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1.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 160: 21-33, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations of evidence- and formally consensus-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) represent a valuable source of quality indicators (QIs). Nevertheless, a standardized methodological procedure for developing QIs in the context of CPGs does not yet exist in Germany for all CPGs. For this reason, a methodological standard for the guideline-based development of QIs (QI Standard) was developed based on a structured consensus process involving multiple key stakeholders. METHODS: The proposed content of the QI Standard was derived from evidence, drawing upon results of reviews and qualitative studies, and considered German manuals for guideline-based QI development of two guideline programs. A multi-perspective consensus panel, broadly representing key stakeholders from the German healthcare system with expertise in CPGs and/or quality management, was nominated to vote on recommendations for guideline-based development of QIs. The iterative, structured consensus process included a two-stage online survey based on the Delphi method ("preliminary voting") and a moderated final stakeholder conference where all those recommendations were definitely included in the QI Standard that received approval of more than 75 % (consensus criterion) of the consensus panel. RESULTS: Based on the agreed QI Standard, the QI development process starts with a criteria-based selection of "potential" QIs which - in case of adoption - are published in CPGs as "preliminary" QIs and can achieve the status "final" after successful testing. The QI Standard is composed of a total of 30 recommendations, which are allocated to six areas: A) preparatory work steps for the guideline-based recommendation of QIs, B) QI development group and cooperation with the CPG group, C) development of potential QIs, D) critical appraisal of potential QIs, E) formal adoption and publication as well as F) piloting/testing of preliminary QIs and conversion into final QIs. DISCUSSION: Before the QI Standard can be recommended for implementation in future CPGs, it should have been successfully tested in selected German CPG projects. In addition to methodological requirements for the QI development, it must be ensured that guideline groups have adequate resources for the implementation of the QI Standard. CONCLUSION: By using the QI Standard, scientifically sound and healthcare-relevant QIs can be expected.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Consenso , Alemanha , Padrões de Referência
2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whereas the key role of subgingival instrumentation in periodontal therapy is well known, the influence of operators' experience/training with different devices on treatment results is yet uncertain. Therefore, we assessed untrained undergraduate students, working on manikins, as to how effectively they learn to use curettes (GRA) and sonic scalers (AIR); hypothesizing that AIR will result in higher relative cleaning efficacy (RCE) than GRA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Before baseline evaluation (T0), 30 operators (9 males, 21 females) received a 2-h theoretical lesson for both instruments, followed by a 12-week period with a weekly digitized training program for 45 min. During three sessions (T1-T3), the operators had to instrument six equivalent test teeth with GRA and AIR. At T0-T3, treatment time, proportion of removed simulated biofilm (RCE-b), and hard deposits (RCE-d) were measured. RESULTS: At T0, RCE-b was in mean(SD) 64.18(25.74) % for GRA, 62.25(26.69) % for AIR; (p = 0.172) and RCE-d 85.48(12.32) %/ 65.71(15.27) % (p < 0.001). At T3, operators reached highest RCE-b in both groups (GRA/AIR 71.54(23.90) %/71.75(23.05)%; p = 0.864); RCE-d GRA/AIR: 84.68(16.84) %/77.85(13.98) %; p < 0.001). Both groups achieved shorter treatment times after training. At T3, using curettes was faster (GRA/AIR 16.67(3.31) min/19.80(4.52) min; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After systematic digitized training, untrained operators were able to clean 70% of the root surfaces with curettes and sonic scalers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It can be concluded that a systematic digitized and interactive training program in manikin heads is helpful in the training of root surface debridement.

