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1.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(Supplement_1): S61-S71, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724058

RESUMO

Interventions meant to promote longevity and healthy aging have often been designed or observed to modulate very specific gene or protein targets. If there are naturally occurring genetic variants in such a target that affect longevity as well as the molecular function of that target (eg, the variants influence the expression of the target, acting as "expression quantitative trait loci" or "eQTLs"), this could support a causal relationship between the pharmacologic modulation of the target and longevity and thereby validate the target at some level. We considered the gene targets of many pharmacologic interventions hypothesized to enhance human longevity and explored how many variants there are in those targets that affect gene function (eg, as expression quantitative trait loci). We also determined whether variants in genes associated with longevity-related phenotypes affect gene function or are in linkage disequilibrium with variants that do, and whether pharmacologic studies point to compounds exhibiting activity against those genes. Our results are somewhat ambiguous, suggesting that integrating genetic association study results with functional genomic and pharmacologic studies is necessary to shed light on genetically mediated targets for longevity-enhancing drugs. Such integration will require more sophisticated data sets, phenotypic definitions, and bioinformatics approaches to be useful.

2.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(Supplement_1): S52-S60, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724055

RESUMO

Biological age (BA), derived from molecular and physiological measurements, has been proposed to better predict mortality and disease than chronological age (CA). In the present study, a computed estimate of BA was investigated longitudinally in 3,558 individuals using deep phenotyping, which encompassed a broad range of biological processes. The Klemera-Doubal algorithm was applied to longitudinal data consisting of genetic, clinical laboratory, metabolomic, and proteomic assays from individuals undergoing a wellness program. BA was elevated relative to CA in the presence of chronic diseases. We observed a significantly lower rate of change than the expected ~1 year/year (to which the estimation algorithm was constrained) in BA for individuals participating in a wellness program. This observation suggests that BA is modifiable and suggests that a lower BA relative to CA may be a sign of healthy aging. Measures of metabolic health, inflammation, and toxin bioaccumulation were strong predictors of BA. BA estimation from deep phenotyping was seen to change in the direction expected for both positive and negative health conditions. We believe BA represents a general and interpretable "metric for wellness" that may aid in monitoring aging over time.

3.
Cancer Treat Res ; 178: 265-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209850

RESUMO

The development of high-throughput, data-intensive biomedical research assays and technologies has created a need for researchers to develop strategies for analyzing, integrating, and interpreting the massive amounts of data they generate. Although a wide variety of statistical methods have been designed to accommodate 'big data,'  experiences with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques suggest that they might be particularly appropriate. In addition,  the results of the application of these assays reveal a great heterogeneity in the pathophysiologic factors and processes that contribute to disease, suggesting that there is a need to tailor, or 'personalize,' medicines to the nuanced and often unique features possessed by individual patients. Given how important data-intensive assays are to revealing appropriate intervention targets and strategies for  treating an individual with a disease, AI can play an important role in the development of personalized medicines. We describe many areas where AI can play such a role and argue that AI's ability to advance personalized medicine will depend critically on not only the refinement of relevant assays, but also on ways of storing, aggregating, accessing, and ultimately integrating, the data they produce. We also point out the limitations of many AI techniques in developing personalized medicines as well as consider areas for further research.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 265, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In standard high throughput sequencing analysis, genetic variants are not assigned to a homologous chromosome of origin. This process, called haplotype phasing, can reveal information important for understanding the relationship between genetic variants and biological phenotypes. For example, in genes that carry multiple heterozygous missense variants, phasing resolves whether one or both gene copies are altered. Here, we present a novel approach to phasing variants that takes advantage of unique properties of paired tumor:normal sequencing data from cancer studies. RESULTS: VAF phasing uses changes in variant allele frequency (VAF) between tumor and normal samples in regions of somatic chromosomal gain or loss to phase germline variants. We apply VAF phasing to 6180 samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and demonstrate that our method is highly concordant with other standard phasing methods, and can phase an average of 33% more variants than other read-backed phasing methods. Using variant annotation tools designed to score gene haplotypes, we find a suggestive association between carrying multiple missense variants in a single copy of a cancer predisposition gene and earlier age of cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: VAF phasing exploits unique properties of tumor genomes to increase the number of germline variants that can be phased over standard read-backed methods in paired tumor:normal samples. Our phase-informed association testing results call attention to the need to develop more tools for assessing the joint effect of multiple genetic variants.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequência de Bases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos
5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(2): 147-157, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923642

