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1.
Nature ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485073

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cells self-renew and differentiate into all blood lineages throughout life, and can repair damaged blood systems upon transplantation. Asymmetric cell division has previously been suspected to be a regulator of haematopoietic-stem-cell fate, but its existence has not directly been shown1. In asymmetric cell division, asymmetric fates of future daughter cells are prospectively determined by a mechanism that is linked to mitosis. This can be mediated by asymmetric inheritance of cell-extrinsic niche signals by, for example, orienting the divisional plane, or by the asymmetric inheritance of cell-intrinsic fate determinants. Observations of asymmetric inheritance or of asymmetric daughter-cell fates alone are not sufficient to demonstrate asymmetric cell division2. In both cases, sister-cell fates could be controlled by mechanisms that are independent of division. Here we demonstrate that the cellular degradative machinery-including lysosomes, autophagosomes, mitophagosomes and the protein NUMB-can be asymmetrically inherited into haematopoietic-stem-cell daughter cells. This asymmetric inheritance predicts the asymmetric future metabolic and translational activation and fates of haematopoietic-stem-cell daughter cells and their offspring. Therefore, our studies provide evidence for the existence of asymmetric cell division in haematopoietic stem cells.

2.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(2): 258-272.e9, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374198

RESUMO

Tumors are composed of phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cells that often resemble various differentiation states of their lineage of origin. Within this hierarchy, it is thought that an immature subpopulation of tumor-propagating cancer stem cells (CSCs) differentiates into non-tumorigenic progeny, providing a rationale for therapeutic strategies that specifically eradicate CSCs or induce their differentiation. The clinical success of these approaches depends on CSC differentiation being unidirectional rather than reversible, yet this question remains unresolved even in prototypically hierarchical malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we show in murine and human models of AML that, upon perturbation of endogenous expression of the lineage-determining transcription factor PU.1 or withdrawal of established differentiation therapies, some mature leukemia cells can de-differentiate and reacquire clonogenic and leukemogenic properties. Our results reveal plasticity of CSC maturation in AML, highlighting the need to therapeutically eradicate cancer cells across a range of differentiation states.

3.
iScience ; 19: 504-513, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442666

RESUMO

The generation of humanized ectopic ossicles (hOss) in mice has been proposed as an advanced translational and fundamental model to study the human hematopoietic system. The approach relies on the presence of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) supporting the engraftment of transplanted human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, the functional distribution of hMSCs within the humanized microenvironment remains to be investigated. Here, we combined genetic tools and quantitative confocal microscopy to engineer and subsequently analyze hMSCs' fate and distribution in hOss. Implanted hMSCs reconstituted a humanized environment including osteocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and stromal cells associated with vessels. By imaging full hOss, we identified rare physical interactions between hMSCs and human CD45+/CD34+/CD90+ cells, supporting a functional contact-triggered regulatory role of hMSCs. Our study highlights the importance of compiling quantitative information from humanized organs, to decode the interactions between the hematopoietic and the stromal compartments.

4.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248967

RESUMO

Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is unique as it is the only enzyme that can prevent detrimental lipid peroxidation in vivo by reducing lipid peroxides to the respective alcohols thereby stabilizing oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids. During reticulocyte maturation, 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid peroxidation in humans and rabbits and by 12/15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) in mice had been considered as the initiating event for the elimination of mitochondria which is now known to occur through mitophagy. Yet, genetic ablation of the Alox15 gene in mice failed to provide evidence for this hypothesis. We designed a different genetic approach to tackle this open conundrum. Since either other lipoxygenases or non-enzymatic autooxidative mechanisms may compensate for the loss of Alox15, we asked whether ablation of GPX4 in the hematopoietic system would result in perturbation of reticulocyte maturation. Quantitative assessment of erythropoiesis indices in the blood, bone marrow and spleen of chimeric mice with GPX4 ablated in hematopoietic cells revealed anemia with an increase in the fraction of erythroid precursor cells and reticulocytes. Additional dietary vitamin E depletion strongly aggravated the anemic phenotype. Despite strong extramedullary erythropoiesis reticulocytes failed to mature and accumulated large autophagosomes with engulfed mitochondria. GPX4-deficiency in hematopoietic cells led to systemic hepatic iron overload and simultaneous severe iron demand in the erythroid system. Despite extremely high erythropoietin and erythroferrone levels in the plasma, hepcidin expression remained unchanged. Conclusively, perturbed reticulocyte maturation in response to GPX4 loss in hematopoietic cells thus causes ineffective erythropoiesis, a phenotype partially masked by dietary vitamin E supplementation.

