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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 67-76, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638386

RESUMO

At present, mostly case-control and retrospective studies have investigated the association between etiologic risk factors and the development of histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we assessed the heterogeneity between body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and hypertension across clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) and papillary RCC (pRCC) risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. In 1986, 120 852 participants aged 55 to 69 completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and other risk factors for cancer. Participants were followed up for cancer through record linkage. Tumor histology was assessed through centralized revision by two experienced uropathologists. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 384 histologically verified RCC cases, including 315 ccRCC and 46 pRCC cases and 4144 subcohort members were eligible for case-cohort analysis. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models. Overall, BMI was associated positively with ccRCC risk, but inversely with pRCC risk. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased ccRCC, but a decreased pRCC risk. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with both ccRCC and pRCC risk. Hypertension was associated with an increased risk of both ccRCC and pRCC. Statistically significant etiologic heterogeneity was observed for BMI, BMI change since age 20, and smoking duration in current smokers across ccRCC and pRCC risk. In conclusion, we observed potential heterogeneity for BMI, BMI change and smoking duration across ccRCC and pRCC risk.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 69: 101836, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a metastatic disease for which the primary tumour origin could not be identified during life. Few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with this disease. This study investigates anthropometry, physical activity and CUP risk. METHODS: Data is used from the Netherlands Cohort Study, which includes 120,852 participants aged 55-69 years. All cohort members completed a self-administered questionnaire on cancer risk factors at baseline in 1986. Cancer follow-up was established through record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry. After a follow-up of 20.3 years, 926 incident CUP cases and 4099 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analyses. Proportional hazards models were used to compute multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: We found no associations between height, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, BMI at age 20 years, change in BMI since age 20 years, clothing size (trouser/skirt size), or non-occupational physical activity and CUP risk. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that neither anthropometry nor physical activity are associated with the development of CUP.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022785

RESUMO

Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a metastasised malignancy with no identifiable primary tumour origin. Despite the frequent occurrence and bleak prognosis of CUP, research into its aetiology is scarce. Our study investigates alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and CUP risk. We used data from the Netherlands Cohort Study, a cohort that includes 120 852 participants aged 55 to 69 years, who completed a self-administered questionnaire on cancer risk factors at baseline. Cancer follow-up was established through record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Dutch Pathology Registry. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 963 CUP cases and 4288 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analyses. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using proportional hazard models. In general, CUP risk increased with higher levels of alcohol intake (Ptrend = .02). The association was more pronounced in participants who drank ≥30 g of ethanol per day (HR: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.05) compared to abstainers. Current smokers were at an increased CUP risk (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.29-1.97) compared to never smokers. We observed that the more the cigarettes or the longer a participant smoked, the higher the CUP risk was (Ptrend = .003 and Ptrend = .02, respectively). Interaction on additive scale was found for participants with the highest exposure categories of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking frequency and CUP risk. Our findings demonstrate that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with increased CUP risk. Lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention regarding not drinking alcohol and avoiding exposure to smoking are therefore also valid for CUP.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

7.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(4): 1124-1128, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of nocturia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) who received continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) treatment was studied as well as the effect of CPAP treatment on nocturia. METHODS: All patients that were referred to the pulmonology department of a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands and received a CPAP mask for OSAS were interviewed and invited to take part in the study (N = 274). After informed consent, all patients were asked about the number of nocturia episodes before and after CPAP. RESULTS: In this prospective analysis, 274 patients (190 male and 84 female) were included. The mean age was 60.3 years (SE = 0.7). Sixty-four patients (23.4%) reported no nocturia episodes before CPAP and 210 patients (76.4%) reported ≥1 nocturia episode(s). Treatment of OSAS with CPAP reduced nocturia with one or more episodes per night in 42.3% of the patients. Clinically relevant nocturia (≥2 voids per night) was reduced from 73.0% to 51.5%. There were no statistically significant gender differences. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of nocturia in patients diagnosed with OSAS is 75.8% in both sexes. After treatment with CPAP, almost half of patients experienced a decrease in the nocturia frequency of one or more voids. Clinically relevant nocturia was reduced with one-third after CPAP. CPAP not only reduced the number of voids during the night but also improved the associated quality of life.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Noctúria/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Noctúria/epidemiologia , Noctúria/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3359, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098999

