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1.
Radiol Artif Intell ; 4(3): e210115, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652116

RESUMO

Purpose: To present a method that automatically detects, subtypes, and locates acute or subacute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) on noncontrast CT (NCCT) head scans; generates detection confidence scores to identify high-confidence data subsets with higher accuracy; and improves radiology worklist prioritization. Such scores may enable clinicians to better use artificial intelligence (AI) tools. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 46 057 studies from seven "internal" centers for development (training, architecture selection, hyperparameter tuning, and operating-point calibration; n = 25 946) and evaluation (n = 2947) and three "external" centers for calibration (n = 400) and evaluation (n = 16 764). Internal centers contributed developmental data, whereas external centers did not. Deep neural networks predicted the presence of ICH and subtypes (intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subarachnoid, subdural, and/or epidural hemorrhage) and segmentations per case. Two ICH confidence scores are discussed: a calibrated classifier entropy score and a Dempster-Shafer score. Evaluation was completed by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and report turnaround time (RTAT) modeling on the evaluation set and on confidence score-defined subsets using bootstrapping. Results: The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICH were 0.97 (0.97, 0.98) and 0.95 (0.94, 0.95) on internal and external center data, respectively. On 80% of the data stratified by calibrated classifier and Dempster-Shafer scores, the system improved the Youden indexes, increasing them from 0.84 to 0.93 (calibrated classifier) and from 0.84 to 0.92 (Dempster-Shafer) for internal centers and increasing them from 0.78 to 0.88 (calibrated classifier) and from 0.78 to 0.89 (Dempster-Shafer) for external centers (P < .001). Models estimated shorter RTAT for AI-prioritized worklists with confidence measures than for AI-prioritized worklists without confidence measures, shortening RTAT by 27% (calibrated classifier) and 27% (Dempster-Shafer) for internal centers and shortening RTAT by 25% (calibrated classifier) and 27% (Dempster-Shafer) for external centers (P < .001). Conclusion: AI that provided statistical confidence measures for ICH detection on NCCT scans reliably detected and subtyped hemorrhages, identified high-confidence predictions, and improved worklist prioritization in simulation.Keywords: CT, Head/Neck, Hemorrhage, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2022.

2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(6): 997-1004, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourniquet use for extremity hemorrhage control has seen a recent increase in civilian usage. Previous retrospective studies demonstrated that tourniquets improve outcomes for major extremity trauma (MET). No prospective study has been conducted to date. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes in MET patients with prehospital tourniquet use. We hypothesized that prehospital tourniquet use in MET decreases the incidence of patients arriving to the trauma center in shock. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for adult patients with MET at 26 Level I and 3 Level II trauma centers from 2015 to 2020. Limbs with tourniquets applied in the prehospital setting were included in the tourniquet group and limbs without prehospital tourniquets were enrolled in the control group. RESULTS: A total of 1,392 injured limbs were enrolled with 1,130 tourniquets, including 962 prehospital tourniquets. The control group consisted of 262 limbs without prehospital tourniquets and 88 with tourniquets placed upon hospital arrival. Prehospital improvised tourniquets were placed in 42 patients. Tourniquets effectively controlled bleeding in 87.7% of limbs. Tourniquet and control groups were similarly matched for demographics, Injury Severity Score, and prehospital vital signs (p > 0.05). Despite higher limb injury severity, patients in the tourniquet group were less likely to arrive in shock compared with the control group (13.0% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.04). The incidence of limb complications was not significantly higher in the tourniquet group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study is the first prospective analysis of prehospital tourniquet use for civilian extremity trauma. Prehospital tourniquet application was associated with decreased incidence of arrival in shock without increasing limb complications. We found widespread tourniquet use, high effectiveness, and a low number of improvised tourniquets. This study provides further evidence that tourniquets are being widely and safely adopted to improve outcomes in civilians with MET. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Extremidades/lesões , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes , Adulto , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes/efeitos adversos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
3.
