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1.
J Virol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568515

RESUMO

Inducing latency reversal to reveal infected cells to the host immune system represents a potential strategy to cure HIV infection. In separate studies, we have previously shown that CD8+ T cells may contribute to the maintenance of viral latency and identified a novel SMAC mimetic/IAP inhibitor (AZD5582) capable of reversing HIV/SIV latency in vivo by activating the non-canonical (nc) NF-κB pathway. Here, we use AZD5582 in combination with antibody-mediated depletion of CD8α+ cells to further evaluate the role of CD8+ T cells in viral latency maintenance. Six rhesus macaques (RM) were infected with SIVmac239 and treated with ART starting at week 8 post-infection. After 84-85 weeks of ART, all animals received a single dose of the anti-CD8α depleting antibody (Ab), MT807R1 (50mg/kg, s.c.), followed by 5 weekly doses of AZD5582 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.). Following CD8α depletion + AZD5582 combined treatment, 100% of RMs experienced on-ART viremia above 60 copies per ml of plasma. In comparator groups of ART-suppressed SIV-infected RMs treated with AZD5582 only or CD8α depletion only, on-ART viremia was experienced by 56% and 57% of the animals respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of increased viremic episodes during the treatment period was greater in the CD8α depletion + AZD5582 group as compared to other groups. Mathematical modeling of virus reactivation suggested that, in addition to viral dynamics during acute infection, CD8α depletion influenced the response to AZD5582. This work suggests that the latency reversal induced by activation of the ncNF-κB signaling pathway with AZD5582 can be enhanced by CD8α+ cell depletion.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the SENSCIS trial in subjects with systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD), nintedanib reduced the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) over 52 weeks by 44% versus placebo. We investigated the effects of nintedanib on categorical changes in FVC and other measures of ILD progression. METHODS: In post-hoc analyses, we assessed the proportions of subjects with categorical changes in FVC % predicted at week 52 and the time to absolute decline in FVC ≥5% predicted or death and absolute decline in FVC ≥10% predicted or death. RESULTS: A total of 288 subjects received nintedanib and 288 received placebo. At week 52, in subjects treated with nintedanib and placebo, respectively, 55.7% and 66.3% had any decline in FVC % predicted, 13.6% and 20.1% had an FVC decline >5%-≤10% predicted, and 3.5% and 5.2% had an FVC decline >10%-≤15% predicted; 34.5% and 43.8% had a decrease in FVC ≥3.3% predicted (proposed minimal clinically important difference [MCID] for worsening of FVC), while 23.0% and 14.9% had an increase in FVC ≥3.0% predicted (proposed MCID for improvement in FVC). Over 52 weeks, the hazard ratio for an absolute decline in FVC ≥5% predicted or death with nintedanib versus placebo was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.06) (P=0.14) and the hazard ratio for an absolute decline in FVC ≥10% predicted was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.95); P=0.029. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that nintedanib has a clinically relevant benefit on the progression of SSc-ILD.

3.
J Virol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087463

RESUMO

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 continues to cause new pediatric cases of infection through breastfeeding, a setting where it is not always possible to initiate early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Without novel interventions that do not rely on daily ART, HIV-1 infected children face lifelong medications to control infection. A detailed analysis of virus persistence following breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 and ART has not been performed. Here, we used infant rhesus macaques orally-infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV.C.CH505) to identify cellular and anatomical sites of virus persistence under ART. Viral DNA was detected at similar levels in blood and tissue CD4+ T cells after a year on ART, with virus in blood and lymphoid organs confirmed to be replication-competent. Viral RNA:DNA ratios were elevated in rectal CD4+ T cells compared to other sites (P≤0.0001), suggesting the gastrointestinal tract is an active site of virus transcription during ART-mediated suppression of viremia. SHIV.C.CH505 DNA was detected in multiple CD4+ T cell subsets, including cells with a naïve phenotype (CD45RA+CCR7+CD95-). While the frequency of naïve cells harboring intact provirus was lower than in memory cells, the high abundance of naïve cells in the infant CD4+ T cell pool made them a substantial source of persistent viral DNA (approximately 50% of total CD4+ T cell reservoir), with an estimated 1:2 ratio of intact provirus to total viral DNA. This viral reservoir profile broadens our understanding of virus persistence in a relevant infant macaque model and provides insight into targets for cure-directed approaches in the pediatric population.IMPORTANCE Uncovering the sanctuaries of the long-lived HIV-1 reservoir is crucial to develop cure strategies. Pediatric immunity is distinct from that of adults, which could alter where the reservoir is established in infancy. Thus, it is important to utilize pediatric models to inform cure-directed approaches for HIV-1-infected children. We used an infant rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection via breastfeeding to identify key sites of viral persistence under antiretroviral therapy (ART). The gastrointestinal tract was found to be a site for low-level viral transcription during ART. We also show naïve CD4+ T cells harbored intact provirus and were a major contributor to blood and lymphoid reservoir size. This is particularly striking as memory CD4+ T cells are generally regarded as the main source of latent HIV/SIV infection of adult humans and rhesus macaques. Our findings highlight unique features of reservoir composition in pediatric infection that should be considered for eradication efforts.

