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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488895

RESUMO

Variants in the KIF1A gene can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 30, autosomal recessive hereditary sensory neuropathy, or autosomal (de novo) dominant mental retardation type 9. More recently, variants in KIF1A have also been described in a few cases with autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia. Here, we describe 20 KIF1A variants in 24 patients from a clinical exome sequencing cohort of 347 individuals with a mostly 'pure' spastic paraplegia. In these patients, spastic paraplegia was slowly progressive and mostly pure, but with a highly variable disease onset (0-57 years). Segregation analyses showed a de novo occurrence in seven cases, and a dominant inheritance pattern in 11 families. The motor domain of KIF1A is a hotspot for disease causing variants in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, similar to mental retardation type 9 and recessive spastic paraplegia type 30. However, unlike these allelic disorders, dominant spastic paraplegia was also caused by loss-of-function variants outside this domain in six families. Finally, three missense variants were outside the motor domain and need further characterization. In conclusion, KIF1A variants are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia in our cohort (6-7%). The identification of KIF1A loss-of-function variants suggests haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

2.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(2): 241-258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Accurate molecular genetic diagnosis can improve clinical management, provides appropriate genetic counseling and testing of relatives, and allows potential therapeutic trials. OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical utility of panel-based whole exome sequencing (WES) in NMDs in a population with children and adults with various neuromuscular symptoms. METHODS: Clinical exome sequencing, followed by diagnostic interpretation of variants in genes associated with NMDs, was performed in a cohort of 396 patients suspected of having a genetic cause with a variable age of onset, neuromuscular phenotype, and inheritance pattern. Many had previously undergone targeted gene testing without results. RESULTS: Disease-causing variants were identified in 75/396 patients (19%), with variants in the three COL6-genes (COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3) as the most common cause of the identified muscle disorder, followed by variants in the RYR1 gene. Together, these four genes account for almost 25% of cases in whom a definite genetic cause was identified. Furthermore, likely pathogenic variants and/or variants of uncertain significance were identified in 95 of the patients (24%), in whom functional and/or segregation analysis should be used to confirm or reject the pathogenicity. In 18% of the cases with a disease-causing variant of which we received additional clinical information, we identified a genetic cause in genes of which the associated phenotypes did not match that of the patients. Hence, the advantage of panel-based WES is its unbiased approach. CONCLUSION: Whole exome sequencing, followed by filtering for NMD genes, offers an unbiased approach for the genetic diagnostics of NMD patients. This approach could be used as a first-tier test in neuromuscular disorders with a high suspicion of a genetic cause. With uncertain results, functional testing and segregation analysis are needed to complete the evidence.

3.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1225-e1237, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.

4.
Genet Med ; 20(1): 109-118, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726805

RESUMO

PurposePREPL deficiency causes neonatal hypotonia, ptosis, neonatal feeding difficulties, childhood obesity, xerostomia, and growth hormone deficiency. Different recessive contiguous gene deletion syndromes involving PREPL and a variable combination of SLC3A1 (hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), CAMKMT (atypical hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), and PPM1B (2p21 deletion syndrome) have been described. In isolated PREPL deficiency, previously described only once, the absence of cystinuria complicates the diagnosis. Therefore, we developed a PREPL blood assay and further delineated the phenotype.MethodsClinical features of new subjects with PREPL deficiency were recorded. The presence of PREPL in lymphocytes and its reactivity with an activity-based probe were evaluated by western blot.ResultsFive subjects with isolated PREPL deficiency, three with hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome, and two with atypical hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome had nine novel alleles. Their IQs ranged from 64 to 112. Adult neuromuscular signs included ptosis, nasal dysarthria, facial weakness, and variable proximal and neck flexor weakness. Autonomic features are prevalent. PREPL protein and reactivity were absent in lymphocytes from subjects with PREPL deficiency, but normal in the clinically similar Prader-Willi syndrome.ConclusionPREPL deficiency causes neuromuscular, autonomic, cognitive, endocrine, and dysmorphic clinical features. PREPL is not deficient in Prader-Willi syndrome. The novel blood test should facilitate the confirmation of PREPL deficiency.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fenótipo , Serina Endopeptidases/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Ativação Enzimática , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(10): 1460-6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165006