Am Surg ; 88(7): 1437-1441, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older age and anticoagulant use have been associated with worse outcomes in trauma. At the study institution, elderly and anticoagulated patients with suspected traumatic brain injury (TBI) were previously triaged as a second tier trauma team activation (TTA) with a high rate of over-triage. A novel "GAP" (Geriatric or Anticoagulated Pathway) alert was created to streamline care delivery to these patients. The purpose of the study is to assess the efficacy and outcomes of the GAP alert. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on adult patients presenting to a level-1 trauma center from 1/2018-12/2020. The GAP alert was implemented in 2/2018. The GAP alert group was compared to the second tier TTA group. RESULTS: 1743 patients were identified. 504 (29%) received a GAP alert. GAP alert patients were older (79 years vs 47 years, P < .0001), had a lower injury severity score (ISS) (8.6 vs 9.9, P = .006), and had a higher rate of pre-injury anticoagulant use (28.4% vs 2.5%, P < .0001). The in-hospital mortality was higher in the GAP group (2.4% vs .7%, P = .004). On multivariable logistic regression, GAP alert was not identified as a predictor of mortality. Age, ISS, and pre-injury anticoagulant use predicted mortality. During the study period, the number of GAP alerts increased (B = .15, P = .003) and the number of second tier TTAs decreased (B = -.33, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Implementation of the GAP alert led to a decrease in trauma resource utilization while providing timely diagnosis and treatment of geriatric patients or those on anticoagulation medication with suspected TBI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(4): 419-427, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on duration of antibiotics in patients managed with an open abdomen (OA) due to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) are scarce. We hypothesized that patients with IAI managed with OA rather than closed abdomen (CA) would have higher rates of secondary infections (SIs) independent of the duration of the antibiotic treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with IAI requiring laparotomy for source control. Demographic and antibiotic duration values were collected. Primary outcomes were SI (surgical site, bloodstream, pneumonia, urinary tract) and mortality. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, chi-square/Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-one centers contributed 752 patients. The average age was 59.6 years, 43.6% were women, and 43.9% were managed with OA. Overall mortality was 16.1%, with higher rates among OA patients (31.6% vs 4.4%, p < 0.001). OA patients had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (4.7 vs 1.8, p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (3.6 vs 2.7, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (16.1 vs 9.4, p < 0.001). The mean duration of antibiotics was 6.5 days (8.0 OA vs 5.4 CA, p < 0.001). A total of 179 (23.8%) patients developed SI (33.1% OA vs 16.8% CA, p < 0.001). Longer antibiotic duration was associated with increased rates of SI: 1 to 2 days, 15.8%; 3 to 5 days, 20.4%; 6 to 14 days, 26.6%; and more than 14 days, 46.8% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IAI managed with OA had higher rates of SI and increased mortality compared with CA. A prolonged duration of antibiotics was associated with increased rates of SI. Increased antibiotic duration is not associated with improved outcomes in patients with IAI and OA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Abdome/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/complicações , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/etiologia , Laparotomia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Am Surg ; 88(7): 1537-1540, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337211

RESUMO

Geriatric patients with complex medical comorbidities who sustain minor injuries may warrant admission to nonsurgical services. The Nelson score provides an objective scoring system that helps identify patients appropriate for nonsurgical admission (NSA). The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of the Nelson criteria in determining the most appropriate admission service. A retrospective review was performed on patients ≥65 years admitted from 12/2016 to 11/2020. 2410 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients with Nelson score ≥6 were older with more comorbidities, had a lower injury severity score (7.5 vs 12.5, p<0.0001), and a higher rate of NSA (29.2% vs 12.7%, p<0.0001) compared to patients with Nelson score <6. On the multivariable logistic regression, admission service was not identified as an independent predictor of mortality. Utilizing the Nelson criteria may provide an objective measure to stratify and identify patients who would benefit from NSA.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Ferimentos e Lesões , Idoso , Comorbidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(4): 568-575.e1, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Describe the epidemiology of a large cohort of older adults with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) and identify predictors of mortality, palliative interventions, and discharge to preinjury residence in those presenting with moderate/severe TBI. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of geriatric patients with TBI enrolled across 45 trauma centers. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria were age ≥40 years, and computed tomography (CT)-verified TBI. Exclusion criteria were any other body region abbreviated injury scale score >2 and presentation at enrolling center >24 hours after injury. METHODS: The analysis was restricted to individuals aged ≥65 and stratified into 3 age groups: young-old (65-74), middle-old (75-84), and oldest-old (≥85). Demographic, clinical, and injury data were collected. Predictors of mortality, palliative interventions, and discharge to preinjury residence in the moderate/severe TBI group were identified using Classification and Regression Tree and Generalized Linear Mixed Models. RESULTS: Of the 3081 subjects enrolled in the study, 2028 were ≥65 years old. Overall, 339 (16.7%) presented with a moderate/severe TBI and experienced a 64% mortality rate. A Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <9 was the main predictor of mortality, CT worsening (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, P < .04), cerebral edema (OR = 2.4, P < .04), GCS <9, and age ≥75 (OR = 2.1, P = .007) were predictors for palliative interventions, and an injury severity score ≤24 (OR = 0.087, P = .002) was associated with increased likelihood of discharge to preinjury residence in the moderate/severe TBI group. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: In this prospective study of a large cohort of older adults with isolated TBI, comparisons across the older age groups with moderate/severe TBI revealed that survival and favorable discharge disposition were influenced more by severity of injury rather than age itself. Indicating that chronological age alone maybe insufficient to accurately predict outcomes, and increased representation of older adults in TBI research to develop better diagnostic and prognostic tools is warranted.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 75-83, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US incarcerates more individuals than any other country. Prisoners are the only population guaranteed health care by the US constitution, but little is known about their surgical needs. This multicenter study aimed to describe the acute care surgery (ACS) needs of incarcerated individuals. METHODS: Twelve centers prospectively identified incarcerated patients evaluated in their emergency department by the ACS service. Centers collected diagnosis, treatment, and complications from chart review. Patients were classified as either emergency general surgery (EGS) patients or trauma patients and their characteristics and outcomes were investigated. Poisson regression accounting for clustering by center was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of readmission, representation within 90 days, and failure to follow-up as an outpatient within 90 days for each cohort. RESULTS: More than 12 months, ACS services evaluated 943 patients, 726 (80.3%) from jail, 156 (17.3%) from prison, and 22 (2.4%) from other facilities. Most were men (89.7%) with a median age of 35 years (interquartile range, 27-47). Trauma patients comprised 54.4% (n = 513) of the cohort. Admission rates were similar for trauma (61.5%) and EGS patients (60.2%). Head injuries and facial fractures were the most common injuries, while infections were the most common EGS diagnosis. Self-harm resulted in 102 trauma evaluations (19.9%). Self-inflicted injuries were associated with increased risk of readmission (RR, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.02-6.13) and reevaluation within 90 days (RR, 4.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.07-8.01). CONCLUSION: Incarcerated patients who present with a range of trauma and EGS conditions frequently require admission, and follow-up after hospitalization was low at the treating center. Poor follow-up coupled with high rates of assault, self-harm, mental health, and substance use disorders highlight the vulnerability of this population. Hospital and correctional facility interventions are needed to decrease self-inflicted injuries and assaults while incarcerated. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, Level III.