5.
Immunity ; 51(1): 50-63.e5, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174991

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with altered hematopoiesis that could result in neutrophilia and anemia. Here we report that genetic or chemical manipulation of different inflammasome components altered the differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) in zebrafish. Although the inflammasome was dispensable for the emergence of HSPC, it was intrinsically required for their myeloid differentiation. In addition, Gata1 transcript and protein amounts increased in inflammasome-deficient larvae, enforcing erythropoiesis and inhibiting myelopoiesis. This mechanism is evolutionarily conserved, since pharmacological inhibition of the inflammasome altered erythroid differentiation of human erythroleukemic K562 cells. In addition, caspase-1 inhibition rapidly upregulated GATA1 protein in mouse HSPC promoting their erythroid differentiation. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of the inflammasome rescued zebrafish disease models of neutrophilic inflammation and anemia. These results indicate that the inflammasome plays a major role in the pathogenesis of neutrophilia and anemia of chronic diseases and reveal druggable targets for therapeutic interventions.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1901, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015409

RESUMO

Asymmetric cell division is a major mechanism generating cell diversity. As cell cycle duration varies among cells in mammalian tissue culture cells, we asked whether their division asymmetry contributes to this variability. We identify among sibling cells an outlier using hierarchical clustering on cell cycle durations of granddaughter cells obtained by lineage tracking of single histone2B-labelled MDCKs. Remarkably, divisions involving outlier cells are not uniformly distributed in lineages, as shown by permutation tests, but appear to emerge from asymmetric divisions taking place at non-stochastic levels: a parent cell influences with 95% confidence and 0.5% error the unequal partitioning of the cell cycle duration in its two progenies. Upon ninein downregulation, this variability propagation is lost, and outlier frequency and variability in cell cycle durations in lineages is reduced. As external influences are not detectable, we propose that a cell-autonomous process, possibly involved in cell specialisation, determines cell cycle duration variability.


Assuntos
Divisão Celular Assimétrica , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Escherichia coli/citologia , Histonas/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Cães , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Blood ; 133(13): 1406-1414, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728141

RESUMO

Cells and the molecular processes underlying their behavior are highly dynamic. Understanding these dynamic biological processes requires noninvasive continuous quantitative single-cell observations, instead of population-based average or single-cell snapshot analysis. Ideally, single-cell dynamics are measured long-term in vivo; however, despite progress in recent years, technical limitations still prevent such studies. On the other hand, in vitro studies have proven to be useful for answering long-standing questions. Although technically still demanding, long-term single-cell imaging and tracking in vitro have become valuable tools to elucidate dynamic molecular processes and mechanisms, especially in rare and heterogeneous populations. Here, we review how continuous quantitative single-cell imaging of hematopoietic cells has been used to solve decades-long controversies. Because aberrant cell fate decisions are at the heart of tissue degeneration and disease, we argue that studying their molecular dynamics using quantitative single-cell imaging will also improve our understanding of these processes and lead to new strategies for therapies.

8.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(2): 319-332, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639212

RESUMO

During somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), fibroblasts undergo dynamic molecular changes, including a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and gain of pluripotency; processes that are influenced by Yamanaka factor stoichiometry. For example, in early reprogramming, high KLF4 levels are correlated with the induction of functionally undefined, transiently expressed MET genes. Here, we identified the cell-surface protein TROP2 as a marker for cells with transient MET induction in the high-KLF4 condition. We observed the emergence of cells expressing the pluripotency marker SSEA-1+ mainly from within the TROP2+ fraction. Using TROP2 as a marker in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated candidate screening of MET genes, we identified the transcription factor OVOL1 as a potential regulator of an alternative epithelial cell fate characterized by the expression of non-iPSC MET genes and low cell proliferation. Our study sheds light on how reprogramming factor stoichiometry alters the spectrum of intermediate cell fates, ultimately influencing reprogramming outcomes.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452534

RESUMO

Motivation: Recent imaging technologies allow for high-throughput tracking of cells as they migrate, divide, express fluorescent markers, and change their morphology. The interpretation of these data requires unbiased, efficient statistical methods that model the dynamics of cell phenotypes. Results: We introduce treeHFM, a probabilistic model which generalizes the theory of hidden Markov models to tree structured data. While accounting for the entire genealogy of a cell, treeHFM categorizes cells according to their primary phenotypic features. It models all relevant events in a cell's life, including cell division, and thereby enables the analysis of event order and cell fate heterogeneity. Simulations show higher accuracy in predicting correct state labels when modeling the more complex, tree-shaped dependency of samples over standard HMM modeling. Applying treeHFM to time lapse images of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation, we demonstrate that progenitor cells undergo a well-ordered sequence of differentiation events. Availability: The treeHFM is implemented in C++. We provide wrapper functions for the programming languages R (CRAN package, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=treeHFM and Matlab (available at Mathworks Central, http://se.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/57575-treehfml). Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Blood ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301719