3.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 136, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interdental rubber picks (IRP) have become a frequent and convenient alternative for interdental cleaning. However, only little evidence exists supporting the effectiveness of newer designs available on the market. Therefore, a new in vitro model was evaluated to measure the experimental cleaning efficacy (ECE), as well as the force needed for insertion and during the use of IRP, with high reproducibility. METHODS: Five different sizes of commercially marketed IRP with elastomeric fingers (IRP-F) (GUM SOFT-PICKS® Advanced, Sunstar Deutschland GmbH, Schönau, Germany) or slats (IRP-S) (TePe EasyPick™, TePe D-A-CH GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) were tested. Interdental tooth surfaces were reproduced by a 3D-printer (Form 2, Formlabs Sommerville, MA, USA) according to human teeth and matched to morphologically equivalent pairs (isosceles triangle, concave, convex) fitting to different gap sizes (1.0 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm). The pre-/post brushing situations at interdental areas (standardized cleaning, computer aided ten cycles) were photographically recorded and quantified by digital image subtraction to calculate ECE [%]. Forces were registered with a load cell [N]. RESULTS: IRP-F have to be inserted with significant higher forces of 3.2 ± 1.8 N compared to IRP-S (2.0 ± 1.6 N; p < 0.001) independent of the size and type of artificial interdental area. During cleaning process IRP-S showed significantly lower values for pushing/pulling (1.0 ± 0.8 N/0.5 ± 0.4 N) compared to IRP-F (1.6 ± 0.8 N/0.7 ± 0.3 N; p < 0.001) concomitant to significantly lower ECE (19.1 ± 9.8 vs. 21.7 ± 10.0%, p = 0.002). Highest ECE was measured with largest size of IRP-F/IRP-S independent the morphology of interdental area. CONCLUSIONS: New interdental cleaning aids can be tested by the new experimental setup supported by 3D printing technology. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, IRP-F cleaned more effectively at higher forces compared to IRP-S.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Alemanha , Humanos , Fotografia Dentária , Pressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escovação Dentária/métodos
4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(2): 607-617, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is uncertainty regarding the benefits of periodontal endoscopy (PE) for subgingival instrumentation. Moreover, the influence of operators' experience and training with such a device on treatment results is unclear. Therefore, we compared in an in vitro study the use of PE for scaling and root planing (SRP) with the conventional non-surgical therapy, hypothesizing that using a PE allows to remove more simulated hard deposits than without (nPE), influenced by the operators' experience and training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sonic device and Gracey curettes were utilized by 11 operators (six dentists, five dental hygienists) in periodontitis manikins heads. The time required for treatment and the proportion of removed simulated hard deposits by SRP were measured. RESULTS: Using the PE led to a significant difference in removal of simulated hard deposits (%) (mean ± SD) irrespective of operators' experience (PE 90.78 ± 12.10% (range 58.80-100%); nPE 79.98 ± 22.15% (range 38.10-100%, p < 0.001)), sub-analyses for different tooth types demonstrated a significant difference in favor of PE for front teeth (p < 0.001) and in the upper jaw independent of the tooth type (p < 0.001). Comparison of treatment times for two quadrants with and without PE showed a significantly longer treatment time with PE (∆22.27 ± 17.98 mins, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Within the present pilot study, the use of PE led to more removal of simulated hard deposits but was concomitantly related to more time and financial effort. Using PE was most beneficial in the front area. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: PE may provide additional benefits for the removal of hard deposits compared to traditional SRP. The beneficial effect of PE seems not to be influenced by operators experience nor by pocket probing depth.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Periodontite , Projetos Piloto , Aplainamento Radicular
5.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 114(16): 288, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502315
6.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 114(51-52): 883-890, 2017 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many years, low back pain has been both the leading cause of days lost from work and the leading indication for medical rehabilitation. The goal of the German Disease Management Guideline (NDMG) on nonspecific low back pain is to improve the treatment of patients with this condition. METHODS: The current update of the NDMG on non-specific low back pain is based on articles retrieved by a systematic search of the literature for systematic reviews. Its recommendations for diagnosis and treatment were developed by a collaborative effort of 29 scientific medical societies and organizations and approved in a formal consensus process. RESULTS: If the history and physical examination do not arouse any suspicion of a dangerous underlying cause, no further diagnostic evaluation is indicated for the time being. Passive, reactive measures should be taken only in combination with activating measures, or not at all. When drugs are used for symptomatic treatment, patients should be treated with the most suitable drug in the lowest possible dose and for as short a time as possible. CONCLUSION: A physician should be in charge of the overall care process. The patient should be kept well informed over the entire course of his or her illness and should be encouraged to adopt a healthful lifestyle, including regular physical exercise.