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; yet how genetic variation and environmental factors impact DCM heritability remains unclear. Here, we report that compound genetic interactions between DNA sequence variants contribute to the complex heritability of DCM. By using genetic data from a large family with a history of DCM, we discovered that heterozygous sequence variants in the TROPOMYOSIN 1 (TPM1) and VINCULIN (VCL) genes cose-gregate in individuals affected by DCM. In vitro studies of patient-derived and isogenic human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardio-myocytes that were genome-edited via CRISPR to create an allelic series of TPM1 and VCL variants revealed that cardiomyocytes with both TPM1 and VCL variants display reduced contractility and sarcomeres that are less organized. Analyses of mice genetically engineered to harbour these human TPM1 and VCL variants show that stress on the heart may also influence the variable penetrance and expressivity of DCM-associated genetic variants in vivo. We conclude that compound genetic variants can interact combinatorially to induce DCM, particularly when influenced by other disease-provoking stressors.

6.
Epigenomics ; 11(4): 455-467, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785334

RESUMO

AIM: A genomic region on 5q33.3 lies between and encompasses the IL12B and PTTG1 genes, and contains many potential psoriasis causal variants. We aimed to further examine the influence of variants in and around this region. MATERIALS & METHODS: We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-based regression analysis to assess independent contributions of 2171 variants to psoriasis susceptibility and tested them for association with different clinical psoriasis subtypes. RESULTS: We found that ADRA1B gene variants contribute to psoriasis in Chinese population. ADRA1B gene variants have a stronger association with moderate-to-severe disease group and an earlier age at onset of psoriasis than IL-12B and PTTG1 variants. CONCLUSION: The association of variants in the ADRA1B gene with psoriasis could explain why variants in the IL-12B, ADRA1B and PTTG1 gene regions are associated with psoriasis.

7.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(2): 200-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined a hypothesized pathway by which interoceptive dysfunction accounted for associations between personality features (harm avoidance, self-directedness, and perfectionism) and anorexia nervosa (AN) severity (indicated by drive for thinness, eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals, and body mass index). METHOD: The study sample (n = 270, mean age = 28.47, 95.2% female, 98% White/Caucasian) consisted of probands and biological relatives who met DSM-IV criteria for lifetime diagnoses of AN (omitting criterion D, amenorrhea) drawn from the Price Foundation Anorexia Nervosa Affected Relative Pairs Study (AN-ARP). Participants completed measures assessing personality, interoceptive dysfunction, and eating pathology. RESULTS: Associations between personality features of low self-directedness and high perfectionism and indicators of AN severity (drive for thinness and eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals) were significant, as were the hypothesized indirect pathways through interoceptive dysfunction. Neither harm avoidance nor body mass index was significantly related to other study variables, and the proposed indirect pathways involving these variables were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that certain personality features may relate to AN severity, in part, through their associations with interoceptive dysfunction. Future research should examine prospective associations and the value of interventions targeting interoceptive dysfunction for interrupting the link between personality and AN severity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209648, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586455

RESUMO

Transcriptomic profiling of complex tissues by single-nucleus RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) affords some advantages over single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). snRNA-seq provides less biased cellular coverage, does not appear to suffer cell isolation-based transcriptional artifacts, and can be applied to archived frozen specimens. We used well-matched snRNA-seq and scRNA-seq datasets from mouse visual cortex to compare cell type detection. Although more transcripts are detected in individual whole cells (~11,000 genes) than nuclei (~7,000 genes), we demonstrate that closely related neuronal cell types can be similarly discriminated with both methods if intronic sequences are included in snRNA-seq analysis. We estimate that the nuclear proportion of total cellular mRNA varies from 20% to over 50% for large and small pyramidal neurons, respectively. Together, these results illustrate the high information content of nuclear RNA for characterization of cellular diversity in brain tissues.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/genética , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
10.
Geroscience ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374935

RESUMO

To date, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of longevity-associated variants (LAVs) in genes such as FOXO3A and APOE. Unfortunately, translating variants into drug targets is challenging for any trait, and longevity is no exception. Interdisciplinary and integrative multi-omics approaches are needed to understand how LAVs affect longevity-related phenotypes at the molecular physiologic level in order to leverage their discovery to identify new drug targets. The NIA convened a workshop in August 2017 on emerging and novel in silico (i.e., bioinformatics and computational) approaches to the translation of LAVs into drug targets. The goal of the workshop was to identify ways of enabling, enhancing, and facilitating interactions among researchers from different disciplines whose research considers either the identification of LAVs or the mechanistic or causal pathway(s) and protective factors they influence for discovering drug targets. Discussions among the workshop participants resulted in the identification of critical needs for enabling the translation of LAVs into drug targets in several areas. These included (1) the initiation and better use of cohorts with multi-omics profiling on the participants; (2) the generation of longitudinal information on multiple individuals; (3) the collection of data from non-human species (both long and short-lived) for comparative biology studies; (4) the refinement of computational tools for integrative analyses; (5) the development of novel computational and statistical inference techniques for assessing the potential of a drug target; (6) the identification of available drugs that could modulate a target in a way that could potentially provide protection against age-related diseases and/or enhance longevity; and (7) the development or enhancement of databases and repositories of relevant information, such as the Longevity Genomics website ( https://www.longevitygenomics.org ), to enhance and help motivate future interdisciplinary studies. Integrative approaches that examine the influence of LAVs on molecular physiologic phenotypes that might be amenable to pharmacological modulation are necessary for translating LAVs into drugs to enhance health and life span.

