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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805553

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of addictive behavior. Increasing evidence suggests an impact of FGF21 on eating behavior, food and drug cravings and on other adipokines like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or adiponectin. We investigated the association of serum FGF21 and genetic variants with aspects of food and drug craving and obesity related metabolic parameters including serum adipokine levels. Standardized questionnaires, blood samples and anthropometric data of the Sorbs cohort (n = 1046) were analyzed using SPSS. For genetic analyses, the FGF21-locus ±10 kb was genotyped and analyzed using PLINK. Validation was conducted in a second independent cohort (n = 704). FGF21 was significantly associated with alcohol and coffee consumption, smoking and eating behavior (disinhibition). We confirmed correlations of FGF21 serum levels with IGF-1, adiponectin, pro-enkephalin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, chemerin and progranulin. FGF21 genetic variants were associated with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, adipokines, food and drug craving while strongest evidence was seen with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We highlight the potential role of FGF21 in food and drug cravings and provide new insights regarding the link of FGF21 with other adipokines as well as with metabolic traits, in particular those related to lipid metabolism (LDL-C).

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787083

RESUMO

AIMS: Murine models implicate phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) as a nitric oxide-independent regulator of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and promising novel therapeutic target in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study describes PDE9A expression in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from patients with different HF phenotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endomyocardial biopsies and PBMNCs were obtained from patients with HFpEF (n = 24), HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 22), and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 24) and patients without HF (n = 7). PDE9A expression was increased in EMBs and PBMNCs from patients with HFpEF as compared with other HF phenotypes or subjects without HF. Endomyocardial PDE9A expression in HFpEF correlated with the inflammatory cell count in EMBs, but not with cardiac fibrosis or left ventricular diastolic wall stress. PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was increased in HFpEF patients with higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and in response to pro-inflammatory stimulation. As a validation cohort, 719 patients with HFpEF and 1106 subjects without HF were identified from the LIFE-Heart study. PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was obtained from array data and displayed an age-dependent distribution. PDE9A levels were elevated and conferred increased risk for HFpEF in middle-aged subjects, but not in elderly HFpEF patients. Following age adjustment, lower PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was associated with worse survival in patients with HFpEF (log-rank test P-value <0.001). CONCLUSION: Expression profiling indicates an up-regulation of endomyocardial PDE9A in different HF phenotypes with the most robust increase in EMBs and PBMNCs from patients with HFpEF. An exclusive risk effect of PDE9A expression on HFpEF in middle-aged patients and an unexpected association with survival calls for further studies to better characterize the role of PDE9A as a treatment target.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still reaches excessively high mortality rates. This analysis is aimed to develop a new easily applicable biomarker-based risk score. METHODS AND RESULTS : A biomarker-based risk score for 30-day mortality was developed from 458 patients with CS complicating AMI included in the randomized CULPRIT-SHOCK trial. The selection of relevant predictors and the coefficient estimation for the prognostic model were performed by a penalized multivariate logistic regression analysis. Validation was performed internally, internally externally as well as externally in 163 patients with CS included in the randomized IABP-SHOCK II trial. Blood samples were obtained at randomization. The two trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01927549 and NCT00491036), are closed to new participants, and follow-up is completed. Out of 58 candidate variables, the four strongest predictors for 30-day mortality were included in the CLIP score (cystatin C, lactate, interleukin-6, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). The score was well calibrated and yielded high c-statistics of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.86] in internal validation, 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89) in internal-external (temporal) validation, and 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.81) in external validation. Notably, it outperformed the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and IABP-SHOCK II risk score in prognostication (0.83 vs 0.62; P < 0.001 and 0.83 vs. 0.76; P = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : A biomarker-only score for 30-day mortality risk stratification in infarct-related CS was developed, extensively validated and calibrated in a prospective cohort of contemporary patients with CS after AMI. The CLIP score outperformed other clinical scores and may be useful as an early decision tool in CS.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647042

