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1.
J Med Chem ; 61(16): 7168-7188, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052039

RESUMO

CXCR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that interacts with its cognate ligand, CXCL12, to synchronize many physiological responses and pathological processes. Disruption of the CXCL12-CXCR4 circuitry by small-molecule antagonists has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer intervention. We previously disclosed a hit-to-lead effort that led to the discovery of a series of tetrahydroisoquinoline-based CXCR4 antagonists exemplified by the lead compound TIQ15. Herein, we describe our medicinal-chemistry efforts toward the redesign of TIQ15 as a result of high mouse-microsomal clearance, potent CYP2D6 inhibition, and poor membrane permeability. Guided by the in vitro ADME data of TIQ15, structural modifications were executed to provide compound 12a, which demonstrated a reduced potential for first-pass metabolism while maintaining CXCR4 potency. Subsequent SAR studies and multiparameter optimization of 12a resulted in the identification of compound 25o, a highly potent, selective, and metabolically stable CXCR4 antagonist possessing good intestinal permeability and low risk of CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions.

2.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(5): 446-451, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795757

RESUMO

A novel series of CXCR4 antagonists with piperidinyl and piperazinyl alkylamine side chains designed as butyl amine replacements are described. Several of these compounds showed similar activity to the parent compound TIQ-15 (5) in a SDF-1 induced calcium flux assay. Preliminary structure-activity relationship investigations led us to identify a series containing N-propyl piperazine side chain analogs exemplified by 16 with improved off-target effects as measured in a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) calcium flux assay and in a limited drug safety panel screen. Further efforts to explore SAR and optimize drug properties led to the identification of the N'-ethyl-N-propyl-piperazine tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 44 and the N-propyl-piperazine benzimidazole compound 37, which gave the best overall profiles with no mAChR or CYP450 inhibition, good permeability in PAMPA assays, and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes.

3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(2): 89-93, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456793

RESUMO

A structure-activity relationship study of potent TIQ15-derived CXCR4 antagonists is reported. In this investigation, the TIQ15 side-chain was constrained to improve its drug properties. The cyclohexylamino congener 15a was found to be a potent CXCR4 inhibitor (IC50 = 33 nM in CXCL12-mediated Ca2+ flux) with enhanced stability in liver microsomes and reduced inhibition of CYP450 (2D6). The improved CXCR4 antagonist 15a has potential therapeutic application as a single agent or combinatory anticancer therapy.

4.
J Med Chem ; 61(3): 946-979, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350534

RESUMO

CXCR4 is a seven-transmembrane receptor expressed by hematopoietic stem cells and progeny, as well as by ≥48 different cancers types. CXCL12, the only chemokine ligand of CXCR4, is secreted within the tumor microenvironment, providing sanctuary for CXCR4+ tumor cells from immune surveillance and chemotherapeutic elimination by (1) stimulating prosurvival signaling and (2) recruiting CXCR4+ immunosuppressive leukocytes. Additionally, distant CXCL12-rich niches attract and support CXCR4+ metastatic growths. Accordingly, CXCR4 antagonists can potentially obstruct CXCR4-mediated prosurvival signaling, recondition the CXCR4+ leukocyte infiltrate from immunosuppressive to immunoreactive, and inhibit CXCR4+ cancer cell metastasis. Current small molecule CXCR4 antagonists suffer from poor oral bioavailability and off-target liabilities. Herein, we report a series of novel tetrahydroisoquinoline-containing CXCR4 antagonists designed to improve intestinal absorption and off-target profiles. Structure-activity relationships regarding CXCR4 potency, intestinal permeability, metabolic stability, and cytochrome P450 inhibition are presented.

5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(1): 17-22, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348805

RESUMO

CXCR4 is the most common chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of many cancer cell types. In comparison to normal cells, cancer cells overexpress CXCR4, which correlates with cancer cell metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. CXCR4 antagonists can potentially diminish the viability of cancer cells by interfering with CXCL12-mediated pro-survival signaling and by inhibiting chemotaxis. Herein, we describe a series of CXCR4 antagonists that are derived from (S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-8-amine that has prevailed in the literature. This series removes the rigidity and chirality of the tetrahydroquinoline providing 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine analogs, which are more readily accessible and exhibit improved liver microsomal stability. The medicinal chemistry strategy and biological properties are described.