RESUMO

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, is involved in maintenance of genetic stability, inflammation, immune response, metabolism (energy-sensing molecule) and colorectal tumorigenesis. We investigated SIRT1's specific role in colorectal tumorigenesis by studying SIRT1 polymorphisms in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status. The Netherlands Cohort study (NLCS) was initiated in 1986 and includes 120,852 participants in a case-cohort design. CRC tumour samples were available for incident cases between 1989 and 1993. Toenail deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used for genotyping of two SIRT1 tagging variants (rs10997870 and rs12778366). Excluding the first 2.3 years of follow-up, subcohort members and CRC cases with no toenail DNA available and those with low sample call rates, and CRC cases with no tumour DNA available left 3478 subcohort members and 533 CRC cases. Cox regression was utilised to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for MSI and CIMP positive and negative tumours by SIRT1 genotypes. The results were that the rs12778366 TC/CC versus TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI CRC (HR = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.88), while no association was found with the risk of an MSS tumour (TC/CC versus TT carriers: HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.44). No significant associations were found between other SIRT1 genotypes and CRC subtypes. In conclusion, the results suggest a role for SIRT1 polymorphisms in colorectal tumorigenesis, particularly MSI CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Sirtuína 1/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 137, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924838

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), and their gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, and clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) risk. Furthermore, we assessed the relationship between VHL SNPs and VHL promoter methylation. Three VHL polymorphisms and one HIF1A polymorphism were genotyped in the Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 participants aged 55-69 completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and lifestyle and toenail clippings were collected. Toenail DNA was genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. After 20.3 years, 3004 subcohort members and 406 RCC cases, of which 263 ccRCC cases, were eligible for multivariate case-cohort analyses. VHL_rs779805 was associated with RCC (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.07-2.17) and ccRCC risk (HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.25-2.81). No associations were found for other SNPs. Potential gene-environment interactions were found between alcohol consumption and selected SNPs. However, none remained statistically significant after multiple comparison correction. No gene-gene interactions were observed between VHL and HIF1A. VHL promoter methylation was not associated with VHL SNPs. VHL SNPs may increase (cc)RCC susceptibility. No associations were found between gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and (cc)RCC risk and between VHL promoter methylation and VHL SNPs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Epistasia Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 200-207, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laterality of epithelial ovarian tumors may reflect the underlying carcinogenic pathways and origins of tumor cells. METHODS: We pooled data from 9 prospective studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Information on measures of tumor size or tumor dominance was extracted from surgical pathology reports or obtained through cancer registries. We defined dominant tumors as those restricted to one ovary or where the dimension of one ovary was at least twice as large as the other, and nondominant tumors as those with similar dimensions across the two ovaries or peritoneal tumors. Competing risks Cox models were used to examine whether associations with reproductive and hormonal risk factors differed by ovarian tumor dominance. RESULTS: Of 1,058 ovarian cancer cases with tumor dominance information, 401 were left-dominant, 363 were right-dominant, and 294 were nondominant. Parity was more strongly inversely associated with risk of dominant than nondominant ovarian cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.004). Ever use of oral contraceptives (OC) was associated with lower risk of dominant tumors, but was not associated with nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Higher body mass index was associated with higher risk of left-dominant tumors, but not significantly associated with risk of right-dominant or nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that reproductive and hormonal risk factors appear to have a stronger impact on dominant tumors, which may have an ovarian or endometriosis origin. IMPACT: Examining the associations of ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance may help elucidate the mechanisms through which these factors influence ovarian cancer risk.

12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(12): 1171-1174, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autopsy rates have been declining worldwide. The present study reports the outcome of a retrospective analysis of all non-forensic autopsies in the Netherlands over a course of 25 years, and compares these with the most recent Dutch study. METHOD: Retrospectively, 25 years of data on clinical autopsies from the Nationwide Network and Registry of Histo- and Cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA) was paired with the mortality registry (Statistics Netherlands). RESULTS: The crude prevalence of autopsies declined from 7.07% in 1991 to 2.73% in 2015. After adjusting for age at death, there was no difference in autopsy rate between males and females. An increasing age significantly decreased the autopsy rate. CONCLUSION: In the Netherlands, clinical autopsies have been declining over the last quarter century. Age at death, but not sex, was associated with the autopsy rate. These different results stress the importance of correct collection and analysis methods of data.


