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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032450

RESUMO

Background: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used to treat cardiogenic shock. However, VA-ECMO might hamper myocardial recovery. The Impella unloads the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if left ventricular unloading in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO was associated with lower mortality. Methods: Data from 686 consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO with or without left ventricular unloading (using an Impella) at 16 tertiary-care centers in 4 countries were collected. The association between left ventricular unloading and 30-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity-score-matched cohort. Results: Left ventricular unloading was used in 337 of the 686 patients (49%). After matching, 255 patients with left ventricular unloading were compared with 255 patients without left ventricular unloading. In the matched cohort, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.98, p=0.03) without differences in various subgroups. Complications occurred more frequently in patients with left ventricular unloading; e.g. severe bleeding in 98 (38.4%) vs. 45 (17.9%), access-site related ischemia in 55 (21.6%) vs. 31 (12.3%), abdominal compartment in 23 (9.4%) vs. 9 (3.7%) and renal replacement therapy in 148 (58.5%) vs. 99 (39.1%). Conclusions: In this international, multicenter cohort study, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower mortality in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO, despite higher complication rates. These findings support use of left ventricular unloading in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO and call for further validation, ideally in a randomized, controlled trial.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909376

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly prevalent in the general population and especially in patients with heart failure (HF). It is not only a risk factor for incident HF, but is also associated with worse outcomes in prevalent HF. Therefore, antihyperglycaemic management in patients at risk of or with established HF is of importance to reduce morbidity/mortality. Following revision of the drug approval process in 2008 by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, several cardiovascular outcome trials on antihyperglycaemic drugs have recently investigated HF endpoints. Signals of harm in terms of increased risk of HF have been identified for thiazolidinediones and the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor saxagliptin, and therefore, these drugs are not currently recommended in HF. Sulfonylureas also have an unfavourable safety profile and should be avoided in patients at increased risk of/with HF. Observational studies have assessed the use of metformin in patients with HF, showing potential safety and potential survival/morbidity benefits. Overall use of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists has not been linked with any clear benefit in terms of HF outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have consistently shown to reduce risk of HF-related outcomes in T2DM with and without HF and are thus currently recommended to lower risk of HF hospitalization in T2DM. Recent findings from the DAPA-HF trial support the use of dapagliflozin in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and, should ongoing trials with empagliflozin, sotagliflozin, and canagliflozin prove efficacy, will pave the way for SGLT2i as HF treatment regardless of T2DM.

3.
Heart ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is not fully understood whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) has a prognostic impact in patients with heart failure (HF). We assessed SES and its association with patient characteristics and outcomes in a contemporary and well-characterised HF cohort. METHODS: Socioeconomic risk factors (SERF) were defined in the Swedish HF Registry based on income (low vs high according to the annual median value), education level (no degree/compulsory school vs university/secondary school) and living arrangement (living alone vs cohabitating). RESULTS: Of 44 631 patients, 21% had no, 33% one, 30% two and 16% three SERF. Patient characteristics strongly and independently associated with lower SES were female sex and no specialist referral. Additional independent associations were older age, more severe HF, heavier comorbidity burden, use of diuretics and less use of HF devices. Lower SES was associated with higher risk of HF hospitalisation/mortality, and overall cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events. These associations persisted after extensive adjustment for patient characteristics, treatments and care. The magnitude of the association increased linearly with the increasing number of coexistent SERF: HR (95% CI) 1.09 (1.05 to 1.13) for one, 1.16 (1.12 to 1.20) for two and 1.22 (1.18 to 1.28) for three SERF (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary and well-characterised HF cohort and after comprehensive adjustment for confounders, lower SES was linked with multiple factors such as less use of HF devices and age, but most strongly with female sex and lack of specialist referral; and associated with greater risk of morbidity/mortality.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic success in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) leads to a growing number of adults with CHD (adult CHD [ACHD]) who develop end-stage heart failure. We aimed to determine patient characteristics and outcomes of ACHD listed for heart transplantation. METHODS: Using data from all the patients with ACHD in 20 transplant centers in the Eurotransplant region from 1999 to 2015, we analyzed patient characteristics, waiting list, and post-transplantation outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 204 patients with ACHD were listed during the study period. The median age was 38 years, and 62.3% of the patients were listed in high urgency (HU), and 37.7% of the patients were in transplantable (T)-listing status. A total of 23.5% of the patients died or were delisted owing to clinical worsening, and 75% of the patients underwent transplantation. Median waiting time for patients with HU-listing status was 4.18 months and with T-listing status 9.07 months. There was no difference in crude mortality or delisting between patients who were HU status listed and T status listed (p = 0.65). In multivariable regression analysis, markers for respiratory failure (mechanical ventilation, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.11-1.81, p = 0.006) and arrhythmias (anti-arrhythmic medication, HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01-2.01, p = 0.044) were associated with a higher risk of death or delisting. In the overall cohort, post-transplantation mortality was 26.8% after 1 year and 33.4% after 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Listed patients are at high risk of death without differences in the urgency of listing. Respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilation and possibly arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic medication indicate worse outcomes on waiting list.