6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(23): 5267-5271, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102228

RESUMO

Macrocyclic pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimers were designed and evaluated for use as antibody-drug conjugate payloads. Initial structure-activity exploration established that macrocyclization could increase the potency of PBD dimers compared with non-macrocyclic analogs. Further optimization overcame activity-limiting solubility issues, leading to compounds with highly potent (picomolar) activity against several cancer cell lines. High levels of in vitro potency and specificity were demonstrated with an anti-mesothelin conjugate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Anticorpos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzodiazepinas/síntese química , Benzodiazepinas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimerização , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 845-9, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288682

RESUMO

Early hit to lead work on a pyrrolopyridine chemotype provided access to compounds with biochemical and cellular potency against Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Structure-based drug design along the extended hinge region of JAK2 led to the identification of an important H-bond interaction with the side chain of Tyr 931, which improved JAK family selectivity. The 4,5-dimethyl thiazole analogue 18 demonstrated high levels of JAK family selectivity and was identified as a promising lead for the program.

8.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 850-5, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288683

RESUMO

JAK2 kinase inhibitors are a promising new class of agents for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and have potential for the treatment of other diseases possessing a deregulated JAK2-STAT pathway. X-ray structure and ADME guided refinement of C-4 heterocycles to address metabolic liability present in dialkylthiazole 1 led to the discovery of a clinical candidate, BMS-911543 (11), with excellent kinome selectivity, in vivo PD activity, and safety profile.

9.
Drug Discov Today ; 19(7): 869-81, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239727

RESUMO

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) aim to take advantage of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to deliver potent cytotoxic drugs selectively to antigen-expressing tumor cells. Despite the simple concept, various parameters must be considered when designing optimal ADCs, such as selection of the appropriate antigen target and conjugation method. Each component of the ADC (the antibody, linker and drug) must also be optimized to fully realize the goal of a targeted therapy with improved efficacy and tolerability. Advancements over the past several decades have led to a new generation of ADCs comprising non-immunogenic mAbs, linkers with balanced stability and highly potent cytotoxic agents. Although challenges remain, recent clinical success has generated intense interest in this therapeutic class.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Previsões , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 22(12): 3951-6, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22608393

RESUMO

5-Butyl-1,4-diphenyl pyrazole and 2-amino-5-chloro pyrimidine acylsulfonamides were developed as potent dual antagonists of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Compounds were optimized for binding to the I88, L92, I95, and F99 pockets normally occupied by pro-apoptotic protein Bim. An X-ray crystal structure confirmed the proposed binding mode. Observation of cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria in MV-411 cells provides further evidence of target inhibition. Compounds demonstrated submicromolar antiproliferative activity in Bcl-2/Bcl-xL dependent cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Pirazóis/síntese química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína bcl-X/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2 , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/química , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
11.
J Med Chem ; 52(5): 1251-4, 2009 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19260711

RESUMO

Substituted N-(4-(2-aminopyridin-4-yloxy)-3-fluoro-phenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamides were identified as potent and selective Met kinase inhibitors. Substitution of the pyridine 3-position gave improved enzyme potency, while substitution of the pyridone 4-position led to improved aqueous solubility and kinase selectivity. Analogue 10 demonstrated complete tumor stasis in a Met-dependent GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma xenograft model following oral administration. Because of its excellent in vivo efficacy and favorable pharmacokinetic and preclinical safety profiles, 10 has been advanced into phase I clinical trials.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Di-Hidropiridinas/síntese química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/síntese química , Administração Oral , Aminopiridinas/farmacocinética , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacocinética , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Moleculares , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Piridonas/farmacologia , Ratos , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(11): 3224-9, 2008 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18479916

RESUMO

A series of acylurea analogs derived from pyrrolopyridine and aminopyridine scaffolds were identified as potent inhibitors of Met kinase activity. The SAR at various positions of the two kinase scaffolds was investigated. These studies led to the discovery of compounds 3b and 20b, which demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and significant antitumor activity in a human gastric carcinoma xenograft model.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/síntese química , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ureia/síntese química , Ureia/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/química , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirróis/química , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(6): 1945-51, 2008 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18289854

RESUMO

An amide library derived from the pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine scaffold led to the identification of modest inhibitors of Met kinase activity. Introduction of polar side chains at C-6 of the pyrrolotriazine core provided significant improvements in in vitro potency. The amide moiety could be replaced with acylurea and malonamide substituents to give compounds with improved potency in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. Acylurea pyrrolotriazines with substitution at C-5 demonstrated single digit nanomolar kinase activity. X-ray crystallography revealed that the C-5 substituted pyrrolotriazines bind to the Met kinase domain in an ATP-competitive manner.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirróis/química , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/química , Animais , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 16(15): 3937-42, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16730979

RESUMO

Synthesis and SAR of substituted pyrrolotriazine-4-one analogues as Eg5 inhibitors are described. Many of these analogues displayed potent inhibitory activities in the Eg5 ATPase and A2780 cell proliferation assays. In addition, pyrrolotriazine-4-one analogue 26 demonstrated in vivo efficacy in an iv P388 murine leukemia model. Both NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these analogues bind to an allosteric site on the Eg5 protein.