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Cirurgia Geral , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Cuidados Críticos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 106-112, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modified Brain Injury Guidelines (mBIG) are an algorithm for treating patients with traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage by which selected patients do not require a repeat head computed tomography, a neurosurgery consult, or even an admission. The mBIG refined the original Brain Injury Guidelines (BIG) to improve safety and reproducibility. The purpose of this study is to assess safety and resource utilization with mBIG implementation. METHODS: The mBIG were implemented at three Level I trauma centers in August 2017. A multicenter retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed on adult mBIG 1 and 2 patients. The post-mBIG implementation period (August 2017 to February 2021) was compared with a previous BIG retrospective evaluation (January 2014 to December 2016). RESULTS: There were 764 patients in the two study periods. No differences were identified in demographics, Injury Severity Score, or admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. Fewer computed tomography scans (2 [1,2] vs. 2 [2,3], p < 0.0001) and neurosurgery consults (61.9% vs. 95.9%, p < 0.0001) were obtained post-mBIG implementation. Hospital (2 [1,4] vs. 2 [2,4], p = 0.013) and intensive care unit (0 [0,1] vs. 1 [1,2], p < 0.0001) length of stay were shorter after mBIG implementation. No difference was seen in the rate of clinical or radiographic progression, neurosurgery operations, or mortality between the two groups.After mBIG implementation, eight patients (1.6%) worsened clinically. Six patients that clinically progressed were discharged with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 without needing neurosurgery intervention. One patient had clinical and radiographic decompensation and required craniotomy. Another patient worsened clinically and radiographically, but due to metastatic cancer, elected to pursue comfort measures and died. CONCLUSION: This prospective validation shows the mBIG are safe, pragmatic, and can dramatically improve resource utilization when implemented. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level III.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
10.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 880-886, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military data demonstrating an improved survival rate with whole blood (WB) have led to a shift toward the use of WB in civilian trauma. The purpose of this study is to compare a low-titer group O WB (LTOWB) massive transfusion protocol (MTP) to conventional blood component therapy (BCT) MTP in civilian trauma patients. METHODS: Trauma patients 15 years or older who had MTP activations from February 2019 to December 2020 were included. Patients with a LTOWB MTP activation were compared to BCT MTP patients from a historic cohort. RESULTS: 299 patients were identified, 169 received LTOWB and 130 received BCT. There were no differences in age, gender, or injury type. The Injury Severity Score was higher in the BCT group (27 vs 25, P = .006). The LTOWB group had a longer transport time (33 min vs 26 min, P < .001) and a lower arrival temperature (35.8 vs 36.1, P < .001). Other hemodynamic parameters were similar between the groups. The LTOWB group had a lower in-hospital mortality rate compared to the BCT group (19.5% vs 30.0%, P = .035). There were no differences in total transfusion volumes at 4 hours and 24 hours. No differences were seen in transfusion reactions or hospital complications. Multivariable logistic regression identified ISS, age, and 24-hour transfusion volume as predictors of mortality. DISCUSSION: Resuscitating severely injured trauma patient with LTOWB is safe and may be associated with an improved survival.


Assuntos
Reação Transfusional , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ressuscitação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação Transfusional/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 455-462, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Opportunity for chemical VTE prophylaxis improvement was identified and practice was altered to start chemoprophylaxis on admission in most patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if early VTE prophylaxis is safe and reduces VTE. METHODS: The trauma registry was queried over a 12-month period for patients admitted greater than 1 day for traumatic injury. The study spanned 6 months on either side of instituting aggressive chemoprophylaxis. Patients were risk adjusted on demographics, Injury Severity Score, transfusions, procedure type, length of stay, and mortality. Pre-intervention patients were then compared to patients in the aggressive cohort with the primary outcome of VTE. Secondary outcomes included transfusions, mortality, and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: 1597 patients were identified over the study period with 754 (47%) patients in the aggressive period. There were no differences in age, sex, Injury Severity Score, transfusions, procedures, or LOS between cohorts. Pre-algorithm patients were more likely to have penetrating mechanism (9.3% vs 6.6%; P = .009) and longer time to VTE prophylaxis (23.3 vs 13.9 hours; P < .001). No differences were noted in anticoagulant, VTE rate (2.0% vs 1.2%; P = .195), or mortality. Linear regression analysis identified time to chemical prophylaxis as significant predictor of VTE (ß = 43.9, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Early aggressive chemical VTE prophylaxis is safe without increasing transfusions. Venous thromboembolism rates were decreased, but did not reach statistical significance.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue , Colorado/epidemiologia , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade
12.
