strength and physical performance were assessed by bio-electrical impedance, JAMAR dynamometer and the Short Physical Performance Battery, respectively. Health outcomes were measured by the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (disability in ADL) and the EQ-5D-5L (QoL). Health care costs were calculated based on health care use in the past three months. RESULTS: Muscle strength and physical performance showed a strong correlation with ADL, QoL, and health care costs (P<.01); for muscle mass no significant correlations were observed. Regression analyses showed that higher gait speed (OR 0.06, 95%CI 0.01-0.55) was associated with a lower probability of ADL disability. Furthermore, slower chair stand (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.08-1.42), and more comorbidities (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.23-2.02) were explanatory factors for higher ADL disability. Explanatory factors for QoL and costs were: more disability in ADL (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12-1.41 for QoL; B = 0.09, P<.01 for costs) and more comorbidities (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.14-1.82 for QoL; B = 0.35, P<.01 for costs). CONCLUSION: Lower gait speed and chair stand were potential drivers of disability in ADL. Disability in ADL and comorbidities were associated with QoL and health care costs in community-dwelling older adults. Improving physical performance may be a valuable target for future intervention and research to impact health burden and costs.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
9.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 22(1): 103-110, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To (1) assess the association between dysphagia and malnutrition as well as other related factors and (2) investigate the nutritional interventions that are initiated in dysphagic older patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, multi-center point prevalence measurement. SETTING: 53 Austrian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 3174 hospitalized patients, 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: A standardized and tested questionnaire was used for the data collection, which was based on both inspections of the patients and information documented in the patient chart. Medical diagnoses were assessed by referring to the International Classification of Diseases. Dysphagia was measured by asking the patient a dichotomous question. Several other data points were collected including: gender, age, number of diseases, malnutrition, care dependency scale (CDS) score and dependency during activities of daily living (ADL). To investigate the associations between dysphagia and malnutrition and other associated factors, cross tabulation, chi-squared test, t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of dysphagia among these patients was 7.6%. Dysphagia and malnutrition were significantly associated (< 0.001). Patients with dysphagia had statistically significant lower BMI values (p = 0.01), more medical diagnoses (p = 0.003) and were more care dependent (p < 0.001) than patients who did not suffer from dysphagia. The frequency of underlying respiratory diseases, dementia, nervous system disorders and cerebrovascular accidents also differed significantly between dysphagic and non-dysphagic patients. The following nutritional interventions were most frequently initiated in patients with dysphagia: provision of texture-modified food/fluid (32.2%), referral to a dietitian (31.4%), provision of an energy- and/or protein-enriched diet (27.3%), monitoring of nutritional intake (21.5%), enteral nutrition (19.4%) and provision of energy-enriched snacks (15.7%). 24% of patients received no nutritional interventions. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that a very strong association exists between dysphagia and malnutrition as well as high levels of care dependency and dependency in activities of daily living. Nearly one-quarter of the patients did not receive any nutritional intervention. Therefore, a potential for the improvement of nutritional therapy in older dysphagic hospitalized patients still exists.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(1): 281-292, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of an oral healthcare programme in nursing homes on care staff knowledge and attitude regarding oral health. METHODS: The study sample consisted of the nurses and nurses' aides from 63 nursing homes, which either received an oral healthcare programme including mobile dental care or were on a waiting list to receive this programme. A validated questionnaire completed at baseline and again after the study period assessed the care staff knowledge and attitude. Paired t test, independent t test, general linear and linear mixed models were used to examine the changes in attitude and knowledge scores. RESULTS: In total, 546 questionnaires were completed by the same people from 36 nursing homes at baseline and on completion of the study. After the intervention period, knowledge significantly improved in both study groups (I p < 0.001; C p < 0.001), the intervention group significantly showing the largest increase (p < 0.001). The outcome variable attitude only showed a significant improvement in the intervention group (p < 0.001). The mixed models confirmed the impact of some aspects of the intervention on the attitude and the knowledge of the caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The oral healthcare programme including a mobile dental team resulted in a significant increase of the care staff knowledge and attitude regarding oral health. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The integration of a dental professional team in nursing home organisations should be encouraged because it could be valuable to tackle barriers for the provision of daily oral hygiene and to support the continuous integration of oral health care into general care.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Idosos/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Casas de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 49(1): 1-11, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181776