4.
J Virol ; 94(21)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817214

RESUMO

The "shock-and-kill" human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cure strategy involves latency reversal followed by immune-mediated clearance of infected cells. We have previously shown that activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway using an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), AZD5582, reverses HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) latency. Here, we combined AZD5582 with bispecific HIVxCD3 DART molecules to determine the impact of this approach on persistence. Rhesus macaques (RMs) (n = 13) were infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV.C.CH505.375H.dCT, and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated after 16 weeks. After 42 weeks of ART, 8 RMs received a cocktail of 3 HIVxCD3 DART molecules having human A32, 7B2, or PGT145 anti-HIV-1 envelope (Env) specificities paired with a human anti-CD3 specificity that is rhesus cross-reactive. The remaining 5 ART-suppressed RMs served as controls. For 10 weeks, a DART molecule cocktail was administered weekly (each molecule at 1 mg/kg of body weight), followed 2 days later by AZD5582 (0.1 mg/kg). DART molecule serum concentrations were well above those considered adequate for redirected killing activity against Env-expressing target cells but began to decline after 3 to 6 weekly doses, coincident with the development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) against each of the DART molecules. The combination of AZD5582 and the DART molecule cocktail did not increase on-ART viremia or cell-associated SHIV RNA in CD4+ T cells and did not reduce the viral reservoir size in animals on ART. The lack of latency reversal in the model used in this study may be related to low pre-ART viral loads (median, <105 copies/ml) and low preintervention reservoir sizes (median, <102 SHIV DNA copies/million blood CD4+ T cells). Future studies to assess the efficacy of Env-targeting DART molecules or other clearance agents to reduce viral reservoirs after latency reversal may be more suited to models that better minimize immunogenicity and have a greater viral burden.IMPORTANCE The most significant barrier to an HIV-1 cure is the existence of the latently infected viral reservoir that gives rise to rebound viremia upon cessation of ART. Here, we tested a novel combination approach of latency reversal with AZD5582 and clearance with bispecific HIVxCD3 DART molecules in SHIV.C.CH505-infected, ART-suppressed rhesus macaques. We demonstrate that the DART molecules were not capable of clearing infected cells in vivo, attributed to the lack of quantifiable latency reversal in this model with low levels of persistent SHIV DNA prior to intervention as well as DART molecule immunogenicity.

5.
Adv Ther ; 37(5): 2460-2476, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) places a substantial burden on patients and healthcare systems. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical characteristics and assess healthcare resource utilization and costs of patients with SSc-ILD in England, compared with patients with non-pulmonary organ involvement related to SSc (SSc-OOI). METHODS: This population-based retrospective study used data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. Data were extracted from medical records dated January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2016. Patients with SSc were identified and placed in subgroups based on organ involvement: SSc-ILD, SSc-OOI, and both (SSc-ILD-OOI). Patients with SSc-ILD-OOI were included in both the SSc-ILD and SSc-OOI subgroups. All-cause healthcare costs, excluding medication costs, were calculated to 2016 British pounds sterling (£). RESULTS: This study included 675 patients with SSc: 174 (26%) had neither ILD nor other organ involvement (OOI); 127 (19%) had SSc-ILD; 477 (71%) had SSc-OOI; 103 (15%) had SSc-ILD-OOI. Age-weighted median [interquartile range (IQR)] annual healthcare costs per patient were: £1496 (£664-£2817) in SSc only; £6375 (£3451-£15,041) in SSc-ILD; £4084 (£1454-£10,105) in SSc-OOI; £6632 (£4023-£17,009) in SSc-ILD-OOI. In multivariate analysis, older age at diagnosis, diagnosis of anemia, and number of comorbid diseases were associated with higher yearly healthcare costs. CONCLUSION: The annual healthcare cost for patients with SSc-ILD is substantial, and higher than that of patients with SSc-OOI or SSc only. These results quantify the economic burden of SSc-ILD in a real-world setting, and highlight the need for treatment of this disease.