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia (CA) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are two of the most prevalent motor disorders with extensive locus and allelic heterogeneity. We implemented clinical exome sequencing, followed by filtering data for a 'movement disorders' gene panel, as a generic test to increase variant detection in 76 patients with these disorders. Segregation analysis or phenotypic re-evaluation was utilized to substantiate findings. Disease-causing variants were identified in 9 of 28 CA patients, and 8 of 48 HSP patients. In addition, possibly disease-causing variants were identified in 1 and 8 of the remaining CA and HSP patients, respectively. In 10 patients with CA, the total disease-causing or possibly disease-causing variants were detected in 8 different genes, whereas 16 HSP patients had such variants in 12 different genes. In the majority of cases, the identified variants were compatible with the patient phenotype. Interestingly, in some patients variants were identified in genes hitherto related to other movement disorders, such as TH variants in two siblings with HSP. In addition, rare disorders were uncovered, for example, a second case of HSP caused by a VCP variant. For some patients, exome sequencing results had implications for treatment, exemplified by the favorable L-DOPA treatment in a patient with HSP due to ATP13A2 variants (Parkinson type 9). Thus, clinical exome sequencing in this cohort of CA and HSP patients suggests broadening of disease spectra, revealed novel gene-disease associations, and uncovered unanticipated rare disorders. In addition, clinical exome sequencing results have shown their value in guiding practical patient management.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Exoma , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/diagnóstico
7.
Pediatr Neurol ; 59: 71-75.e1, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical syndrome of cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) was first described 20 years ago, but it was only recently that whole exome sequencing unveiled the causative mutation in the ATP1A3 gene. We present four patients from the seventh and eighth family identified worldwide, provide a critical review of all patients published thus far, and speculate about the pathophysiologic processes underlying the acute neurological manifestations. CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: The individuals presented here experienced one to three paroxysmal, short-lasting episodes in childhood with cerebellar symptoms and signs, hypotonia, ophthalmoparesis, motor weakness, areflexia, and/or lethargy that were consistently associated with febrile illness. An underlying c.2452G>A mutation in the ATP1A3 gene was found in all four individuals. Besides the persisting CAPOS features, other possibly related sequelae included dystonia, myoclonus, and emotional and behavioral changes. After initiation of acetazolamide in two patients, no further episodes occurred. CONCLUSION: Targeted sequencing of the ATP1A3 gene is recommended in children exhibiting paroxysmal, fever-induced ataxia and in adults with a more or less stationary or slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome since childhood accompanied by mixed combinations of areflexia, pes cavus, profound visual impairment, and/or sensorineural hearing loss. Similar to some other types of episodic ataxia, acetazolamide may be considered in patients with CAPOS syndrome to prevent or attenuate bouts of ataxia, but this requires further study.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Mutação Puntual , Reflexo Anormal/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 25(1): 82-90, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20209645

RESUMO

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is an X-linked dominant condition marked by linear striations mainly affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones and pelvis in combination with cranial sclerosis. Recently, the disease-causing gene was identified as the WTX gene (FAM123B), an inhibitor of WNT signaling. A correlation was suggested between the position of the mutation and male lethality. We performed genotype and phenotype studies using 18 patients from eight families with possible WTX gene defects and expanded the clinical spectrum of the affected females. All investigated families diagnosed with OSCS had WTX gene defects. One family had a WTX gene deletion; three of four point mutations were novel. The earlier reported WTX c.1072C>T was detected in four sporadic patients and appears to be a hotspot for mutations. Based on the nature of the mutation present in a surviving male patient, our data do not support the hypothesis raised by Jenkins et al. (2009) regarding a genotype-phenotype correlation for male lethality. The finding of a gene involved in WNT signaling as the cause of this sclerosing bone phenotype is not unexpected, but further functional studies are needed to explain the specific features. The WTX gene is mutated in different types of cancer, and it remains to be explained why osteopathia striata patients appear not to have an increased risk of cancer.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/complicações , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Crânio/patologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Radiografia , Esclerose , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química
9.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 2(5): 418-27, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20031616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and type of mutations in the major desmosomal genes, Plakophilin-2 (PKP2), Desmoglein-2 (DSG2), and Desmocollin-2 (DSC2), in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) patients. We also aimed to distinguish relevant clinical and ECG parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical evaluation was performed according to the Task Force Criteria (TFC). We analyzed the genes in (a) 57 patients who fulfilled the ARVD/C TFC (TFC+), (b) 28 patients with probable ARVD/C (1 major and 1 minor, or 3 minor criteria), and (c) 31 patients with 2 minor or 1 major criteria. In the TFC+ ARVD/C group, 23 patients (40%) had PKP2 mutations, 4 (7%) had DSG2 mutations, and 1 patient (2%) carried a mutation in DSC2, whereas 1 patient (2%) had a mutation in both DSG2 and DSC2. Among the DSG2 and DSC2 mutation-positive TFC+ ARVD/C probands, 2 carried compound heterozygous mutations and 1 had digenic mutations. In probable ARVD/C patients and those with 2 minor or 1 major criteria for ARVD/C, mutations were less frequent and they were all heterozygous. Negative T waves in the precordial leads were observed more (P<0.002) among mutation carriers than noncarriers and in particular in PKP2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in DSG2 and DSC2 are together less prevalent (10%) than PKP2 mutations (40%) in Dutch TFC+ ARVD/C patients. Interestingly, biallelic or digenic DSC2 and/or DSG2 mutations are frequently identified in TFC+ ARVD/C patients, suggesting that a single mutation is less likely to cause a full-blown ARVD/C phenotype. Negative T waves on ECG were prevalent among mutation carriers (P<0.002).


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Desmocolinas/genética , Desmogleína 2/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Desmocolinas/metabolismo , Desmogleína 2/metabolismo , Desmossomos/genética , Desmossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Linhagem , Placofilinas/genética , Placofilinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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