5.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncardiac surgery is increasingly offered to an older, more comorbid population. The aim was to characterize patients with the diagnosis of heart failure (HF) undergoing elective and emergency noncardiac surgery in a broad, contemporary Swedish cohort, and to assess the short- and long-term mortality in patients with HF as compared with patients without HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 200,638 and 97,129 patients undergoing elective and emergency surgical procedures at 23 Swedish university, county, and district hospitals during 2007 to 2013 were analyzed through linkage of the surgical Orbit Database to the National Patient and the Cause of Death registries. In total 7212 patients (3.6%) with a diagnosis of HF before surgery underwent elective and 6455 patients (6.6%) underwent emergency surgery. Patients with HF were older had more comorbidities, and higher mortality than patients without HF. Crude and adjusted risk ratios for 30-day mortality after elective surgery were 5.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.67-6.16) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.50-2.14) (adjusted for comorbidities, surgical risk level, age, and sex). Corresponding data for emergency surgery was 3.84 (95% CI 3.58-4.12) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.31-1.62). Mortality in patients with HF after elective surgery at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year was 3.2%, 6.5%, and 16.2% and after emergency surgery it was 13.7%, 22.4%, and 39.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF undergoing elective or emergency noncardiac surgery in a modern surgical setting have a substantial mortality risk and HF is both a risk factor and a strong marker for increasd risk. The reasons for the high mortality are not well-understood and warrant further attention.

7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 291, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used in patients with critical cardiopulmonary failure. To investigate the association between hospital VA-ECMO procedure volume and outcomes in a large, nationwide registry. METHODS: By using administrative data from the German Federal Health Monitoring System, we analyzed all VA-ECMO procedures performed in Germany from 2013 to 2016 regarding the association of procedural volumes with outcomes and complications. RESULTS: During the study period, 10,207 VA-ECMO procedures were performed; mean age was 61 years, 43.4% had prior CPR, and 71.2% were male patients. Acute coronary syndrome was the primary diagnosis for VA-ECMO implantation (n = 6202, 60.8%). The majority of implantations (n = 5421) were performed at hospitals in the lowest volume category (≤ 50 implantations per year). There was a significant association between annualized volume of VA-ECMO procedures and 30-day in-hospital mortality for centers with lower vs. higher volume per year. Multivariable logistic regression showed an increased 30-day in-hospital mortality at hospitals with the lowest volume category (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27, p = 0.034). Similarly, higher likelihood for complications was observed at hospitals with lower vs. higher annual VA-ECMO volume (adjusted odds ratio 1.46, 95% CI 1.29-1.66, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of more than 10,000 VA-ECMO procedures for cardiogenic shock, the majority of implantations were performed at hospitals with the lowest annual volume. Thirty-day in-hospital mortality and likelihood for complications were higher at hospitals with the lowest annual VA-ECMO volume.

