Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 117
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Oncogene ; 39(4): 877-890, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570787

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with reflux and is implicated the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Apoptosis induces cell death through mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is considered an irreversible step in apoptosis. Activation of MOMP to levels that fail to reach the apoptotic threshold may paradoxically promote cancer-a phenomenon called "Minority MOMP." We asked whether reflux-induced esophageal carcinogenesis occurred via minority MOMP and whether compensatory resistance mechanisms prevented cell death during this process. We exposed preneoplastic, hTERT-immortalized Barrett's cell, CP-C and CP-A, to the oncogenic bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), for 1 year. Induction of minority MOMP was tested via comet assay, CyQuant, annexin V, JC-1, cytochrome C subcellular localization, caspase 3 activation, and immunoblots. We used bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) profiling to test the mitochondrial apoptotic threshold. One-year exposure of Barrett's cells to DCA induced a malignant phenotype noted by clone and tumor formation. DCA promoted minority MOMP noted by minimal release of cytochrome C and limited caspase 3 activation, which resulted in DNA damage without apoptosis. Upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, ROS generation, and NF-κB activation occurred in conjunction with minority MOMP. Inhibition of ROS blocked minority MOMP and Mcl-1 upregulation. Knockdown of Mcl-1 shifted minority MOMP to complete MOMP as noted by dynamic BH3 profiling and increased apoptosis. Minority MOMP contributes to DCA induced carcinogenesis in preneoplastic BE. Mcl-1 provided a balance within the mitochondria that induced resistance complete MOMP and cell death. Targeting Mcl-1 may be a therapeutic strategy in EAC.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(3): 457-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children and young adults diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma may have unique genetic characteristics. In this study, we evaluated for the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations in these patients. METHODS: In a prospective study of mesothelioma natural history (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01950572), we assessed for the presence of the ALK translocation in patients younger than 40 years, irrespective of the site of disease. The presence of this translocation was assessed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). If the patients tested positive for the ALK translocation, both immunohistochemistry and RNA sequencing were performed on the tumor specimen. RESULTS: Between September 2013 and December 2018, 373 patients were enrolled in the mesothelioma natural history study, of which 32 patients were 40 years old or younger at the time of their mesothelioma diagnosis. There were 25 patients with peritoneal mesothelioma, five with pleural mesothelioma, one with pericardial mesothelioma, and one with bicompartmental mesothelioma. Presence of an ALK translocation by FISH was seen in two of the 32 patients (6%) with mesothelioma. Both patients, a 14-year-old female and a 27-year-old male, had peritoneal mesothelioma and had no history of asbestos exposure, prior radiation therapy, or predisposing germline mutations. Neither had detectable ALK expression by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing revealed the presence of an STRN fusion partner in the female patient but failed to identify any fusion protein in the male patient. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with peritoneal mesothelioma should be evaluated for the presence of ALK translocations. Presence of this translocation should be assessed by FISH and these patients could potentially benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting ALK.

3.
J Pathol ; 250(2): 205-216, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639216

RESUMO

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumour that typically is associated with short survival. CD70 and CD27 belong to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily, respectively. Under physiological conditions, the tightly regulated interaction between CD70 and CD27 plays a co-stimulatory role in promoting T-cell expansion and differentiation through the NFκB pathway. Aberrantly high CD70 expression has been documented in haematological and solid malignancies in association with immune evasion in malignant cells. In this study, 172 well-characterised primary diffuse MPM tumours including epithelioid (n = 145), biphasic (n = 15), and sarcomatoid (n = 12) histotypes were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD70, CD27, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, PDCD1 (PD-1), and FOXP3 expression. Twenty per cent (34/172) of the mesothelioma cells expressed CD70 on the cell membrane. Overall survival was significantly decreased in the cohort of patients with CD70-expressing tumour cells (p < 0.01). Patients with MPM containing a higher number of CD3+ (p < 0.01), CD4+ (p < 0.01), CD8+ (p < 0.01), or FOXP3+ (p < 0.01) tumour-infiltrating lymphoid cells (TILs) showed significantly worse clinical outcomes. As potential independent risk factors for MPM patients, multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed CD70 expression on mesothelioma cells [hazard ratio (HR) 2.25; p = 0.010], higher FOXP3+ TILs (HR 2.81; p = 0.004), and higher CD3+ TIL accumulation (HR 6.12; p < 0.001). In contrast, as a potential independent favourable factor, higher CD27+ TIL accumulation (HR 0.48; p = 0.037) was identified. In vitro experiments and an immunodeficient mouse model revealed that CD70 enhances the invasiveness of MPM cells through MET-ERK axis activation. Further analyses in syngeneic mouse models demonstrated possible roles for CD70 in immune evasion. Collectively, these findings suggest that the CD70-CD27 pathway enhances the malignant phenotypes of MPM and diminishes anti-tumor immune response in patients with these neoplasms. These markers might be useful in MPM for prognostic evaluations as well as targeted therapeutics. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4.
Mol Ther ; 27(9): 1665-1680, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227395