11.
Pancreas ; 47(10): 1193-1199, 2018 Nov/Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325857

RESUMO

Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a complex clinical syndrome with significant morbidity, unpredictable outcomes, and limited treatment options. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease sponsored a workshop on July 25, 2018, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to address research gaps impeding development of effective therapies for pancreatitis. The RAP working group identified challenges to clinical progress using existing definitions, risk assessment, diagnostic and severity criteria, disease trajectories, outcomes, and research methods. Recurrent acute pancreatitis includes all the risk of acute pancreatitis and often progresses to chronic pancreatitis with variable complications of chronic pain, exocrine insufficiency, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. However, the great variability among individuals with RAP requires better precision in defining the risks, individual episodes, as well as their frequency, pathogenic pathways, and specific outcome measures for each of the systems affected by pancreatic inflammation. Because of disease complexity, few patients are similar enough for traditional studies and methods to conduct clinical trials with small sample sizes are required. The need for genetic testing, biomarker development, and better imaging methods was highlighted. Adaptive and N-of-one study designs, better endpoints, and outcome measures including patient-reported outcomes should considered early in developing future therapeutic trial design and include all stakeholders.

12.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 69, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer susceptibility germline variants generally require somatic alteration of the remaining allele to drive oncogenesis and, in some cases, tumor mutational profiles. Whether combined germline and somatic bi-allelic alterations are universally required for germline variation to influence tumor mutational profile is unclear. Here, we performed an exome-wide analysis of the frequency and functional effect of bi-allelic alterations in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). METHODS: We integrated germline variant, somatic mutation, somatic methylation, and somatic copy number loss data from 7790 individuals from TCGA to identify germline and somatic bi-allelic alterations in all coding genes. We used linear models to test for association between mono- and bi-allelic alterations and somatic microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutational signatures. RESULTS: We discovered significant enrichment of bi-allelic alterations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes and identified six bi-allelic carriers with elevated MSI, consistent with Lynch syndrome. In contrast, we find little evidence of an effect of mono-allelic germline variation on MSI. Using MSI burden and bi-allelic alteration status, we reclassify two variants of unknown significance in MSH6 as potentially pathogenic for Lynch syndrome. Extending our analysis of MSI to a set of 127 DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, we identified a novel association between methylation of SHPRH and MSI burden. CONCLUSIONS: We find that bi-allelic alterations are infrequent in TCGA but most frequently occur in BRCA1/2 and MMR genes. Our results support the idea that bi-allelic alteration is required for germline variation to influence tumor mutational profile. Overall, we demonstrate that integrating germline, somatic, and epigenetic alterations provides new understanding of somatic mutational profiles.

13.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1185-1195, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150662

RESUMO

We describe convergent evidence from transcriptomics, morphology, and physiology for a specialized GABAergic neuron subtype in human cortex. Using unbiased single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we identify ten GABAergic interneuron subtypes with combinatorial gene signatures in human cortical layer 1 and characterize a group of human interneurons with anatomical features never described in rodents, having large 'rosehip'-like axonal boutons and compact arborization. These rosehip cells show an immunohistochemical profile (GAD1+CCK+, CNR1-SST-CALB2-PVALB-) matching a single transcriptomically defined cell type whose specific molecular marker signature is not seen in mouse cortex. Rosehip cells in layer 1 make homotypic gap junctions, predominantly target apical dendritic shafts of layer 3 pyramidal neurons, and inhibit backpropagating pyramidal action potentials in microdomains of the dendritic tuft. These cells are therefore positioned for potent local control of distal dendritic computation in cortical pyramidal neurons.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1210-1211, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158681
15.
Front Genet ; 9: 228, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042785

RESUMO

Genes do not work in isolation, but rather as part of networks that have many feedback and redundancy mechanisms. Studying the properties of genetic networks and how individual genes contribute to overall network functions can provide insight into genetically-mediated disease processes. Most analytical techniques assume a network topology based on normal state networks. However, gene perturbations often lead to the rewiring of relevant networks and impact relationships among other genes. We apply a suite of analysis methodologies to assess the degree of transcriptional network rewiring observed in different sets of melanoma cell lines using whole genome gene expression microarray profiles. We assess evidence for network rewiring in melanoma patient tumor samples using RNA-sequence data available from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We make a distinction between "unsupervised" and "supervised" network-based methods and contrast their use in identifying consistent differences in networks between subsets of cell lines and tumor samples. We find that different genes play more central roles within subsets of genes within a broader network and hence are likely to be better drug targets in a disease state. Ultimately, we argue that our results have important implications for understanding the molecular pathology of melanoma as well as the choice of treatments to combat that pathology.