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease, an inflammatory disease, is the leading cause of death globally. White blood cell counts (including monocytes) are easily available biomarkers of systemic inflammation. Monocyte subtypes can be measured by flow cytometry and classified into classical (CD14high, CD16neg), intermediate (CD14high, CD16+) and non-classical (CD14+, CD16high) with distinct functional properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of monocyte total count and its subtypes with cardiovascular risk groups defined by the Framingham Risk Score, which is used to estimate the 10-year risk of developing myocardial infarction or predict mortality following coronary heart disease. We also aimed to investigate whether monocyte counts are associated with relevant cardiovascular risk factors not included in the Framingham Risk Score, such as carotid atherosclerotic plaque and intima-media thickness. Our data came from the LIFE-Adult study, a population-based cohort study of 10,000 randomly selected participants in Leipzig, Germany. Data was gathered using self-administered questionnaires and physical examinations. Carotid plaques and intima-media thickness were measured using carotid artery sonography. Monocyte subtypes in blood were determined by 10-color flow cytometry for a total of 690 individuals. In a multivariate regression analysis adjusting for the risk factors BMI, intima-media thickness, presence of carotid plaques and diabetes mellitus, monocyte subtypes and total count were found to be significantly associated with the dichotomized Framingham Risk Score (≥10% versus <10%): Odds ratios [95% confidence interval] for monocyte subtypes: classical: 11.19 [3.79-34.26]; intermediate: 2.27 [1.11-4.71]; non-classical: 4.18 [1.75-10.20]; total: 14.59 [4.61-47.95]. In absence of prospective data, the FRS was used as a surrogate for CHD. Our results indicate that monocyte counts could provide useful predictive value for cardiovascular disease risk.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 42(9): 919-933, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.

7.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 1): 52-63, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399552

RESUMO

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have opened up unprecedented opportunities for time-resolved nano-scale imaging with X-rays. Near-field propagation-based imaging, and in particular near-field holography (NFH) in its high-resolution implementation in cone-beam geometry, can offer full-field views of a specimen's dynamics captured by single XFEL pulses. To exploit this capability, for example in optical-pump/X-ray-probe imaging schemes, the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission pulses, i.e. the dynamics of the beam itself, presents a major challenge. In this work, a concept is presented to address the fluctuating illumination wavefronts by sampling the configuration space of SASE pulses before an actual recording, followed by a principal component analysis. This scheme is implemented at the MID (Materials Imaging and Dynamics) instrument of the European XFEL and time-resolved NFH is performed using aberration-corrected nano-focusing compound refractive lenses. Specifically, the dynamics of a micro-fluidic water-jet, which is commonly used as sample delivery system at XFELs, is imaged. The jet exhibits rich dynamics of droplet formation in the break-up regime. Moreover, pump-probe imaging is demonstrated using an infrared pulsed laser to induce cavitation and explosion of the jet.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Light chain involvement is observed in almost every patient (pt) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Owing to a relatively short half-life, rapid reduction in the involved free light chain (iFLC) is of potential prognostic value. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 92 pts with newly diagnosed MM treated with bendamustine, prednisone, and bortezomib (BPV). RESULTS: After a median number of two (range 1-5) BPV cycles, the majority of pts (n = 86; 93%) responded with either sCR (n = 21), CR (n = 1), nCR (n = 25), VGPR (n = 20), or PR (n = 19). PFS and OS at 48 months were 39% and 67%, respectively. At baseline, 79 out of 92 pts (86%) had iFLC levels above the upper standard level and an abnormal ratio of involved to uninvolved free light chain ≥ 8. In a subgroup analysis of these pts, we evaluated the prognostic importance of an early reduction of the iFLC during the first two BPV cycles. A reduction ≥ 50% of the iFLC on day 8 of the first cycle was observed in 31 of 69 pts. These pts had a significantly better median PFS of 49 months as compared to 20 months in 38 pts with a lower iFLC reduction (p = 0.002). In contrast, OS did not differ significantly with a 48 months survival of 77% vs 69% (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a rapid decrease in the iFLC on day 8 is an early prognostic marker for newly diagnosed MM pts undergoing BPV treatment.