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms governing the transition from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to lineage-committed progenitors remain poorly understood. Transcription factors (TFs) are powerful cell intrinsic regulators of differentiation and lineage commitment, while cytokine signaling has been shown to instruct the fate of progenitor cells. However, the direct regulation of differentiation-inducing hematopoietic TFs by cell extrinsic signals remains surprisingly difficult to establish. PU.1 is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and promotes myeloid differentiation. Here we report that TNF can directly and rapidly up-regulate PU.1 protein in HSCs in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that in vivo, niche-derived TNF is the principal PU.1 inducing signal in HSCs and is both sufficient and required to relay signals from inflammatory challenges to HSCs.

12.
Anal Chem ; 90(18): 10695-10700, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059208

RESUMO

Dynamic environments determine cell fate decisions and function. Understanding the relationship between extrinsic signals on cellular responses and cell fate requires the ability to dynamically change environmental inputs in vitro, while continuously observing individual cells over extended periods of time. This is challenging for nonadherent cells, such as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, because media flow displaces and disturbs such cells, preventing culture and tracking of single cells. Here, we present a programmable microfluidic system designed for the long-term culture and time-lapse imaging of nonadherent cells in dynamically changing cell culture conditions without losing track of individual cells. The dynamic, valve-controlled design permits targeted seeding of cells in up to 48 independently controlled culture chambers, each providing sufficient space for long-term cell colony expansion. Diffusion-based media exchange occurs rapidly and minimizes displacement of cells and eliminates shear stress. The chip was successfully tested with long-term culture and tracking of primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and murine embryonic stem cells. This system will have important applications to analyze dynamic signaling inputs controlling fate choices.

13.
Biol Open ; 7(7)2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045859

RESUMO

Generation of astrocytes during the development of the mammalian spinal cord is poorly understood. Previously, we have shown that the glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix (ECM) tenascin-C (Tnc) modulates the expression territories of the patterning genes Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2 in the developing ventral spinal cord, tunes the responsiveness of neural stem/progenitor cells towards the cytokines FGF2 and EGF and thereby promotes astrocyte maturation. In order to obtain further mechanistic insight into these processes, we have compared embryonic day-15 spinal cord neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from wild-type and Tnc knockout mice using continuous single-cell live imaging and cell lineage analysis in vitroTnc knockout cells displayed a significantly reduced rate of cell division both in response to FGF2 and EGF. When individual clones of dividing cells were investigated with regard to their cell lineage trees using the tTt tracking software, it appeared that the cell cycle length in response to growth factors was reduced in the knockout. Furthermore, when Tnc knockout NPCs were induced to differentiate by the removal of FGF2 and EGF glial differentiation was enhanced. We conclude that the constituent of the stem cell niche Tnc contributes to preserve stemness of NPCs.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2697, 2018 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002371

RESUMO

Molecular regulation of cell fate decisions underlies health and disease. To identify molecules that are active or regulated during a decision, and not before or after, the decision time point is crucial. However, cell fate markers are usually delayed and the time of decision therefore unknown. Fortunately, dividing cells induce temporal correlations in their progeny, which allow for retrospective inference of the decision time point. We present a computational method to infer decision time points from correlated marker signals in genealogies and apply it to differentiating hematopoietic stem cells. We find that myeloid lineage decisions happen generations before lineage marker onsets. Inferred decision time points are in agreement with data from colony assay experiments. The levels of the myeloid transcription factor PU.1 do not change during, but long after the predicted lineage decision event, indicating  that the PU.1/GATA1 toggle switch paradigm cannot explain the initiation of early myeloid lineage choice.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(25): E5688-E5695, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866839

RESUMO

In adults, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our understanding of human hematopoiesis and the associated niche biology remains limited, due to human material accessibility and limits of existing in vitro culture models. The establishment of an in vitro BM system would offer an experimentally accessible and tunable platform to study human hematopoiesis. Here, we develop a 3D engineered human BM analog by recapitulating some of the hematopoietic niche elements. This includes a bone-like scaffold, functionalized by human stromal and osteoblastic cells and by the extracellular matrix they deposited during perfusion culture in bioreactors. The resulting tissue exhibited compositional and structural features of human BM while supporting the maintenance of HSPCs. This was associated with a compartmentalization of phenotypes in the bioreactor system, where committed blood cells are released into the liquid phase and HSPCs preferentially reside within the engineered BM tissue, establishing physical interactions with the stromal compartment. Finally, we demonstrate the possibility to perturb HSPCs' behavior within our 3D niches by molecular customization or injury simulation. The developed system enables the design of advanced, tunable in vitro BM proxies for the study of human hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Biomimética/métodos , Reatores Biológicos , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198330, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879160