RESUMO

In order to provide proactive care and support for older people attention is needed for the prevention of frailty among older adults. Subsequently, accurate case finding of those who are more at risk of becoming frail is crucial to undertake specific preventive actions. This study investigates frailty and risk profiles of frailty among older people in order to support proactive detection. Hereby, frailty is conceived not only as a physical problem, but also refers to emotional, social, and environmental hazards. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies (N = 21,664 home-dwelling older people), a multinomial logistic regression model was tested which included socio-demographic and socio-economic indicators as well as the four dimensions of frailty (physical, social, psychological and environmental). Findings indicate that for both men and women having moved in the previous 10 years and having a lower household income are risk factors of becoming multidimensional frail. However, studying the different frailty domains, several risk profiles arise (e. g. marital status is important for psychological frailty), and gender-specific risk groups are detected (e. g. non-married men). This paper elaborates on practical implications and formulates a number of future research recommendations to tackle frailty in an ageing society.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
12.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 25(2): 108-118, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171899

RESUMO

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT: Working in long-term care is seen as a stressful, physically and mentally demanding occupation, and thus, nursing staff are at risk for work and stress-related diseases. In older patients, psychiatric illnesses often occur in combination with physical illnesses, requiring nursing care that is specific to these combined care needs. The impact of caring for these patients on the mental well-being of nurses is unknown. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE: Nursing staff working on specialized units for patients with combined care needs experience high levels of self-efficacy in combination with strong feelings of self-rated competence. Although levels of burnout are relatively low, mental healthcare nursing staff is more at risk for burnout when working in specialized settings for patients with combined care needs than nursing home staff working in specialized settings for these patients. Nursing staff characteristics, such as years of working experience and age, seem more important in relation to staff well-being than patient characteristics in specialized settings for combined care needs. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Staff well-being might benefit from specializing care, so that patients with similar care needs are placed together and care is focused. The presence of specialized care units for older patients with combined care needs can allow for both targeted and focused allocation of nursing staff to these units and provision of specific training. ABSTRACT: Introduction In older patients, psychiatric illnesses frequently exist in tandem with physical illnesses, requiring nursing care that is specific to these combined care needs. The impact of caring for these patients on the mental well-being of nursing staff is unknown. AIM: To investigate whether care characteristics of patients with combined care needs are related to the mental well-being of nursing staff. METHOD: Well-being of nursing staff was studied within a larger exploratory observational cross-sectional study that examined the differences and similarities of specialized combined care units in Dutch mental healthcare and nursing home settings. RESULTS: Nursing staff across settings, with more than 5 years of work experience, felt competent in caring for patients with combined care needs. No significant effects of care characteristics of patients with combined care needs on the work-related well-being of nursing staff were shown. Both mental health nursing staff and older employees, however, were found to be more at risk for burnout. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSION: Staff well-being might benefit from placing patients with combined care needs together, so care is focused. The presence of specialized care units can allow for both targeted and focused allocation of nursing staff to these units and provision of specific training.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Casas de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/normas
13.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 74(2): 227-231, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs (BZ/Z) in older people is common and not without risks. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the implementation of a clinical rule promotes the discontinuation of chronically used BZ/Z for insomnia. METHODS: A clinical rule, generating an alert in case of chronic BZ/Z use, was created and applied to the nursing home (NH) setting. The clinical rule was a one-off intervention, and alerts did not occur over time. Reports of the generated alerts were digitally sent to NH physicians with the advice to phase out and eventually stop the BZ/Z. In cases where the advice was adopted, a follow-up period of 4 months on the use of BZ/Z was taken into account in order to determine whether the clinical rule alert led to a successful discontinuation of BZ/Z. RESULTS: In all, 808 NH patients were screened. In 161 (19.1%) of the patients, BZ/Z use resulted in a clinical rule alert. From these, the advice to phase out and stop the BZ/Z was adopted for 27 patients (16.8%). Reasons for not following the advice consisted of an unsuccessful attempt in the past (38 patients), patients family and/or patient resistance (37 patients), the non-continuous use of BZ/Z (32 patients) and indication still present (27 patients). Of the 12 NH physicians, seven adopted the advice. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of a clinical rule for discontinuation of chronically used BZ/Z for insomnia was low, as reported in the present study. Actions should be taken to help caregivers, patients and family members understand the importance of limiting BZ/Z use to achieve higher discontinuation rates.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Guias como Assunto , Sistemas de Registro de Ordens Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Suspensão de Tratamento , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde
14.
Community Dent Health ; 34(3): 143-151, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted of nursing home residents with limited access to regular oral health care services to evaluate their oral health status, to perform an assessment of the need for oral treatment and to determine the possible predicting value of age, gender, care dependency and income level on their oral health status and treatment needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three experienced dentists collected clinical oral health data with a mobile dental unit in 23 nursing homes. Socio-demographic data were extracted from the residents' records in the nursing home. Besides the descriptive and bivariate analysis, a general linear mixed model analysis was also performed with the nursing home as random effect. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1,226 residents with a mean age of 83.9 years, of which 41.9% were edentulous. The mean D3MFt in the dentate group was 24.5 and 77% needed extractions or fillings. In the group of residents wearing removable dentures, 36.9% needed repair, rebasing or renewal of the denture. The mixed model analysis demonstrated that with each year a resident gets older, the oral health outcomes get worse and that men have worse oral health and higher treatment needs than women. However, the level of income and care dependency had a less extensive role in predicting the oral health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The nursing home residents presented a poor overall oral health status and high dental and prosthetic treatment needs. Gender and age were important predicting variables for the oral health outcomes.