16.
Fertil Steril ; 109(6): 952-963, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935653

RESUMO

There is a great deal of hype surrounding the concept of personalized medicine. Personalized medicine is rooted in the belief that since individuals possess nuanced and unique characteristics at the molecular, physiological, environmental exposure, and behavioral levels, they may need to have interventions provided to them for diseases they possess that are tailored to these nuanced and unique characteristics. This belief has been verified to some degree through the application of emerging technologies such as DNA sequencing, proteomics, imaging protocols, and wireless health monitoring devices, which have revealed great inter-individual variation in disease processes. In this review, we consider the motivation for personalized medicine, its historical precedents, the emerging technologies that are enabling it, some recent experiences including successes and setbacks, ways of vetting and deploying personalized medicines, and future directions, including potential ways of treating individuals with fertility and sterility issues. We also consider current limitations of personalized medicine. We ultimately argue that since aspects of personalized medicine are rooted in biological realities, personalized medicine practices in certain contexts are likely to be inevitable, especially as relevant assays and deployment strategies become more efficient and cost-effective.

18.
Mutat Res ; 809: 24-31, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677560

RESUMO

Identification of all genetic variants associated with complex traits is one of the most important goals in modern human genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully applied to identify common variants, which thus far explain only small portion of heritability. Interests in rare variants have been increasingly growing as an answer for this missing heritability. While next-generation sequencing allows detection of rare variants, its cost is still prohibitively high to sequence a large number of human DNA samples required for rare variant association studies. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of sequencing for pooled DNA samples of multiple individuals (Pool-seq) as a cost-effective and robust approach for rare variant discovery. We comparatively analyzed Pool-seq vs. individual-seq of indexed target capture of up to 960 genes in ∼1000 individuals, followed by independent genotyping validation studies. We found that Pool-seq was as effective and accurate as individual-seq in detecting rare variants and accurately estimating their minor allele frequencies (MAFs). Our results suggest that Pool-seq can be used as an efficient and cost-effective method for discovery of rare variants for population-based sequencing studies in individual laboratories.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(R1): R1, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672687
20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(4): e1007308, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621242

RESUMO

Humans are a diploid species that inherit one set of chromosomes paternally and one homologous set of chromosomes maternally. Unfortunately, most human sequencing initiatives ignore this fact in that they do not directly delineate the nucleotide content of the maternal and paternal copies of the 23 chromosomes individuals possess (i.e., they do not 'phase' the genome) often because of the costs and complexities of doing so. We compared 11 different widely-used approaches to phasing human genomes using the publicly available 'Genome-In-A-Bottle' (GIAB) phased version of the NA12878 genome as a gold standard. The phasing strategies we compared included laboratory-based assays that prepare DNA in unique ways to facilitate phasing as well as purely computational approaches that seek to reconstruct phase information from general sequencing reads and constructs or population-level haplotype frequency information obtained through a reference panel of haplotypes. To assess the performance of the 11 approaches, we used metrics that included, among others, switch error rates, haplotype block lengths, the proportion of fully phase-resolved genes, phasing accuracy and yield between pairs of SNVs. Our comparisons suggest that a hybrid or combined approach that leverages: 1. population-based phasing using the SHAPEIT software suite, 2. either genome-wide sequencing read data or parental genotypes, and 3. a large reference panel of variant and haplotype frequencies, provides a fast and efficient way to produce highly accurate phase-resolved individual human genomes. We found that for population-based approaches, phasing performance is enhanced with the addition of genome-wide read data; e.g., whole genome shotgun and/or RNA sequencing reads. Further, we found that the inclusion of parental genotype data within a population-based phasing strategy can provide as much as a ten-fold reduction in phasing errors. We also considered a majority voting scheme for the construction of a consensus haplotype combining multiple predictions for enhanced performance and site coverage. Finally, we also identified DNA sequence signatures associated with the genomic regions harboring phasing switch errors, which included regions of low polymorphism or SNV density.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Cromossomos Humanos , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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