RESUMO

Directed migration of cells relies on their ability to sense directional guidance cues and to interact with pericellular structures in order to transduce contractile cytoskeletal- into mechanical forces. These biomechanical processes depend highly on microenvironmental factors such as exposure to 2D surfaces or 3D matrices. In vivo, the majority of cells are exposed to 3D environments. Data on 3D cell migration are mostly derived from intravital microscopy or collagen-based in vitro assays. Both approaches offer only limited controllability of experimental conditions. Here, we developed an automated microfluidic system that allows positioning of cells in 3D microenvironments containing highly controlled diffusion-based chemokine gradients. Tracking migration in such gradients was feasible in real time at the single cell level. Moreover, the setup allowed on-chip immunocytochemistry and thus linking of functional with phenotypical properties in individual cells. Spatially defined retrieval of cells from the device allows down-stream off-chip analysis. Using dendritic cells as a model, our setup specifically allowed us for the first time to quantitate key migration characteristics of cells exposed to identical gradients of the chemokine CCL19 yet placed on 2D vs in 3D environments. Migration properties between 2D and 3D migration were distinct. Morphological features of cells migrating in an in vitro 3D environment were similar to those of cells migrating in animal tissues, but different from cells migrating on a surface. Our system thus offers a highly controllable in vitro-mimic of a 3D environment that cells traffic in vivo.

17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 11(1): 58-69, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779897

RESUMO

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) display heterogeneous expression of pluripotency factors such as Nanog when cultured with serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In contrast, dual inhibition of the signaling kinases GSK3 and MEK (2i) converts ESC cultures into a state with more uniform and high Nanog expression. However, it is so far unclear whether 2i acts through an inductive or selective mechanism. Here, we use continuous time-lapse imaging to quantify the dynamics of death, proliferation, and Nanog expression in mouse ESCs after 2i addition. We show that 2i has a dual effect: it both leads to increased cell death of Nanog low ESCs (selective effect) and induces and maintains high Nanog levels (inductive effect) in single ESCs. Genetic manipulation further showed that presence of NANOG protein is important for cell viability in 2i medium. This demonstrates complex Nanog-dependent effects of 2i treatment on ESC cultures.

18.
Cell Stem Cell ; 22(3): 298-301, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499148

RESUMO

Recent advances in engineering complex organs in vitro inspire the development of human bone marrow equivalents to foster scientific discovery and innovative therapeutics. Here, we discuss challenges in generating relevant human bone marrow proxies, potential design principles, and future directions.

19.
Exp Hematol ; 61: 45-51.e5, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410245

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specialized bone marrow (BM) environment, the so-called HSC niche, that provides pivotal factors for their maintenance. Although the cellular and molecular components of the mouse BM HSC niche have been extensively studied using genetically modified animals, relatively little is known about the counterpart human BM niche components. We previously illustrated, with a developmental tissue engineering approach, that human adult BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can develop into human bone organs (so-called ossicles) through endochondral ossification in vivo and that these human ossicles are able to maintain functional mouse HSCs. We here report that human ossicles in immunodeficient mice maintain human immature and mature hematopoiesis in vivo. Moreover, a higher percentage of human stem and progenitor cells are kept in quiescence in human ossicles as compared with mouse BM. These findings indicate that the human MSC-derived ossicles function as a hematopoietic niche and may potentially serve as a re-engineerable platform to study normal and diseased human hematopoiesis in a physiologically optimized environment.

20.
Blood ; 131(13): 1425-1429, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453290

RESUMO

Keeping track of individual cell identifications is imperative to the study of dynamic single-cell behavior over time. Highly motile hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) migrate quickly and do not adhere, and thus must be imaged very frequently to keep cell identifications. Even worse, they are also flushed away during medium exchange. To overcome these limitations, we tested antibody coating for reducing HSPC motility in vitro. Anti-CD43- and anti-CD44-antibody coating reduced the cell motility of mouse and human HSPCs in a concentration-dependent manner. This enables 2-dimensional (2D) colony formation without cell mixing in liquid cultures, massively increases time-lapse imaging throughput, and also maintains cell positions during media exchange. Anti-CD43 but not anti-CD44 coating reduces mouse HSPC proliferation with increasing concentrations. No relevant effects on cell survival or myeloid and megakaryocyte differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors 1-5 were detected. Human umbilical cord hematopoietic CD34+ cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation were not affected by either coating. This approach both massively simplifies and accelerates continuous analysis of suspension cells, and enables the study of their behavior in dynamic rather than static culture conditions over time.

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