Assuntos
Autopsia/tendências , Medicina Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Medicina Legal/tendências , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402218

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The 5-yr survival of early-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is approximately 93%, but once metastasised, the 5-yr survival plummets to 12%, indicating that early RCC detection is crucial to improvement in survival. DNA methylation biomarkers have been suggested to be of potential diagnostic value; however, their current state of clinical translation is unclear and a comprehensive overview is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarise all literature regarding diagnostic DNA methylation biomarkers for RCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review of PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Google Scholar up to January 2019, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA) guidelines. Included studies were scored according to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) criteria. Forest plots were generated to summarise diagnostic performance of all biomarkers. Level of evidence (LoE) and potential risk of bias were determined for all included studies. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After selection, 19 articles reporting on 44 diagnostic DNA methylation biomarkers and 11 multimarker panels were included; however, only 15 biomarkers were independently validated. STARD scores varied from 4 to 13 out of 23 points, with a median of 10 points. Large variation in subgroups, methods, and primer locations was observed. None of the reported biomarkers exceeded LoE III, and the majority of studies reported inadequately. CONCLUSIONS: None of the reported biomarkers exceeded LoE III, indicating their limited clinical utility. Moreover, study reproducibility and further development of these RCC biomarkers are greatly hampered by inadequate reporting. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we reviewed whether specific biomarkers could be used to diagnose the most common form of kidney cancer. We conclude that due to limited evidence and reporting inconsistencies, none of these biomarkers can be used in clinical practice, and further development towards clinical use is hindered.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(8): 1844-1857, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252931

RESUMO

Adult-attained height is a marker for underlying mechanisms, such as cell growth, that may also influence postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) risk, perhaps specifically hormone-sensitive BC subtypes. Early life energy restriction may inhibit these mechanisms, resulting in shorter height and a reduced postmenopausal BC risk. Women (62,573) from the Netherlands Cohort Study completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1986 when 55-69 years old, and were followed-up for 20.3 years (case-cohort: Nsubcohort = 2,438; Ncases = 3,354). Cox multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for BC risk overall and by estrogen and progesterone receptor subtypes in relation to height and early life energy restriction during the Hunger Winter, War Years, and Economic Depression. Although energy restriction can only influence longitudinal growth in women exposed before and/or during the growth spurt, it may also influence BC risk when occurring after the growth spurt, possibly through different growth processes. Therefore, Cox analyses were additionally conducted according to timing of energy restriction in relation to the growth spurt. Height was associated with an increased BC risk (HRper 5cm = 1.07, 95%CI:1.01-1.13), particularly hormone receptor-positive BC. Energy restriction before and/or during the growth spurt was associated with a decreased hormone receptor-positive BC risk. Energy restriction during the Hunger Winter increased the estrogen receptor-negative BC risk regardless of the timing of energy restriction. In conclusion, height and energy restriction before and/or during the growth spurt were both associated with hormone receptor-positive BC risk, in the direction as expected, indicating critical exposure windows for hormonal growth-related mechanisms.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(3): 368-374, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between kidney stones and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. METHODS: In total, 120,852 participants aged 55-69 completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet, medical conditions and other risk factors for cancer at baseline (1986). After 20.3 years of cancer follow-up 4352 subcohort members, 544 RCC cases and 140 UTUC cases were eligible for case-cohort analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Kidney stones were associated with an increased RCC risk (HR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84), vs. no kidney stones. Kidney stones were associated with an increased risk of papillary RCC (HR: 3.08, 95% CI 1.55-6.11), but not clear-cell RCC (HR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.79-1.65). UTUC risk was increased for participants with kidney stones (HR: 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.68). No heterogeneity of associations was found for UTUC in the ureter and renal pelvis. An early kidney stone diagnosis (≤40 years) was associated with an increased RCC and UTUC risk, compared to later diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Kidney stones were associated with increased papillary RCC risk, but not clear-cell RCC risk. No heterogeneity was found for UTUC subtypes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/complicações , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Urológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 137-145, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several cancers. A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies showed a 10% decrease in ovarian cancer risk with regular aspirin use, which was stronger for daily and low-dose users. To prospectively investigate associations of analgesic use with ovarian cancer, we analyzed data from 13 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). METHODS: The current study included 758 829 women who at study enrollment self-reported analgesic use, among whom 3514 developed ovarian cancer. Using Cox regression, we assessed associations between frequent medication use and risk of ovarian cancer. Dose and duration were also evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Women who used aspirin almost daily (≥6 days/wk) vs infrequent/nonuse experienced a 10% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (rate ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.00, P = .05). Frequent use (≥4 days/wk) of aspirin (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.03), nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.11), or acetaminophen (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.24) was not associated with risk. Daily acetaminophen use (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.65, P = .05) was associated with elevated ovarian cancer risk. Risk estimates for frequent, long-term (10+ years) use of aspirin (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.34) or nonaspirin NSAIDs (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.68) were modestly elevated, although not statistically significantly so. CONCLUSIONS: This large, prospective analysis suggests that women who use aspirin daily have a slightly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer (∼10% lower than infrequent/nonuse)-similar to the risk reduction observed in case-control analyses. The observed potential elevated risks for 10+ years of frequent aspirin and NSAID use require further study but could be due to confounding by medical indications for use or variation in drug dosing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(3): 1033-1045, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk in epidemiological studies is inconsistent. By analyzing gene-acrylamide interactions for ER+ breast cancer risk, we aimed to clarify the role of acrylamide intake in ER+ breast cancer etiology. METHODS: The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55-69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was sampled from the total cohort for a case-cohort analysis approach. Dietary acrylamide intake of subcohort members (n = 1449) and ER+ breast cancer cases (n = 844) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in acrylamide metabolism, sex steroid systems, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Multiplicative interaction between acrylamide intake and SNPs was assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, based on 20.3 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, there was a statistically non-significant inverse association between acrylamide and ER+ breast cancer risk among all women but with no clear dose-response relationship, and no association among never smokers. Among the results for 57 SNPs and 2 gene deletions, rs1056827 in CYP1B1, rs2959008 and rs7173655 in CYP11A1, the GSTT1 gene deletion, and rs1052133 in hOGG1 showed a statistically significant interaction with acrylamide intake for ER+ breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence for a positive association between acrylamide intake and ER+ breast cancer risk. If anything, acrylamide was associated with a decreased ER+ breast cancer risk. The interaction with SNPs in CYP1B1 and CYP11A1 suggests that acrylamide may influence ER+ breast cancer risk through sex hormone pathways.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Estrogênicos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Nutr Cancer ; 70(4): 620-631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697282