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Terapia por Exercício , Alemanha , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Vértebras Lombares , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 113(48): 816-823, 2016 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus can cause retino pathy and maculopathy, which can irreversibly damage vision and lead to blindness. The prevalence of retinopathy is 9-16% in patients with type 2 diabetes and 24-27% in patients with type 1 diabetes. 0.2-0.5% of diabetics are blind. METHODS: The National Disease Management Guideline on the prevention and treatment of retinal complications in diabetes was updated according to recommendations developed by seven scientific medical societies and organizations and by patient representatives and then approved in a formal consensus process. These recommendations are based on international guidelines and systematic reviews of the literature. RESULTS: Regular ophthalmological examinations enable the detection of retinopathy in early, better treatable stages. The control intervals should be based on the individual risk profile: 2 years for low-risk patients and 1 year for others, or even shorter depending on the severity of retinopathy. General risk factors for retinopathy include the duration of diabetes, the degree of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. The general, individually adapted treatment strategies are aimed at improving the risk profile. The most important specifically ophthalmological treatment recommendations are for panretinal laser coagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and, in case of clinically significant diabetic macular edema with foveal involvement, for the intravitreal application of medications (mainly, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] inhibitors), if an improvement of vision with this treatment is thought to be possible. CONCLUSION: Regular, risk-adapted ophthalmological examinations, with standardized documentation of the findings for communication between ophthalmologists and the patients' treating primary care physicians/diabetologists, is essential for the prevention of diabetic retinal complications, and for their optimal treatment if they are already present.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Humanos , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Edema Macular , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 184: 728-35, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25795085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is prevalent among the elderly and is characterized by high mortality and hospitalization rates. Non-adherence to medications is frequent and related to poor clinical outcomes. It is often assumed that older age is related to poorer medication adherence compared with younger age. We analyzed the existing evidence of age as a determinant of medication adherence in patients with CHF. METHODS: A systematic search of the bibliographic database MEDLINE and all Cochrane databases was performed. Studies were included if they examined medication adherence in adult patients with CHF, evaluated factors contributing to medication adherence, and analyzed the relationship between age and medication adherence. Articles classified as studies with poor quality were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 1565 titles were found, and ultimately, 17 studies, which provide data for a total of 162,727 patients, were analyzed. Seven studies showed a statistically significant relationship between age and medication adherence: six articles demonstrated that increased age is correlated with higher medication adherence, and one study showed that patients in the age range of 57 to 64 years are affected by non-adherence to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Ten studies found no significant relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that older age alone is not related to poorer medication adherence compared with younger patients with CHF. More attention should be paid to younger newly-diagnosed patients with CHF. Future studies are required to explore medication adherence in CHF in different, standardized, and specific age groups and should be sufficiently powered to assess clinical endpoints.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
9.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 22(3): 249-55, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22762306

RESUMO

The physical health of outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) can be improved by changes in the health-care system. Analysis of current practice is necessary to develop these strategies. We compared the number of somatic health problems of outpatients with SMI with the frequency of consulting a general practitioner (GP). This was a cross-sectional study based on interviews, and records from the GP and the pharmacy. We checked whether Dutch community pharmacies had complete and correct information about the patients' medication. We observed that all patients (n = 118) had somatic problems in need of clinical attention. Patients who visited their GP less than once a year (35%, n = 42), had a mean of 2.8 somatic health problems. This was less than patients who consulted their GP more than once a year (P ≤ 0.01). In 37% of cases, the pharmacy did not have adequate information on the drug use. Many patients with SMI seemed to have insufficient contact with their GP for their somatic health problems. Insufficient information about the patients' medication suggested that the pharmacist and GP should increase exchange of information. Mental health nurses can take a lead in coordinating the care to improve somatic health for their patients.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Países Baixos
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