9.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(1): 37-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess possible correlations between clinical outcomes and SEM marginal analysis in a prospective long-term clinical study using two adhesives in incisors and canines. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients received class III and IV restorations with two different adhesives, either the one-step self-etch adhesive iBond Gluma inside (1-SE) or the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (2-ER) combined with the fine particle hybrid composite Venus. The restorations were clinically evaluated (modified USPHS criteria) over 90 months. Based on resin replicas, a quantitative marginal SEM analysis was performed using the criteria "gap", "perfect margin", "overhang", and "underfilled". The results of the quantitative marginal analysis were statistically compared and related to clinical evaluations. The SEM data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Wilcoxon test, and mixed models test. Results: Of the 35 subjects at baseline, 16 (1-SE) and 17 (2-ER) were clinically re-examined after 90 months. 13 patients were included in the SEM analysis due to uninterrupted documentation over 90 months or until restoration loss. SEM analysis showed larger discriminative power between groups than did the clinical examination, but the trend was the same. Marginal analysis ("gap", "perfect margin") showed significant differences between the materials after 12 months, which clinically began to show a trend from 12 months, and were statistically verified after 48 and 90 months. "Overhang" and "underfilled" did not reveal significant differences between the systems or over time. Conclusion: SEM marginal analysis using the replication technique is a powerful tool to reveal differences between adhesives. Compared to clinical evaluation, group differences can be detected earlier, with both outcome parameters confirming each other over long observation periods.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cimentos Dentários , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Adesivos Dentinários , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Cimentos de Resina
10.
Circ Res ; 128(4): 513-529, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353373

RESUMO

RATIONALE: While thrombin is the key protease in thrombus formation, other coagulation proteases, such as fXa (factor Xa) or aPC (activated protein C), independently modulate intracellular signaling via partially distinct receptors. OBJECTIVES: To study the differential effects of fXa or fIIa (factor IIa) inhibition on gene expression and inflammation in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were treated with a direct fIIa inhibitor (fIIai) or direct fXa inhibitor (fXai) at doses that induced comparable anticoagulant effects ex vivo and in vivo (tail-bleeding assay and FeCl3-induced thrombosis). Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced via left anterior descending ligation. We determined infarct size and in vivo aPC generation, analyzed gene expression by RNA sequencing, and performed immunoblotting and ELISA. The signaling-only 3K3A-aPC variant and inhibitory antibodies that blocked all or only the anticoagulant function of aPC were used to determine the role of aPC. Doses of fIIai and fXai that induced comparable anticoagulant effects resulted in a comparable reduction in infarct size. However, unbiased gene expression analyses revealed marked differences, including pathways related to sterile inflammation and inflammasome regulation. fXai but not fIIai inhibited sterile inflammation by reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL [interleukin]-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα [tumor necrosis factor alpha]), as well as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) and inflammasome activation. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced myocardial fibrosis 28 days post-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mechanistically, in vivo aPC generation was higher with fXai than with fIIai. Inhibition of the anticoagulant and signaling properties of aPC abolished the anti-inflammatory effect associated with fXai, while inhibiting only the anticoagulant function of aPC had no effect. Combining 3K3A-aPC with fIIai reduced the inflammatory response, mimicking the fXai-associated effect. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that specific inhibition of coagulation via direct oral anticoagulants had differential effects on gene expression and inflammation, despite comparable anticoagulant effects and infarct sizes. Targeting individual coagulation proteases induces specific cellular responses unrelated to their anticoagulant effect.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270742