Assuntos
Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Boca
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 21(6): 655-661, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the efficacy of high-calorie, high-protein nutritional formula enriched with arginine, zinc, and antioxidants (disease-specific support) in patients with pressure ulcers (PUs). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials in English published from January 1997 until October 2015 were searched for in electronic databases (EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL). Studies comparing a disease-specific nutritional support (oral supplements or tube feeding) to a control nutritional intervention enabling the satisfaction of energy requirements regardless of the use of high-calorie formula or placebo or no support for at least 4 weeks were considered eligible. Study outcomes were the percentage of change in PU area, complete healing and reduction in the PU area ≥40% at 8 weeks, and the percentage of change in area at 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 3 studies could be included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control interventions, formulas enriched with arginine, zinc and antioxidants resulted in significantly higher reduction in ulcer area (-15.7% [95%CI, -29.9, -1.5]; P=0.030; I2=58.6%) and a higher proportion of participants having a 40% or greater reduction in PU size (OR=1.72 [95%CI, 1.04, 2.84]; P=0.033; I2=0.0%) at 8 weeks. A nearly significant difference in complete healing at 8 weeks (OR=1.72 [95%CI, 0.86, 3.45]; P=0.127; I2=0.0%) and the percentage of change in the area at 4 weeks (-7.1% [95%CI, -17.4, 3.3]; P=0.180; I2=0.0%) was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review shows that the use of formulas enriched with arginine, zinc and antioxidants as oral supplements and tube feeds for at least 8 weeks are associated with improved PU healing compared with standard formulas.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nutrição Enteral , Lesão por Pressão/terapia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional
16.
BDJ Open ; 3: 17020, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607090

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how dentists in the Netherlands and Flanders assessed their knowledge on oral health care to older people, what their attitude was and what barriers they experienced in rendering care to older people. Methods: The survey data was collected from a random sample of Dutch and Flemish dentists. Five hundred ninety-five dentists (37%) of the Dutch sample and 494 dentists of the Flemish sample (41%) completed the online questionnaire. Dentists were asked to respond to 15 Likert type items, representing opinions on provision of oral health care to older people and to give information about the number of older patients treated and about some profession-specific and personal characteristics. Results: The average number of patients treated per week was nearly twice as high in the Netherlands as in Flanders. Nevertheless, differences of opinions between dentists in the Netherlands and Flanders were relatively limited. Conclusions: This survey shows that in particular the actual number of older patients treated appears to be related with differences of opinions between Dutch and Flemish dentists about oral health care provided to (vulnerable) older people who live at home.