8.
J Crit Care ; 57: 253-258, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423622

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Various options of temporary mechanical circulatory support (tMCS) exist for the treatment of cardiogenic shock, however, all forms of tMCS carry a risk of complications. The aim of this study was to compare bleeding complications and thromboembolic events under extracorporeal life support + Impella 2.5/CP (ECMELLA) and isolated Impella 5.0 therapy in the same patient cohort. MATERIAL: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients who underwent ECMELLA implantation and subsequent Impella 5.0 therapy. Implantation strategy and anticoagulation protocol were comparable in both groups. RESULTS: We included 15 patients (mean age 57.2 years; 80% of male patients) who were weaned from ECMELLA undergoing subsequent Impella 5.0 implantation. Mean duration of ECMELLA and Impella 5.0 therapy (10.5 vs. 11.2 days) did not differ significantly (p = .731). The average number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) and thrombocyte concentrates (TC) was significantly decreased during Impella 5.0 treatment (PRBC: 30.3 vs 12.3, p = .001; TC: 5.9 vs 2.2, p = .045). Additionally, the transfusion rates per day were significantly reduced under Impella 5.0 support. CONCLUSIONS: The need for transfusions is significantly lower in the phase of Impella 5.0 therapy compared to the initial phase on ECMELLA. Therefore, we recommend replacing ECMELLA by an Impella 5.0 device early, if possible.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 313: 76-82, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities may differently affect treatment response and cause-specific outcomes in heart failure (HF) with preserved (HFpEF) vs. mid-range/mildly-reduced (HFmrEF) vs. reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction (EF), complicating trial design. In patients with HF, we performed a comprehensive analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), atrial fibrillation (AF) chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cause-specific outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 42,583 patients from the Swedish HF registry (23% HFpEF, 21% HFmrEF, 56% HFrEF), 24% had T2DM, 51% CKD, 56% AF, and 8% all three comorbidities. HFpEF had higher prevalence of CKD and AF, HFmrEF had intermediate prevalence of AF, and prevalence of T2DM was similar across the EF spectrum. Patients with T2DM, AF and/or CKD were more likely to have also other comorbidities and more severe HF. Risk of cardiovascular (CV) events was highest in HFrEF vs. HFpEF and HFmrEF; non-CV risk was highest in HFpEF vs. HFmrEF vs. HFrEF. T2DM increased CV and non-CV events similarly but less so in HFpEF. CKD increased CV events somewhat more than non-CV events and less so in HFpEF. AF increased CV events considerably more than non-CV events and more so in HFpEF and HFmrEF. CONCLUSION: HFpEF is distinguished from HFmrEF and HFrEF by more comorbidities, non-CV events, but lower effect of T2DM and CKD on events. CV events are most frequent in HFrEF. To enrich for CV vs. non-CV events, trialists should not exclude patients with lower EF, AF and/or CKD, who report higher CV risk.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015218, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351154

RESUMO

Background Differences in risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are incompletely understood. Aim of this study was to understand whether risk factors and biomarkers show different associations with incident AF and HF and to investigate predictors of subsequent onset and mortality. Methods and Results In N=58 693 individuals free of AF/HF from 5 population-based European cohorts, Cox regressions were used to find predictors for AF, HF, subsequent onset, and mortality. Differences between associations were estimated using bootstrapping. Median follow-up time was 13.8 years, with a mortality of 15.7%. AF and HF occurred in 5.0% and 5.4% of the participants, respectively, with 1.8% showing subsequent onset. Age, male sex, myocardial infarction, body mass index, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) showed similar associations with both diseases. Antihypertensive medication and smoking were stronger predictors of HF than AF. Cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were associated with HF, but not with AF. No variable was exclusively associated with AF. Population-attributable risks were higher for HF (75.6%) than for AF (30.9%). Age, male sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and NT-proBNP were associated with subsequent onset, which was associated with the highest all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions Common risk factors and biomarkers showed different associations with AF and HF, and explained a higher proportion of HF than AF risk. As the subsequent onset of both diseases was strongly associated with mortality, prevention needs to be rigorously addressed and remains challenging, as conventional risk factors explained only 31% of AF risk.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(11): 1352-1357, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is now accepted as an independent entity beyond anemia. Recently, a new functional definition of iron deficiency was proposed and proved strong efficacy in randomized cardiovascular clinical trials of intravenous iron supplementation. Here, we characterize the impact of iron deficiency on all-cause mortality in the non-anemic general population based on two distinct definitions. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective, single-center cohort study. The 5000 individuals between 35 and 74 years underwent baseline and a planned follow-up visit at year 5. Tested definitions of iron deficiency were (1) functional iron deficiency-ferritin levels below 100 µg/l, or ferritin levels between 100 and 299 µg/l and transferrin saturation below 20%, and (2) absolute iron deficiency-ferritin below 30 µg/l. RESULTS: At baseline, a total of 54.5% of participants showed functional iron deficiency at a mean hemoglobin of 14.3 g/dl; while, the rate of absolute iron deficiency was 11.8%, at a mean hemoglobin level of 13.4 g/dl. At year 5, proportion of newly diagnosed subjects was 18.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Rate of all-cause mortality was 7.2% (n = 361); while, median follow-up was 10.1 years. After adjustment for hemoglobin and major cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association of iron deficiency with mortality was 1.3 (1.0-1.6; p = 0.023) for the functional definition, and 1.9 (1.3-2.8; p = 0.002) for absolute iron deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Iron deficiency is very common in the apparently healthy general population and independently associated with all-cause mortality in the mid to long term.