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an incurable, aggressive neoplasm with distinctive features, including preservation of wild-type p53, irrespective of histologic subtype. We posited that this consistent molecular characteristic represents an underexploited therapeutic target that can be approached by leveraging biologic effects of microRNA (miRNA). The Cancer Genome Atlas was surveyed to identify p53-responsive prognostic miRNA(s) in MPM. Using patient samples, in vitro MPM cell lines, and murine tumor xenograft models, we verified specific gene pathways targeted by these miRNAs, and we examined their therapeutic effects. miR-215-5p is a poor prognosis miRNA downregulated in MPM tissues, which has not been recognized previously. When miR-215-5p was ectopically re-expressed in MPM cells and delivered in vivo to tumor xenografts, it exerted significant cell killing by activating p53 function and inducing apoptosis. The mechanistic basis for this effect is due to combinatorial effects of a positive feedback loop of miR-215-MDM2-p53 signaling, additional mouse double minute 2 (MDM2)-p53 positive feedback loop(s) with other miRNAs such as miR-145-5p, and suppression of diverse gene targets associated with cell cycle dynamics not previously drug treatable in MPM clinical studies. Our results suggest a potential pathophysiologic role for and therapeutic significance of miR-215-5p in MPM.

5.
Mol Pharmacol ; 96(2): 158-167, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175181

RESUMO

Mithramycin demonstrates preclinical anticancer activity, but its therapeutic dose is limited by the development of hepatotoxicity that remains poorly characterized. A pharmacogenomics characterization of mithramycin-induced transaminitis revealed that hepatotoxicity is associated with germline variants in genes involved in bile disposition: ABCB4 (multidrug resistance 3) rs2302387 and ABCB11 [bile salt export pump (BSEP)] rs4668115 reduce transporter expression (P < 0.05) and were associated with ≥grade 3 transaminitis developing 24 hours after the third infusion of mithramycin (25 mcg/kg, 6 hours/infusion, every day ×7, every 28 days; P < 0.0040). A similar relationship was observed in a pediatric cohort. We therefore undertook to characterize the mechanism of mithramycin-induced acute transaminitis. As mithramycin affects cellular response to bile acid treatment by altering the expression of multiple bile transporters (e.g., ABCB4, ABCB11, sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, organic solute transporter α/ß) in several cell lines [Huh7, HepaRG, HepaRG BSEP (-/-)] and primary human hepatocytes, we hypothesized that mithramycin inhibited bile-mediated activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). FXR was downregulated in all hepatocyte cell lines and primary human hepatocytes (P < 0.0001), and mithramycin inhibited chenodeoxycholic acid- and GW4046-induced FXR-galactose-induced gene 4 luciferase reporter activity (P < 0.001). Mithramycin promoted glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cytotoxicity in ABCB11 (-/-) cells and increased the overall intracellular concentration of bile acids in primary human hepatocytes grown in sandwich culture (P < 0.01). Mithramycin is a FXR expression and FXR transactivation inhibitor that inhibits bile flow and potentiates bile-induced cellular toxicity, particularly in cells with low ABCB11 function. These results suggest that mithramycin causes hepatotoxicity through derangement of bile acid disposition; results also suggest that pharmacogenomic markers may be useful to identify patients who may tolerate higher mithramycin doses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The present study characterizes a novel mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in which mithramycin not only alters farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner gene expression but also inhibits bile acid binding to FXR, resulting in deregulation of cellular bile homeostasis. Two novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in bile flow transporters are associated with mithramycin-induced liver function test elevations, and the present results are the rationale for a genotype-directed clinical trial using mithramycin in patients with thoracic malignancies.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Plicamicina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Torácicas/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Torácicas/genética , Neoplasias Torácicas/metabolismo
6.
Transl Oncol ; 12(6): 859-870, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054476

RESUMO

Therapies against malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have yielded disappointing results, in part, because pathologic mechanisms remain obscure. In searching for rational molecular targets, we identified metadherin (MTDH), a multifunctional gene associated with several tumor types but previously unrecognized in MPM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis delineated associations between higher MTDH expression and lower patient survival from three independent MPM cohorts (n = 349 patients). Through in vitro assays with overexpression and downregulation constructs in MPM cells, we characterized the role of MTDH. We confirmed in vivo the phenotype of altered MTDH expression in a murine xenograft model. Transcriptional regulators of MTDH were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of both MTDH mRNA (12-fold increased) and protein levels was observed in tumor tissues. MTDH stable overexpression significantly augmented proliferation, invasiveness, colony formation, chemoresistance, and an antiapoptosis phenotype, while its suppression showed opposite effects in MPM cells. Interestingly, NF-κB and c-Myc (in a feed-forward loop motif) contributed to modulating MTDH expression. Knockdown of MTDH expression profoundly retarded xenograft tumor growth. Thus, our findings support the notion that MTDH integrates upstream signals from certain transcription factors and mediates pathogenic interactions contributing to MPM traits. MTDH represents a new MPM-associated gene that can contribute to insights of MPM biology and, as such, suggest other treatment strategies.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(18): 9008-9013, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975761