6.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 36, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Phase III INPULSIS® trials, treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with nintedanib significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) versus placebo, consistent with slowing disease progression. However, nintedanib was not associated with a benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed using the St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ). We aimed to further examine the impact of IPF progression on HRQoL and symptoms, and to explore the effect of nintedanib on HRQoL in patients from the INPULSIS® trials stratified by clinical factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from the INPULSIS® trials were included in three post hoc analyses. Two analyses used the pooled data set to examine PRO changes from baseline to week 52 according to 1) decline in FVC and 2) occurrence of acute exacerbations. In the third analysis, patients were stratified based on clinical indicators of disease progression (gender, age and physiology [GAP] stage; FVC % predicted; diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO] % predicted; composite physiologic index [CPI]; and SGRQ total score) at baseline; median change from baseline was measured at 52 weeks and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS: Data from 1061 patients (638 nintedanib, 423 placebo) were analyzed. Greater categorical decline from baseline in FVC % predicted over 52 weeks was associated with significant worsening of HRQoL and symptoms across all PRO measures. Acute exacerbations were associated with deterioration in HRQoL and worsened symptoms. In general, patients with advanced disease at baseline (defined as GAP II/III, FVC ≤ 80%, DLCO ≤ 40%, CPI >  45, or SGRQ > 40) experienced greater deterioration in PROs than patients with less-advanced disease. Among patients with advanced disease, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in several PROs; benefit was most apparent on the SGRQ (total and activity scores). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced IPF, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in HRQoL and symptoms as assessed by several PROs. HRQoL measures have a higher responsiveness to change in advanced disease and may lack sensitivity to capture change in patients with less-advanced IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/psicologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
7.
Nature ; 578(7793): 160-165, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969707

RESUMO

Long-lasting, latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are the greatest obstacle to obtaining a cure for HIV infection, as these cells can persist despite decades of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Estimates indicate that more than 70 years of continuous, fully suppressive ART are needed to eliminate the HIV reservoir1. Alternatively, induction of HIV from its latent state could accelerate the decrease in the reservoir, thus reducing the time to eradication. Previous attempts to reactivate latent HIV in preclinical animal models and in clinical trials have measured HIV induction in the peripheral blood with minimal focus on tissue reservoirs and have had limited effect2-9. Here we show that activation of the non-canonical NF-κB signalling pathway by AZD5582 results in the induction of HIV and SIV RNA expression in the blood and tissues of ART-suppressed bone-marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and rhesus macaques infected with HIV and SIV, respectively. Analysis of resting CD4+ T cells from tissues after AZD5582 treatment revealed increased SIV RNA expression in the lymph nodes of macaques and robust induction of HIV in almost all tissues analysed in humanized mice, including the lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, liver and lung. This promising approach to latency reversal-in combination with appropriate tools for systemic clearance of persistent HIV infection-greatly increases opportunities for HIV eradication.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Latência Viral , Alquinos/farmacologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 3(1): 81-91, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease progression and acute exacerbations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. They usually require a visit to a specialist or a general practitioner (GP) in less severe cases or hospitalisation in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence resource use in IPF. METHODS: Clinical and healthcare resource use data were collected in two large, international, multi-centre, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that studied nintedanib for the treatment of IPF (INPULSIS-1 and -2). The pooled data of nintedanib and placebo included 1014 patients followed for 12 months. The trial data were analysed in 3-month intervals. We studied two dependent variables: the occurrence of all-cause hospitalisation and visits to a physician (GP or specialist). The independent variables included the change in forced vital capacity percent predicted (FVC%pred), investigator-reported acute exacerbation events, age, time since diagnosis, smoking status, and sex. RESULTS: Hospitalisation during a 3-month interval was significantly associated with a drop of at least 5 or 10 points in FVC%pred (odds ratios [ORs] 1.58 [p = 0.009] and 2.62 [p < 0.001]) and associated with the occurrence of at least one acute exacerbation (OR 14.44; p < 0.001) during the same interval. The above factors remained significant when repeating the analysis for hospitalisation based on change in FVC%pred or events occurring during the previous 3 months interval. Smoker status and a unit change in FVC%pred during the previous interval were added to the significant factors. Physician visits during a 3-month interval were significantly associated with a lower FVC%pred at the start of the interval (per 10-point decrement, OR 1.05; p = 0.040) and with the change in FVC%pred during the same interval (per 10-point loss, OR 1.13; p = 0.042). Visits were also associated with a 5-point drop in FVC%pred (OR 1.23; p = 0.020), age (per 5-year increments OR 1.07; p = 0.028), and female sex (OR 1.32; p = 0.017). Nevertheless, the predictive power of the models was considered poor for both outcomes (hospitalisation and physician visits). CONCLUSIONS: Disease progression and acute exacerbation events are significantly associated with hospitalisation of patients with IPF. Outpatient visits to physicians are associated with disease progression, baseline FVC%pred, age and sex.