Injury ; 53(1): 122-128, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Bowel Injury Prediction Score (BIPS) is a tool for identifying patients at risk for blunt bowel and mesenteric injury (BBMI) requiring surgery. BIPS is calculated by assigning one point for each of the following: (1) WBC ≥ 17,000, (2) abdominal tenderness, and (3) injury grade ≥ 4 (mesenteric contusion or hematoma with bowel wall thickening or adjacent interloop fluid collection) on CT scan. A total score ≥ 2 is associated with BBMI requiring surgery. We aimed to validate the BIPS as a predictor for patients with BBMIs requiring operative intervention in a multi-center prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were prospectively enrolled at 15 U.S. trauma centers following blunt trauma with suspicion of BBMI on CT scan between July 1, 2018 and July 31, 2019. The BIPS was calculated for each patient enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Of 313 patients, 38% had BBMI requiring operative intervention. Patients were significantly more likely to require surgery in the presence of abdominal tenderness (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.0) and CT grade ≥ 4 (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 5.7-23.7). Patients with a BIPS ≥ 2 were more than ten times more likely to require laparotomy than those with a BIPS < 2 (OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 5.0-20.4). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of a BIPS ≥ 2 for BBMI requiring surgery was 72% (CI 0.6-0.8), 78% (CI 0.7-0.8), 67% (CI 0.6-0.8), and 82% (CI 0.8-0.9), respectively. The AUROC curve for BIPS ≥ 2 was 0.75. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of a BIPS ≥ 2 for BBMI requiring surgery in patients with severe alteration in mental status (GCS 3-8) was 70% (CI 0.5-0.9), 92% (CI 0.8-1.0), 82% (CI 0.6-1.0), and 86% (CI 0.7-1.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: This prospective multi-center trial validates BIPS as a predictor of BBMI requiring surgery. Calculation of BIPS during the initial evaluation of trauma patients is a useful adjunct to help general surgeons taking trauma call determine operative versus non-operative management of patients with BBMI including those with severe alteration in mental status.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Humanos , Mesentério/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesentério/lesões , Mesentério/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 117-125, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current national burden of emergency general surgery (EGS) illnesses and the extent of surgeon involvement in the care of these patients remain largely unknown. To inform needs assessments, research, and education, we sought to: (1) translate previously developed International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes representing EGS conditions to ICD 10th Revision, CM (ICD-10-CM) codes and (2) determine the national burden of and assess surgeon involvement across EGS conditions. METHODS: We converted ICD-9-CM codes to candidate ICD-10-CM codes using General Equivalence Mappings then iteratively refined the code list. We used National Inpatient Sample 2016 to 2017 data to develop a national estimate of the burden of EGS disease. To evaluate surgeon involvement, using Wisconsin Hospital Association discharge data (January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018), we selected adult urgent/emergent encounters with an EGS condition as the principal diagnosis. Surgeon involvement was defined as a surgeon being either the attending provider or procedural physician. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-five ICD-9-CM codes mapped to 1,696 ICD-10-CM codes. The final list contained 985 ICD-10-CM codes. Nationally, there were 2,977,843 adult patient encounters with an ICD-10-CM EGS diagnosis. Of 94,903 EGS patients in the Wisconsin Hospital Association data set, most encounters were inpatient as compared with observation (75,878 [80.0%] vs. 19,025 [20.0%]). There were 57,780 patients (60.9%) that underwent any procedure. Among all Wisconsin EGS patients, most had no surgeon involvement (64.9% [n = 61,616]). Of the seven most common EGS diagnoses, surgeon involvement was highest for appendicitis (96.0%) and biliary tract disease (77.1%). For the other five most common conditions (skin/soft tissue infections, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction/ileus, pancreatitis, diverticular disease), surgeons were involved in roughly 20% of patient care episodes. CONCLUSION: Surgeon involvement for EGS conditions ranges from highly likely (appendicitis) to relatively unlikely (skin/soft tissue infections). The wide range in surgeon involvement underscores the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in the care of EGS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiological, Level III.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Emergências/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Papel do Médico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Ferimentos e Lesões , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgiões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 339-346, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatric trauma rates are increasing, yet trauma centers often struggle to provide autonomy regarding decision making to these patients. Advance care planning can assist with this process. Currently, there are limited data on the impact of advance directives (ADs) in elderly trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of preinjury AD in geriatric trauma patients and its impact on outcomes, with the hypothesis that ADs would not be associated with an increase in mortality. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was conducted on patients older than 65 years with traumatic injury between 2017 and 2019. Three Level I trauma centers and one Level II trauma center were included. Exclusion criteria were readmission, burn injury, transfer to another facility, discharge from emergency department, and mortality prior to being admitted. RESULTS: There were 6,135 patients identified; 751 (12.2%) had a preinjury AD. Patients in the AD+ group were older (86 vs. 77 years, p < 0.0001), more likely to be women (67.0% vs. 54.8%, p < 0.0001), and had more comorbidities. Hospital length of stay and ventilator days were similar. In-hospital mortality occurred in 236 patients, and 75.4% of them underwent withdrawal of care (WOC). The mortality rate was higher in AD+ group (10.5% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.0001). No difference was seen in the rate of AD between the WOC+ and WOC- group (31.5% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.251). A preinjury AD was identified as an independent predictor of mortality, but not a predictor of WOC. CONCLUSION: Despite a high WOC rate in patients older than 65 years, most patients did not have an AD prior to injury. As the elderly trauma population grows, advance care planning should be better integrated into geriatric care to encourage a patient-centered approach to end-of-life care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level IV.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Terminal , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
15.