RESUMO

Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The course of the disease is often highly dynamic with unforeseen critical deterioration within hours in a relevant proportion of patients. Besides antibiotic treatment, novel adjunctive therapies are under development. Their additive value needs to be explored in preclinical and clinical studies and corresponding therapy schedules require optimization prior to introduction into clinical practice. Biomathematical modeling of the underlying disease and therapy processes might be a useful aid to support these processes. We here propose a biomathematical model of murine immune response during infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae aiming at predicting the outcome of different treatment schedules. The model consists of a number of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics and interactions of the pulmonal pneumococcal population and relevant cells of the innate immune response, namely alveolar- and inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils. The cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 and the chemokines CCL2, CXCL1 and CXCL5 are considered as major mediators of the immune response. We also model the invasion of peripheral blood monocytes, their differentiation into macrophages and bacterial penetration through the epithelial barrier causing blood stream infections. We impose therapy effects on this system by modelling antibiotic therapy and treatment with the novel C5a-inactivator NOX-D19. All equations are derived by translating known biological mechanisms into equations and assuming appropriate response kinetics. Unknown model parameters were determined by fitting the predictions of the model to time series data derived from mice experiments with close-meshed time series of state parameters. Parameter fittings resulted in a good agreement of model and data for the experimental scenarios. The model can be used to predict the performance of alternative schedules of combined antibiotic and NOX-D19 treatment. We conclude that we established a comprehensive biomathematical model of pneumococcal lung infection, immune response and barrier function in mice allowing simulations of new treatment schedules. We aim to validate the model on the basis of further experimental data. We also plan the inclusion of further novel therapy principles and the translation of the model to the human situation in the near future.

13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382112

RESUMO

AIMS: Thrombocytopenia is a common major side-effect of cytotoxic cancer therapies. A clinically relevant problem is to predict an individual's thrombotoxicity in the next planned chemotherapy cycle in order to decide on treatment adaptation. To support this task, 2 dynamic mathematical models of thrombopoiesis under chemotherapy were proposed, a simple semimechanistic model and a comprehensive mechanistic model. In this study, we assess the performance of these models with respect to existing thrombocytopenia grading schemes. METHODS: We consider close-meshed individual time series data of 135 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients treated with 6 cycles of CHOP/CHOEP chemotherapies. Individual parameter estimates were derived on the basis of these data considering a varying number of cycles per patient. Parsimony assumptions were applied to optimize parameter identifiability. Models' predictability are assessed by determining deviations of predicted and observed degrees of thrombocytopenia in the next cycles. RESULTS: The mechanistic model results in better agreement of model prediction and individual time series data. Prediction accuracy of future cycle toxicities by the mechanistic model is higher even if the semimechanistic model is provided with data of more cycles for calibration. CONCLUSION: We successfully established a quantitative and clinically relevant method for assessing prediction performances of biomathematical models of thrombopoiesis under chemotherapy. We showed that the more comprehensive mechanistic model outperforms the semimechanistic model. We aim at implementing the mechanistic model into clinical practice to assess its utility in real life clinical decision-making.

14.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196775

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Many diseases have a metabolic background, which is increasingly investigated due to improved measurement techniques allowing high-throughput assessment of metabolic features in several body fluids. Integrating data from multiple cohorts is of high importance to obtain robust and reproducible results. However, considerable variability across studies due to differences in sampling, measurement techniques and study populations needs to be accounted for. RESULTS: We present Metabolite-Investigator, a scalable analysis workflow for quantitative metabolomics data from multiple studies. Our tool supports all aspects of data pre-processing including data integration, cleaning, transformation, batch analysis as well as multiple analysis methods including uni- and multivariable factor-metabolite associations, network analysis and factor prioritization in one or more cohorts. Moreover, it allows identifying critical interactions between cohorts and factors affecting metabolite levels and inferring a common covariate model, all via a graphical user interface. AVAILABILITY: We constructed Metabolite-Investigator as a free and open web-tool and stand-alone Shiny-app. It is hosted at https://apps.health-atlas.de/metabolite-investigator/, the source code is freely available at https://github.com/cfbeuchel/Metabolite-Investigator. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

15.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.