9.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 36(7): 779-807, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating condition with significant morbidity and poor survival. Since 2010, there has been increased activity in the development of treatments that aim to delay progression of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Our study involves a comprehensive review of the literature for evidence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), healthcare resource use (HCRU) and costs, and an assessment of the burden of illness of the condition. METHODS: We carried out a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify economic evaluations and HRQoL studies. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process for relevant studies from database origins to April 2017. Alongside the presentation of the study characteristics and the available evidence, we carried out a qualitative comparison using reference population estimates for HRQoL and national health expenditure for costs. RESULTS: Our search identified a total of 3241 records. After removing duplicates and not relevant articles, we analysed 124 publications referring to 88 studies published between 2000 and 2017. Sixty studies were HRQoL and 28 were studies on costs or HCRU. We observed an exponential growth of publications in the last 3-5 years, with the majority of the studies conducted in Europe and North America. Among the HRQoL studies, and despite regional differences, there was some agreement between estimates on the absolute and relative level of HRQoL for patients with IPF compared with the general population. Regarding costs, after adjustments for the cost years and currency, the suggested annual per capita cost of patients with IPF in North America was estimated around US$20,000, 2.5-3.5 times higher than the national healthcare expenditure. Additionally, studies that analysed patients with IPF alongside a matched control cohort suggested a significant increase in resource use and cost. CONCLUSION: The reviewed evidence indicates that IPF has considerable impact on HRQoL, relative to the general population levels. Furthermore, in studies of cost and resource use, most estimates of the burden were consistent in suggesting an excess cost for patients with IPF compared with a control cohort or the national health expenditure. This confirms IPF as a growing threat for public health worldwide, with considerable impact to the patients and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Autoimmun Rev ; 16(11): 1147-1154, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc), or systemic scleroderma, is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease characterised by widespread vascular injury and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Patients with SSc have decreased survival, with pulmonary involvement as the main cause of death. Current treatments for SSc manage a range of symptoms but not the cause of the disease. Our review describes the humanistic and cost burden of SSc. METHODS: A structured review of the literature was conducted, using predefined search strategies to search PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature searches also were conducted. RESULTS: In total, 2226 articles were identified in the databases and 52 were included; an additional 10 sources were included from the grey literature. The review identified six studies reporting relevant cost estimates conducted in five different countries and four studies that assessed the humanistic burden of SSc. Total direct annual medical costs per patient for Europe varied from €3544 to €8452. For Canada, these costs were reported to be from Can$5038 to Can$10,673. In the United States, the total direct health care costs were reported to be US$17,365 to US$18,396. Different key drivers of direct costs were reported, including hospitalisations, outpatients, and medication. The total annual costs per patient were reported at Can$18,453 in Canada and varied from €11,074 to €22,459 in Europe. Indirect costs represented the largest component of the total costs. EQ-5D utility scores were lower for patients with SSc than those observed in the general population, with reported mean values of 0.49 and 0.68, respectively. The average value of the Health Assessment Questionnaire for patients with SSc was significantly higher than the control population (0.94), and the average value of the SF-36 was significantly lower than the control population: 49.99 for the physical dimension and 58.42 for the mental dimension. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there is a paucity of information on the burden of SSc. Nonetheless, our review indicates that the quality of life of patients with SSc is considerably lower than that of the general population. In addition, SSc places a considerable economic burden on health care systems and society as a whole.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Escleroderma Sistêmico/economia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia
11.
Oncotarget ; 7(43): 69097-69110, 2016 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 23,236 controls, we measured genetic associations of 1,351 SNPs in Treg cell pathway genes with odds of ovarian cancer and tested pathway and gene-level associations, overall and by histotype, for the 25 genes, using the admixture likelihood (AML) method. The most significant single SNP associations were tested for correlation with expression levels in 44 ovarian cancer patients. RESULTS: The most significant global associations for all genes in the pathway were seen in endometrioid ( p = 0.082) and clear cell ( p = 0.083), with the most significant gene level association seen with TGFBR2 ( p = 0.001) and clear cell EOC. Gene associations with histotypes at p < 0.05 included: IL12 ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.008, serous and high-grade serous, respectively), IL8RA ( p = 0.035, endometrioid and mucinous), LGALS1 ( p = 0.03, mucinous), STAT5B ( p = 0.022, clear cell), TGFBR1 ( p = 0.021 endometrioid) and TGFBR2 ( p = 0.017 and p = 0.025, endometrioid and mucinous, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Common inherited gene variation in Treg cell pathways shows some evidence of germline genetic contribution to odds of EOC that varies by histologic subtype and may be associated with mRNA expression of immune-complex receptor in EOC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
12.
Europace ; 18(9): 1308-18, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27335063