Am Surg ; 88(4): 674-679, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rib fractures are the most common injuries diagnosed after blunt thoracic trauma and are a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Early identification of at-risk patients and initiation of effective analgesia are keys to mitigating complications from these injuries. Multiple tools exist to predict pulmonary decompensation after rib fractures; however, none has found a widespread acceptance. A clinical practice guideline (CPG) utilizing Forced vital capacity (FVC) has been in place at a single institution. The goal of this study is to update the CPG to use percentage of predicted FVC (FVC%) instead of FVC to triage patients with rib fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 266 patients with rib fractures was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on FVC of <1000 mL, 1001-1500 mL, or >1500 mL for analysis. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, and Youden's J Index was used to identify inflection points. RESULTS: Patients in the high-risk category were more likely to be women, older than 65 years, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), transferred to the ICU, require intubation, and have overall longer hospital and ICU stays. The updated CPG triage cutoffs for admission to ICU, stepdown, and floor were redefined as FVC% values of <25%, 25-45%, and >45%, respectively. DISCUSSION: The updated CPG using FVC% may more accurately identify patients with compromised physiology and be a better tool to help predict patients who are at risk for decompensation following rib fractures. A validation study for the updated CPG is in progress.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 88-92, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma teams are often faced with patients on antithrombotic (AT) drugs, which is challenging when bleeding occurs. We sought to compare the effects of different AT medications on head injury severity and hypothesized that AT reversal would not improve mortality in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective, multicentered, observational study of 15 trauma centers was performed. Patient demographics, injury burden, comorbidities, AT agents, and reversal attempts were collected. Outcomes of interest were head injury severity and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 2,793 patients. The majority of patients were on aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], 46.1%). Patients on a platelet chemoreceptor blocker (P2Y12) had the highest mean Injury Severity Score (9.1 ± 8.1). Patients taking P2Y12 inhibitors ± ASA, and ASA-warfarin had the highest head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) mean (1.2 ± 1.6). On risk-adjusted analysis, warfarin-ASA was associated with a higher head AIS (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.42) after controlling for Injury Severity Score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and initial systolic blood pressure. Among patients with severe TBI (head AIS score, ≥3) on antiplatelet therapy, reversal with desmopressin (DDAVP) and/or platelet transfusion did not improve survival (82.9% reversal vs. 90.4% none, p = 0.30). In severe TBI patients taking Xa inhibitors who received prothrombin complex concentrate, survival was not improved (84.6% reversal vs. 84.6% none, p = 0.68). With risk adjustment as described previously, mortality was not improved with reversal attempts (antiplatelet agents: OR 0.83; 85% CI, 0.12-5.9 [p = 0.85]; Xa inhibitors: OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.12-4.64; p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: Reversal attempts appear to confer no mortality benefit in severe TBI patients on antiplatelet agents or Xa inhibitors. Combination therapy was associated with severity of head injury among patients taking preinjury AT therapy, with ASA-warfarin possessing the greatest risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level II.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/classificação , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(4): 664-674, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grading systems for acute cholecystitis are essential to compare outcomes, improve quality, and advance research. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system for acute cholecystitis was only moderately discriminant when predicting multiple outcomes and underperformed the Tokyo guidelines and Parkland grade. We hypothesized that through additional expert consensus, the predictive capacity of the AAST anatomic grading system could be improved. METHODS: A modified Delphi approach was used to revise the AAST grading system. Changes were made to improve distribution of patients across grades, and additional key clinical variables were introduced. The revised version was assessed using prospectively collected data from an AAST multicenter study. Patient distribution across grades was assessed, and the revised grading system was evaluated based on predictive capacity using area under receiver operating characteristic curves for conversion from laparoscopic to an open procedure, use of a surgical "bail-out" procedure, bile leak, major complications, and discharge home. A preoperative AAST grade was defined based on preoperative, clinical, and radiologic data, and the Parkland grade was also substituted for the operative component of the AAST grade. RESULTS: Using prospectively collected data on 861 patients with acute cholecystitis the revised version of the AAST grade has an improved distribution across all grades, both the overall grade and across each subscale. A higher AAST grade predicted each of the outcomes assessed (all p ≤ 0.01). The revised AAST grade outperformed the original AAST grade for predicting operative outcomes and discharge disposition. Despite this improvement, the AAST grade did not outperform the Parkland grade or the Emergency Surgery Score. CONCLUSION: The revised AAST grade and the preoperative AAST grade demonstrated improved discrimination; however, a purely anatomic grade based on chart review is unlikely to predict outcomes without addition of physiologic variables. Follow-up validation will be necessary. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Test or Criteria, Level IV.