16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is of complex origin, involving genetic and neurobehavioral factors. Genetic polymorphisms may increase the risk for developing obesity by modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, such as reward processing. Yet, few studies have investigated the association of obesity, related genetic variants, and structural connectivity of the dopaminergic reward network. METHODS: We analyzed 347 participants (age range: 20-59 years, BMI range: 17-38 kg/m2) of the LIFE-Adult Study. Genotyping for the single nucleotid polymorphisms rs1558902 (FTO) and rs1800497 (near dopamine D2 receptor) was performed on a microarray. Structural connectivity of the reward network was derived from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T using deterministic tractography of Freesurfer-derived regions of interest. Using graph metrics, we extracted summary measures of clustering coefficient and connectivity strength between frontal and striatal brain regions. We used linear models to test the association of BMI, risk alleles of both variants, and reward network connectivity. RESULTS: Higher BMI was significantly associated with lower connectivity strength for number of streamlines (ß = -0.0025, 95%-C.I.: [-0.004, -0.0008], p = 0.0042), and, to lesser degree, fractional anisotropy (ß = -0.0009, 95%-C.I. [-0.0016, -0.00008], p = 0.031), but not clustering coefficient. Strongest associations were found for left putamen, right accumbens, and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex. As expected, the polymorphism rs1558902 in FTO was associated with higher BMI (F = 6.9, p < 0.001). None of the genetic variants was associated with reward network structural connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we provide evidence that higher BMI correlates with lower reward network structural connectivity. This result is in line with previous findings of obesity-related decline in white matter microstructure. We did not observe an association of variants in FTO or near DRD2 receptor with reward network structural connectivity in this population-based cohort with a wide range of BMI and age. Future research should further investigate the link between genetics, obesity and fronto-striatal structural connectivity.

17.
Card Fail Rev ; 6: e24, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042584

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing in incidence and has a higher prevalence compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. So far, no effective treatment of HFpEF is available, due to its complex underlying pathophysiology and clinical heterogeneity. This article aims to provide an overview and a future perspective of transcriptomic biomarker research in HFpEF. Detailed characterisation of the HFpEF phenotype and its underlying molecular pathomechanisms may open new perspectives regarding early diagnosis, improved prognostication, new therapeutic targets and tailored therapies accounting for patient heterogeneity, which may improve quality of life. A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs with sufficiently large sample sizes are required to support this concept.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1008718, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045005

RESUMO

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.

19.
Cell Rep ; 33(3): 108295, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086065

RESUMO

TMEM18 is the strongest candidate for childhood obesity identified from GWASs, yet as for most GWAS-derived obesity-susceptibility genes, the functional mechanism remains elusive. We here investigate the relevance of TMEM18 for adipose tissue development and obesity. We demonstrate that adipocyte TMEM18 expression is downregulated in children with obesity. Functionally, downregulation of TMEM18 impairs adipocyte formation in zebrafish and in human preadipocytes, indicating that TMEM18 is important for adipocyte differentiation in vivo and in vitro. On the molecular level, TMEM18 activates PPARG, particularly upregulating PPARG1 promoter activity, and this activation is repressed by inflammatory stimuli. The relationship between TMEM18 and PPARG1 is also evident in adipocytes of children and is clinically associated with obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Our findings indicate a role of TMEM18 as an upstream regulator of PPARG signaling driving healthy adipogenesis, which is dysregulated with adipose tissue dysfunction and obesity.

20.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1616-1623, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Experimental studies demonstrated that atrial ischemia induced by right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis promote AF triggers and development of electro-anatomical substrate for AF. AIM: To analyze the association between AF prevalence and coronary arteries status in the LIFE-Heart Study. METHODS: This analysis included patients with available coronary catheterization data recruited between 2006 and 2014. Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. CAD was defined as stenosis ≥75%, while coronary artery sclerosis (CAS) was defined as non-critical plaque(s) <75%. RESULTS: In total, 3.458 patients (median age 63 years, 34% women) were included into analysis. AF was diagnosed in 238 (6.7%) patients. There were 681 (19.7%) patients with CAS and 1.411 (40.8%) with CAD (27.5% with single, 32.4% with double, and 40.1% with triple vessel CAD). In multivariable analysis, there was a significant association between prevalent AF and coronary artery status (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.78, Ptrend < .001). Similarly, AF risk was lower in patients with higher CAD extent (OR 0.54, 95%CI 0.35-0.83, Ptrend = .005). Compared to single vessel CAD, the risk of AF was lower in double (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.19-0.95, P = .037) and triple CAD (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.13-0.71, P = .006). Finally, no association was found between AF prevalence and CAD origin among patients with single vessel CAD. CONCLUSION: In the LIFE-Heart Study, CAS but not CAD was associated with increased risk of AF.

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