RESUMO

AIMS: The introduction of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which differ from the earlier vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatments, has changed the approach to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). GLORIA-AF is a prospective, global registry programme describing the selection of antithrombotic treatment in newly diagnosed AF patients at risk of stroke. It comprises three phases: Phase I, before the introduction of NOACs; Phase II, during the time of the introduction of dabigatran, the first NOAC; and Phase III, once NOACs have been established in clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Phase I, 1063 patients were eligible from the 1100 enrolled (54.3% male; median age 70 years); patients were from China (67.1%), Europe (EU; 27.4%), and the Middle East (ME; 5.6%). The majority of patients using VKAs had high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2; 86.5%); 13.5% had moderate risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1). Vitamin K antagonist use was higher for persistent/permanent AF (47.7%) than that for paroxysmal (23.9%). Most patients in China were treated with antiplatelet agents (53.7%) vs. 27.1% in EU and 28.8% in ME. In China, 25.9% of patients had no antithrombotic therapy, vs. 8.6% in EU and 8.5% in ME. CONCLUSION: Phase I of GLORIA-AF shows that VKAs were mostly used in patients with persistent/permanent (vs. paroxysmal) AF and in those with high stroke risk. Furthermore, there were meaningful geographical differences in the use of VKA therapy in the era before the availability of NOACs, including a much lower use of VKAs in China, where most patients either received antiplatelet agents or no antithrombotic treatment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , China , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/sangue
13.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 30(5): 795-804, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24392958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In order to understand characteristics of atrial fibrillation patients in the era of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), this study explores differences in characteristics between patients treated with dabigatran etexilate (DE) and warfarin (W) that may be due to patient channeling in 'real-world' clinical practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medco claims data were used to characterize 41,805 non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients from the US with a DE (N = 7055) or W (N = 34,750) prescription between February 2011 and April 2012. The first prescription for each treatment in this period defined the index date. The treatment groups were stratified by newly diagnosed or warfarin-experienced patients. Characteristics, comedications, and comorbidities in the 12 month period prior to index date were assessed. RESULTS: Newly diagnosed patients initiating DE had overall lower use of comedications compared to W patients. In contrast, warfarin-experienced patients switching from W to DE showed higher use of antibiotics, beta blockers, gastrointestinal drugs and NSAIDs compared to patients remaining on W. Newly diagnosed NVAF patients initiating DE showed lower proportions for comorbidities such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and renal disease. This was also reflected in the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (mean DE 2.1 vs. W 3.0) and the CHA2DS2-VASc score (mean DE 3.4 vs. W 4.0). For warfarin-experienced NVAF patients, these differences were not seen. Interpretation of results is limited by the fact that administrative claims data are not gathered for scientific research. Underreporting of non-serious conditions might occur and life-style variables, laboratory values and over-the-counter medication were not available. CONCLUSIONS: As also seen for other newly marketed drugs, differences in baseline characteristics, comedication, and comorbidities were detected between DE and W in newly diagnosed patients, as well as in warfarin-experienced patients. This channeling may have significant impact on comparative outcome studies if not properly addressed in study design and analysis.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Antitrombina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Antitrombina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Dabigatrana , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 4(1): e003839, 2014 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24468720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder with a significant health burden. The aim of this study was to characterise patients with recently diagnosed AF and to estimate the rates of comorbidities and outcome events requiring hospitalisation in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Pharmacoepidemiological cohort study using observational data. METHODS/SETTING: This study included 16 513 patients with a first diagnosis of AF between 1 January 2005 and 28 February 2010 (newly diagnosed patients) using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Office for National Statistics mortality data. Exposure was stratified by vitamin K antagonist (VKA) exposure (non-use, current, recent and past exposure) based on prescriptions and/or international normalised ratio measurements, and followed for outcome events of interest based on diagnosis codes in the databases, that is, vascular outcomes, bleeding events and others. The main focus of the study was on outcome events requiring hospitalisation using the HES data. RESULTS: The incidence of vascular outcome hospitalisations (myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or systemic arterial peripheral embolism) was 3.8 (95% CI 3.5 to 4.0)/100 patient-years. The incidence of stroke was 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) during current VKA exposure, 2.2 (1.6 to 2.9) for recent, 2.4 (1.9 to 2.9) for past and 3.4 (3.1 to 3.7) during non-use. MI incidence was 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9) for current VKA exposure, 0.7 (0.4 to 1.2) for recent, 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5) for past and 1.9 (1.7 to 2.1) during non-use. The incidence of bleeding event hospitalisations was 3.8 (3.4 to 4.2) for current VKA exposure, 4.5 (3.7 to 5.5) for recent, 2.7 (2.2 to 3.3) for past and 2.9 (2.6 to 3.2) during non-use; 38% of intracranial bleeds and 6% of gastrointestinal bleeds were fatal. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study from recent years provides a comprehensive characterisation of newly diagnosed patients with AF and incidence estimates of common outcomes with a focus on hospitalised events stratified by VKA exposure. This study will help to place future data on new oral anticoagulants into perspective.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Genet ; 50(10): 666-73, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23825393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in breast size are a conspicuous feature of variation in human females and have been associated with fecundity and advantage in selection of mates. To identify common variants that are associated with breast size, we conducted a large-scale genotyping association meta-analysis in 7169 women of European descent across three independent sample collections with digital or screen film mammograms. METHODS: The samples consisted of the Swedish KARMA, LIBRO-1 and SASBAC studies genotyped on iCOGS, a custom illumina iSelect genotyping array comprising of 211 155 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) designed for replication and fine mapping of common and rare variants with relevance to breast, ovary and prostate cancer. Breast size of each subject was ascertained by measuring total breast area (mm(2)) on a mammogram. RESULTS: We confirm genome-wide significant associations at 8p11.23 (rs10086016, p=1.3×10(-14)) and report a new locus at 22q13 (rs5995871, p=3.2×10(-8)). The latter region contains the MKL1 gene, which has been shown to impact endogenous oestrogen receptor α transcriptional activity and is recruited on oestradiol sensitive genes. We also replicated previous genome-wide association study findings for breast size at four other loci. CONCLUSIONS: A new locus at 22q13 may be associated with female breast size.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
PLoS Genet ; 9(3): e1003284, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544014

