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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy. Tumor-related glucocorticoid excess is present in ~60% of patients and associated with particularly poor prognosis. Results of first clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors were heterogeneous. Here we characterize tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in ACC in association with glucocorticoids as potential explanation for resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence analysis to visualize tumor-infiltrating T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+CD4+), cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD3+CD4+FoxP3+) in 146 ACC tissue specimens (107 primary tumors, 16 local recurrences, 23 metastases). Quantitative data of immune cell infiltration were correlated with clinical data (including glucocorticoid excess). RESULTS: 86.3% of ACC specimens showed tumor infiltrating T cells (7.7 cells/high power field (HPF)), including T helper (74.0%, 6.7 cells/HPF), cytotoxic T cells (84.3%, 5.7 cells/HPF) and Tregs (49.3%, 0.8 cells/HPF). The number of TILs was associated with better overall survival (HR for death: 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), which was true for CD4+- and CD8+ subpopulations as well. In localized, non-metastatic ACC, the favorable impact of TILs on overall and recurrence-free survival was manifested even independently of ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage, resection status and Ki67 index. T helper cells were negatively correlated with glucocorticoid excess (Phi=-0.290, p=0.009). Patients with glucocorticoid excess and low TILs had a particularly poor overall survival (27 vs. 121 months in patients with TILs without glucocorticoid excess). CONCLUSION: Glucocorticoid excess is associated with T cell depletion and unfavorable prognosis. To reactivate the immune system in ACC by checkpoint inhibitors, an inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis might be pivotal and should be tested in prospective studies.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 192, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184394

RESUMO

Conditions of impaired adrenal function and tissue destruction, such as in Addison's disease, and treatment resistance of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) necessitate improved understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal cell death. Due to relevant oxidative processes in the adrenal cortex, our study investigated the role of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent cell death mechanism and found high adrenocortical expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase 4 (ACSL4) genes, key factors in the initiation of ferroptosis. By applying MALDI mass spectrometry imaging to normal and neoplastic adrenocortical tissue, we detected high abundance of arachidonic and adrenic acid, two long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which undergo peroxidation during ferroptosis. In three available adrenal cortex cell models (H295R, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC-2) a high susceptibility to GPX4 inhibition with RSL3 was documented with EC50 values of 5.7 × 10-8, 8.1 × 10-7 and 2.1 × 10-8 M, respectively, while all non-steroidogenic cells were significantly less sensitive. Complete block of GPX4 activity by RSL3 led to ferroptosis which was completely reversed in adrenal cortex cells by inhibition of steroidogenesis with ketoconazole but not by blocking the final step of cortisol synthesis with metyrapone. Mitotane, the only approved drug for ACC did not induce ferroptosis, despite strong induction of lipid peroxidation in ACC cells. Together, this report is the first to demonstrate extraordinary sensitivity of adrenal cortex cells to ferroptosis dependent on their active steroid synthetic pathways. Mitotane does not induce this form of cell death in ACC cells.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

5.
Macromol Biosci ; 20(1): e1900178, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596553

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor and prognosis is overall poor but heterogeneous. Mitotane (MT) has been used for treatment of ACC for decades, either alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Even at doses up to 6 g per day, more than half of the patients do not achieve targeted plasma concentration (14-20 mg L-1 ) even after many months of treatment due to low water solubility, bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. Here a novel MT nanoformulation with very high MT concentrations in physiological aqueous media is reported. The MT-loaded nanoformulations are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction which confirms the amorphous nature of the drug. The polymer itself does not show any cytotoxicity in adrenal and liver cell lines. By using the ACC model cell line NCI-H295 both in monolayers and tumor cell spheroids, micellar MT is demonstrated to exhibit comparable efficacy to its ethanol solution. It is postulated that this formulation will be suitable for i.v. application and rapid attainment of therapeutic plasma concentrations. In conclusion, the micellar formulation is considered a promising tool to alleviate major drawbacks of current MT treatment while retaining bioactivity toward ACC in vitro.

6.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(2): 02A951, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24593530

RESUMO

The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Radioterapia/instrumentação , Manutenção , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Appl Opt ; 44(16): 3302-11, 2005 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15943267

RESUMO

A new algorithm to infer structural parameters such as refractive index and asphericity of cloud particles has been developed by use of in situ observations taken by a laser backscattersonde and an optical particle counter during balloon stratospheric flights. All three main particles, liquid, ice, and a no-ice solid (NAT, nitric acid trihydrate) of polar stratospheric clouds, were observed during two winter flights performed from Kiruna, Sweden. The technique is based on use of the T-matrix code developed for aspherical particles to calculate the backscattering coefficient and particle depolarizing properties on the basis of size distribution and concentration measurements. The results of the calculations are compared with observations to estimated refractive indices and particle asphericity. The method has also been used in cases when the liquid and solid phases coexist with comparable influence on the optical behavior of the cloud to estimate refractive indices. The main results prove that the index of refraction for NAT particles is in the range of 1.37-1.45 at 532 nm. Such particles would be slightly prolate spheroids. The calculated refractive indices for liquid and ice particles are 1.51-1.55 and 1.31-1.33, respectively. The results for solid particles confirm previous measurements taken in Antarctica during 1992 and obtained by a comparison of lidar and optical particle counter data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atmosfera/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lasers , Refratometria/métodos , Água/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Clima Frio , Coloides/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação
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