13.
Heart ; 106(10): 713, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029526
14.
J Crit Care ; 57: 259-263, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) stabilizes patients in refractory cardiogenic shock. However, ECMO-related complications strongly affect the outcome, especially if a long-term LVAD is needed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We describe a new strategy in management of INTERMACS 1 patients consisting in early weaning from VA-ECMO with axillary Impella 5.0 as a bridge to LVAD implantation. Nine patients in two European centres are described. RESULTS: All patients were implanted with VA-ECMO for initial hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization. After a median time of 8 days, Impella 5.0 was implanted. Impella support allowed in all patients weaning from inotropes and from VA-ECMO (after a median time of 22 h). No patients had right ventricular failure after ECMO-weaning and most patients were mobilized and orally fed (88.9%) during Impella support. All patient underwent LVAD implantation after a median Impella time of 17 days. Only one patient had right-ventricular failure after LVAD implantation. All patients were discharged from hospital after a median time of 40 days. CONCLUSION: Early weaning from VA-ECMO with Impella 5.0 as a bridge to LVAD is a safe and effective strategy in management of INTERMACS 1 patients. This approach minimizes ECMO-related complications and allows patient mobilization and right ventricular function optimization before LVAD implantation.

15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(3): E213-E219, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) have recently proposed a new classification of cardiogenic shock (CS) dividing patients into five subgroups. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to apply the SCAI classification to a cohort of patients presenting with CS and to evaluate its ability to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: SCAI CS subgroups were interpreted based on the recent consensus statement and then applied to N = 1,007 consecutive patients presenting with CS or large myocardial infarction (MI) between October 2009 and October 2017. The association between SCAI classification and 30-day all-cause mortality was assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean age in the study cohort was 67 (±15) years, 72% were male. Mean lactate at baseline was 6.05 (±5.13) mmol/l and 51% of the patients had prior cardiac arrest. Overall survival probability was 50.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.5-54.0%). In view of the SCAI classification, the survival probability was 96.4% (95% CI 93.7-99.0%) in class A, 66.1% (95% CI 50.2-87.1%) in class B, 46.1% (95% CI 40.6-52.4%) in class C, 33.1% (95% CI 26.6-41.1%) in class D, and 22.6% (95% CI 17.1-30.0%) in class E. Higher SCAI classification was significantly associated with lower 30-day survival (p < .01). CONCLUSION: In this large clinical cohort, the SCAI classification was significantly associated with 30-day survival. This finding supports the rationale of the SCAI CS classification and calls for a validation in a prospective trial.