RESUMO

Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caspase 8/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Genet ; 45(4): 392-8, 398e1-2, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535733

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nat Genet ; 45(4): 371-84, 384e1-2, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535731

RESUMO

TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ∼480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 × 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 × 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 × 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 × 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 × 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 × 10(-14)) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 × 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
19.
Breast ; 22(5): 817-23, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23489758

RESUMO

We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Catalase/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Peroxirredoxina VI/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 138(2): 529-542, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23423446

RESUMO

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. To identify genetic loci that modify breast cancer risk related to MHT use in postmenopausal women, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) with replication. In stage I, we performed a case-only GWAS in 731 invasive breast cancer cases from the German case-control study Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE). The 1,200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the lowest P values for interaction with current MHT use (within 6 months prior to breast cancer diagnosis), were carried forward to stage II, involving pooled case-control analyses including additional MARIE subjects (1,375 cases, 1,974 controls) as well as 795 cases and 764 controls of a Swedish case-control study. A joint P value was calculated for a combined analysis of stages I and II. Replication of the most significant interaction of the combined stage I and II was performed using 5,795 cases and 5,390 controls from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The combined stage I and II yielded five SNPs on chromosomes 2, 7, and 18 with joint P values <6 × 10(-6) for effect modification of current MHT use. The most significant interaction was observed for rs6707272 (P = 3 × 10(-7)) on chromosome 2 but was not replicated in the BCAC studies (P = 0.21). The potentially modifying SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium with SNPs in TRIP12 and DNER on chromosome 2 and SETBP1 on chromosome 18, previously linked to carcinogenesis. However, none of the interaction effects reached genome-wide significance. The inability to replicate the top SNP × MHT interaction may be due to limited power of the replication phase. Our study, however, suggests that there are unlikely to be SNPs that interact strongly enough with MHT use to be clinically significant in European women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Lobular/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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