RESUMO

To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 1,608 male subcohort members and 948 advanced prostate cancer cases were available for Cox analysis. Three SNPs showed a main association with advanced prostate cancer risk after multiple testing correction: catalase (CAT) rs511895, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) rs5275, and xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) rs2228001. With respect to acrylamide-gene interactions, only rs1800566 in NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and rs2301241 in thioredoxin (TXN) showed a nominally statistically significant multiplicative interaction with acrylamide intake for advanced prostate cancer risk. After multiple testing corrections, none were statistically significant. In conclusion, no clear evidence was found for interaction between acrylamide intake and selected genetic variants for advanced prostate cancer risk.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Acrilamida/farmacocinética , Idoso , Catalase/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Alimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Países Baixos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(6): 647-656, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, the role of meat and fish intake in head-neck cancer (HNC) etiology is not well understood and prospective evidence is limited. This prompted us to study the association between meat, fish, and HNC subtypes, i.e., oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro- and hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), within the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). METHODS: In 1986, 120,852 participants (aged 55-69 years) completed a baseline 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily meat and fish intake were calculated. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 430 HNC overall (134 OCC, 90 OHPC and 203 LC) cases and 4,111 subcohort members were found to be eligible for case-cohort analysis. Multivariate hazard ratios were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards model within quartiles of energy-adjusted meat and fish intake. RESULTS: Processed meat intake, but not red meat intake, was positively associated with HNC overall [HR(Q4 vs. Q1) = 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.00; ptrend = 0.03]. Among HNC subtypes, processed meat was positively associated with OCC, while no associations were found with OHPC and LC. Fish intake was not associated with HNC risk. Tests for interaction did not reveal statistically significant interaction between meat, fish, and alcohol or smoking on HNC overall risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, processed meat intake was positively associated with HNC overall and HNC subtype OCC, but not with OHPC and LC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/etiologia , Incidência , Neoplasias Laríngeas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
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