17.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 160: D390, 2016.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of heart failure (HF) in nursing home residents and to gain insight into the clinical characteristics of residents with heart failure. DESIGN: Multi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study. METHOD: 501 nursing home residents aged 65 years and over, in a department for chronic somatic diseases or a psychogeriatric department, participated in this study. The diagnosis of HF and the related characteristics were based on data collected from clinical examinations for heart failure (including history, physical examination, ECG, cardiac markers and echocardiography), patient records and questionnaires. A panel of two cardiologists and an internist-geriatrician made the final diagnosis of HF. RESULTS: The prevalence of HF in nursing home residents was 33%. Dyspnoea, oedema and a history of cardiac disease were more common in residents with heart failure. Diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also appeared to be more prevalent in this group. In 54% of the residents with HF, the diagnosis had not previously been made. Diagnosis of HF was not confirmed by the expert panel in 31% of residents with a history of HF. CONCLUSION: Heart failure does indeed appear to be very prevalent in nursing home residents. Heart failure had not been previously diagnosed in many cases but also a previous diagnosis of heart failure could be disproved in many participants. It is therefore important that the diagnostic process for heart failure in nursing home residents be improved.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 20(1): 71-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26728936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish the quality of medication reviews performed by nursing home physicians, general practitioners and pharmacists. DESIGN AND SETTING: 15 Pharmacists, 13 general practitioners and 18 nursing home physicians performed a medication review for three cases (A, B and C), at three evaluation moments. First, they received the medication list. Secondly, they also received laboratory results and reason for admission and finally, we added medical history. Remarks were divided into 6 categories, i.e. indication without medication, medication without indication, contraindications/ interactions, dosage problems, double medication and wrong medication. Remarks were compared to the remarks made by our expert panel and scored according to our grading model as appropriate (0 to +3) or missed or potentially harmful (-1). For each medication error category, the percentage of participants who made this error was computed. RESULTS: After the first evaluation moment, the overall estimated mean percentage score was -1.7% for case A, 3.9% for case B, and 8.7% for case C. After the second review, this score was 15.0% for case A, 19.8% for case B, and 22.2% for case C. This further increased to 30.0% for case A, 36.7% for case B and 44% for case C at the final evaluation. The absence of medication where there was an indication (indication without medication) was frequently missed and did not improve after adding the extra information regarding laboratory results, reason for admission and finally medical history. CONCLUSION: Increasing clinical information helps physicians and pharmacists to improve their medication reviews, however, additional information was still related with a high margin of error. Detection of certain errors becomes easier with additional information, whereas other errors remain undetected. To achieve a high standard of medication review, we have to change the way medication reviews should be performed.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medicina Geral , Erros de Medicação , Casas de Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 47: 228-34, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26825021

RESUMO

Dyspnea is one of the most reported symptoms of patients with advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is often undertreated. Morphine has proven to be an effective treatment for dyspnea and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines, but questions concerning benefits and respiratory adverse effects remain. This study primarily evaluates the impact of oral sustained release morphine (morphine SR) on health-related quality of life and respiratory adverse effects in patients with COPD. Secondary objectives include the impact on exercise capacity, the relationship between description and severity of dyspnea and the presence of a clinically relevant response to morphine, and cost-effectiveness. A single-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study will be performed in 124 patients with COPD who recently completed a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program. Participants will receive 20-30 mg/24h morphine SR or placebo for four weeks. After the intervention, participants will be followed for twelve weeks. Outcomes include: the COPD Assessment Test, six minute walking test, Multidimensional Dyspnea Scale and a cost diary. Furthermore, lung function and arterial blood gasses will be measured. These measures will be assessed during a baseline and outcome assessment, two home visits, two phone calls, and three follow-up assessments. The intervention and control group will be compared using uni- and multivariate regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Finally, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. The current manuscript describes the rationale and methods of this study and provides an outline of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 20(2): 218-30, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26812520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to identify and review screening tools for frailty in older adults admitted to inpatient hospital care with respect to their validity, reliability and feasibility. METHODS: Studies were identified through systematically searching PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase and PsycINFO and screening reference lists till June 2014. Papers dealing with screening tools aimed at identifying frail older patients in in-hospital care, and including information about validity, reliability or feasibility, were included in the review. The quality of the included studies was critically appraised via the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). RESULTS: From the originally identified 2001 studies 32 studies met the inclusion criteria, in which 16 screening tools were presented. The screening tools showed different characteristics with respect to the number of items, the method of administration and the domains included. The most frequently studied tools with respect to predictive validity were the Identification Seniors At Risk (ISAR) and Triage Risk Stratification Tool (TRST). Studies retrieved poorer information about reliability and feasibility. Overall sensitivity was fairly good. The ISAR, ISAR-HP (Identification Seniors At Risk Hospitalized Patients) and Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) generally had the best sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Many screening tools are available for daily practice. These tools to identify frail older patients in inpatient hospital care could be useful. For no tool, however, is clear evidence available yet regarding validity, reliability and feasibility. The overall sensitivity of the included screening tools was fairly good, whereas information on reliability and feasibility was lacking for most tools. In future research more attention should be given to the latter items.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Hospitalização , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
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