Assuntos
Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Pirróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 127(29): 10259-68, 2005 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16028937

RESUMO

Pd- and Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerizations of 1,6-enynes are compared and contrasted. Such considerations led to the enantioselective synthesis of a cyathin terpenoid, (+)-allocyathin B(2) (1). The synthesis features a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) to install the initial quaternary center, a Ru-catalyzed diastereoselective cycloisomerization to construct the six-membered ring, and a diastereoselective hydroxylative Knoevenagel reaction to introduce the final hydroxyl group. We demonstrate for the first time a mechanism-based stereochemical divergence in Pd- and Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions as well as in creation of alkene geometry with alkynes bearing a carboalkoxy group. Mechanistic rationalization is proposed for these observations.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/síntese química , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclização , Diterpenos/química , Paládio/química , Compostos Policíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Rutênio/química , Estereoisomerismo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 127(9): 2844-5, 2005 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15740107

RESUMO

The first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-allocyathin was achieved. The synthesis features a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation to install the first quaternary center, a Ru-catalyzed diastereoselective cycloisomerization to construct the six-membered ring, and a diastereoselective hydroxylative Knoevenagel reaction to introduce the final hydroxyl group. The unusual olefin isomerization of the Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization was discussed and exploited for the synthesis.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/síntese química , Compostos Policíclicos/síntese química , Alquilação , Ciclização , Paládio/química
17.
Chemistry ; 11(1): 174-84, 2004 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15515094

RESUMO

Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of nonstabilized ketone enolates to generate quaternary centers has been achieved in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Optimized conditions consist of performing the reaction in the presence of two equivalents of LDA as base, one equivalent of trimethytin chloride as a Lewis acid, 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the solvent, and a catalytic amount of a chiral palladium complex formed from pi-allyl palladium chloride dimer 3 and cyclohexyldiamine derived chiral ligand 4. Linearly substituted, acyclic 1,3-dialkyl substituted, and unsubstituted allylic carbonates function well as electrophiles. A variety of alpha-tetralones, cyclohexanones, and cyclopentanones can be employed as nucleophiles. The absolute configuration generated is consistent with the current model in which steric factors control stereofacial differentiation. The quaternary substituted products available by this method are versatile substrates for further elaboration.


Assuntos
Cetonas/química , Paládio , Alquilação , Cetonas/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(14): 4480-1, 2004 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15070341

RESUMO

A protocol for the asymmetric allylic alkylation of a five-membered ring ketone derivative that employs the lithium enolate in the presence of lithium alkoxides gave high yields and enantioselectivities. This product serves as a versatile intermediate as demonstrated in a convergent total synthesis of the antiviral agent hamigeran B. The sequence involves two unusual observations. In the intramolecular Heck reaction which establishes the complete ring sytem, the beta-H elimination step occurs both endocyclic (as expected) and exocyclic, the latter most surprising since it creates an exocylic tetrasubstituted double bond. In the catalytic hydrogenation, use of Pd/C gives complete selectivity for net delivery of hydrogen to the most hindered face of the substrate, whereas use of Ir black gives complete selectivity for delivery of hydrogen to the least hindered face. Such unusual behavior speaks to the unusual chemical properties associated with hamigeran B which may be relevant to its biological activity.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/química , Naftoquinonas/síntese química , Paládio/química , Alquilação , Animais , Ciclização , Modelos Moleculares , Naftoquinonas/química , Poríferos/química , Estereoisomerismo
20.
Org Lett ; 4(20): 3427-30, 2002 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12323035

RESUMO

Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation provides both enantio- and diastereoselectivity in formation of bicyclo [2.2.2] octan-2,3-diones and quinuclidin-2-ones, the latter potential precursors to quinine alkaloids. [reaction: see text]


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Paládio/química , Alcaloides/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Alquilação , Catálise , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Quinina/síntese química , Quinina/química , Estereoisomerismo
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