16.
J Crit Care ; 56: 100-105, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896442

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an increasingly used treatment option for patients in need of mechanical cardiopulmonary support, while available outcome data is limited. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for 30-day in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed baseline characteristics and outcomes of 8351 VA-ECMO procedures performed in Germany from 2007 to 2015. Using a multivariable model, we identified the ten most important variables to allow for prediction of 30-day in-hospital mortality. Based on these variables, we created a mortality prediction score (ECMO-ACCEPTS score) to enhance decision making in patients considered for or treated with VA-ECMO support. RESULTS: Of 8351 patients (71.7% male) 3567 had prior CPR. Mean age was 62 years in the present cohort. The overall 30-day in-hospital mortality was 61%. The ECMO-ACCEPTS score, derived among randomly selected 4175 patients, included ten independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. Internal validation in the remaining 4176 patients confirmed strong differentiation between low and high risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality (r = 0.97 for correlation of predicted with observed mortality, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The ECMO-ACCEPTS score might help clinicians to improve risk prediction among VA-ECMO patients for refractory cardiogenic shock.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 103-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers reduce mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, patients older than 80 years are poorly represented in randomized controlled trials. We assessed the association between beta-blocker use and outcomes in HFrEF patients aged ≥80 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients with an ejection fraction <40% and aged ≥80 years from the Swedish HF Registry. The association between beta-blocker use, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) mortality/HF hospitalization was assessed by Cox proportional hazard models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort. To assess consistency, the same analyses were performed in a positive control cohort with age <80 years. A negative control outcome analysis was run using hospitalization for cancer as endpoint. Of 6562 patients aged ≥80 years, 5640 (86%) received beta-blockers. In the matched cohort including 1732 patients, beta-blocker use was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.99]. Reduction in CV mortality/HF hospitalization was not significant (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85-1.05) due to the lack of association with HF hospitalization, whereas CV death was significantly reduced. After adjustment rather than matching for the propensity score in the overall cohort, beta-blocker use was associated with reduced risk of all outcomes. In patients aged <80 years, use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced risk of all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92) and of the composite outcome (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF patients ≥80 years of age, use of beta-blockers was high and was associated with improved all-cause and CV survival.

18.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1530-1539, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most randomized trials on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled patients >20 years ago. We investigated the association between ICD use and all-cause mortality in a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction cohort and examined relevant subgroups. METHODS: Patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry fulfilling the European Society of Cardiology criteria for primary-prevention ICD were included. The association between ICD use and 1-year and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort and in prespecified subgroups. RESULTS: Of 16 702 eligible patients, only 1599 (10%) had an ICD. After matching, 1305 ICD recipients were compared with 1305 nonrecipients. ICD use was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality risk within 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.90]) and 5 years (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99]). Results were consistent in all subgroups including patients with versus without ischemic heart disease, men versus women, those aged <75 versus ≥75 years, those with earlier versus later enrollment in the Swedish heart failure registry, and patients with versus without cardiac resynchronization therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population, ICD for primary prevention was underused, although it was associated with reduced short- and long-term all-cause mortality. This association was consistent across all the investigated subgroups. These results call for better implementation of ICD therapy.

20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(7): e005981, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a lethal complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is often associated with cardiogenic shock. The optimal form of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for AMI-VSD is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a previously validated cardiovascular model to simulate AMI-VSD with parameters adjusted to replicate average hemodynamics reported in the literature, including a pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio of 3.0. We then predicted effects of different types of percutaneous MCS (including intra-aortic balloon pumping, Impella, TandemHeart, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) on pressures and flows throughout the cardiovascular system. The simulation replicated all major hemodynamic parameters reported in the literature with AMI-VSD. Inotropes and vasopressors worsened left-to-right shunting, whereas vasodilators decreased shunting at the expense of worsening hypotension. All MCS devices increased forward blood flow and arterial pressure but other effects varied among devices. Impella 5.0 provided the greatest degree of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure reductions and decreased left-to-right shunting. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation worsened pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and shunting, which could be improved by adding Impella or passive left ventricular vent. Pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio could not be reduced below 2.0, and pulmonary flows remained high with all forms of MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Although no form of percutaneous MCS normalized hemodynamics in AMI-VSD, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and shunting were worsened by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and improved by Impella. Accordingly, based on hemodynamics alone, Impella provides the optimal form of support in AMI-VSD. However, other factors, including team experience, device availability, potential for tissue ingestion, and clinical characteristics, need to be considered when choosing a percutaneous MCS device for AMI-VSD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Comunicação Interventricular/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia
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