Assuntos
Colecistite Aguda , Laparoscopia , Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
19.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) include intracranial pressure monitoring (ICPM), yet very little is known about ICPM in older adults. Our objectives were to characterize the utilization of ICPM in older adults and identify factors associated with ICPM in those who met the BTF guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Geriatric TBI Study, a registry study conducted among individuals with isolated, CT-confirmed TBI across 45 trauma centers. The analysis was restricted to those aged ≥60. Independent factors associated with ICPM for those who did and did not meet the BTF guidelines were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: Our sample was composed of 2303 patients, of whom 66 (2.9%) underwent ICPM. Relative to Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 to 15, GCS score of 9 to 12 (OR 10.2; 95% CI 4.3 to 24.4) and GCS score of <9 (OR 15.0; 95% CI 7.2 to 31.1), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 4.83), skull fractures (OR 3.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 6.6), CT worsening (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.8 to 5.9), and neurosurgical interventions (OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.1 to 7.0) were significantly associated with ICPM. Restricting to those who met the BTF guidelines, only 43 of 240 (18%) underwent ICPM. Factors independently associated with ICPM included intraparenchymal hemorrhage (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7), skull fractures (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.9 to 8.2), and neurosurgical interventions (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.7 to 7.2). DISCUSSION: Worsening GCS, intraparenchymal/intraventricular hemorrhage, and skull fractures were associated with ICPM among older adults with TBI, yet utilization of ICPM remains low, especially among those meeting the BTF guidelines, and potential benefits remain unclear. This study highlights the need for better understanding of factors that influence compliance with BTF guidelines and the risks versus benefits of ICPM in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.

20.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infection control in patients with perforated peptic ulcers (PPU) commonly includes empiric antifungals (AF). We investigated the variation in the use of empiric AF and explored the association between their use and the subsequent development of organ space infection (OSI). METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter, case-control study of patients treated for PPU at nine institutions between 2011 and 2018. Microbiology and utilization of empiric AF, defined as AF administered within 24 hours from the index surgery, were recorded. Patients who received empiric AF were compared with those who did not. The primary outcome was OSI and secondary outcome was OSI with growth of Candida spp. A logistic regression was used to adjust for differences between the two cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 554 patients underwent a surgical procedure for PPU and had available timing of AF administration. The median age was 57 years and 61% were male. Laparoscopy was used in 24% and omental patch was the most common procedure performed (78%). Overall, 239 (43%) received empiric AF. There was a large variation in the use of empiric AF among participating centers, ranging from 25% to 68%. The overall incidence of OSI was 14% (77/554) and was similar for patients who did or did not receive empiric AF. The adjusted OR for development of OSI for patients who received empiric AF was 1.04 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.70), adjusted p=0.86. The overall incidence of OSI with growth of Candida spp was 5% and was similar for both groups (adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.84, adjusted p=0.53). CONCLUSION: For patients undergoing surgery for PPU, the use of empiric AF did not yield any significant clinical advantage in preventing OSI, even those due to Candida spp. Use of empiric AF in this setting is unnecessary. STUDY TYPE: Original article, case series. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

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