RESUMO

Survival from malignant mesothelioma, particularly pleural mesothelioma, is very poor. For patients with breast, ovarian, or prostate cancers, overall survival is associated with increased sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy due to loss-of-function mutations in DNA repair genes. The goal of this project was to evaluate, in patients with malignant mesothelioma, the relationship between inherited loss-of-function mutations in DNA repair and other tumor suppressor genes and overall survival following platinum chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma were evaluated for inherited mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Survival was evaluated with respect to genotype and site of mesothelioma. Among 385 patients treated with platinum chemotherapy, median overall survival was significantly longer for patients with loss-of-function mutations in any of the targeted genes compared with patients with no such mutation (P = 0.0006). The effect of genotype was highly significant for patients with pleural mesothelioma (median survival 7.9 y versus 2.4 y, P = 0.0012), but not for patients with peritoneal mesothelioma (median survival 8.2 y versus 5.4 y, P = 0.47). Effect of patient genotype on overall survival, measured at 3 y, remained independently significant after adjusting for gender and age at diagnosis, two other known prognostic factors. Patients with pleural mesothelioma with inherited mutations in DNA repair and other tumor suppressor genes appear to particularly benefit from platinum chemotherapy compared with patients without inherited mutations. These patients may also benefit from other DNA repair targeted therapies such as poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.

8.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(4): 534-543, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709841

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with T cells targeting neoantigens can mediate durable responses in patients with metastatic cancer. Cell therapies targeting common shared antigens for epithelial cancers are not yet broadly available. Here, we report the identification and characterization in one patient of T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognizing mutated p53 p.R175H, which is shared among a subset of patients with cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were screened for recognition of mutated neoantigens in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer. HLA-A*0201-restricted recognition of mutated p53 p.R175H was identified, and the minimal peptide epitope was HMTEVVRHC. Reactive T cells were isolated by tetramer sorting, and three TCRs were identified. These TCRs mediated recognition of commercially available ovarian cancer, uterine carcinoma, and myeloma cell lines, as well as an NIH patient-derived esophageal adenocarcinoma line that endogenously expressed p53 p.R175H and HLA-A*0201. They also mediated recognition of p53 p.R175H+ colon, breast, and leukemia cell lines after transduction with a retrovirus encoding HLA-A*0201. This work demonstrates that common shared mutated epitopes such as those found in p53 can elicit immunogenic responses and that the application of ACT may be extended to patients with any cancer histology that expresses both HLA-A*0201 and the p53 p.R175H mutation.

10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 17(9): 2013-2023, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934340

RESUMO

In 2017, an estimated 17,000 individuals were diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and less than 20% will survive 5 years. Positron emission tomography avidity is indicative of high glucose utilization and is nearly universal in EAC. TXNIP blocks glucose uptake and exhibits proapoptotic functions. Higher expression in EAC has been associated with improved disease-specific survival, lack of lymph node involvement, reduced perineural invasion, and increased tumor differentiation. We hypothesized that TXNIP may act as a tumor suppressor that sensitizes EAC cells to standard chemotherapeutics. EAC cell lines and a Barrett epithelial cell line were used. qRT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence techniques evaluated gene expression. TXNIP was stably overexpressed or knocked down using lentiviral RNA transduction techniques. Murine xenograft methods examined growth following overexpression of TXNIP. Apoptosis and DNA damage were measured by annexin V and γH2AX assays. Activation of the intrinsic apoptosis was quantitated with green fluorescence protein-caspase 3 reporter assay. In cultured cells and an esophageal tissue array, TXNIP expression was higher in Barrett epithelia and normal tissue compared with EAC. Constitutive overexpression of TXNIP decreased proliferation, clonogenicity, and tumor xenograft growth. TXNIP overexpression increased, whereas knockdown abrogated, DNA damage and apoptosis following cisplatin treatment. An HDAC inhibitor, entinostat (currently in clinical trials), upregulated TXNIP and synergistically increased cisplatin-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. TXNIP is a tumor suppressor that is downregulated in EACC. Its reexpression dramatically sensitizes these cells to cisplatin. Our findings support phase I/II evaluation of "priming" strategies to enhance the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics in EAC. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(9); 2013-23. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Dano ao DNA , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 18(1): 94, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancers accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths in 2016. The number of patients with esophageal cancers increases every year. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) prior to esophagectomy is a standard treatment for esophageal cancers. The patients who have no residual tumor (pathological complete response (pCR)) at surgery are the most likely to experience long term survival. Accurately determining which patients will have a pCR will improve prognostic information for patients and families, confirm lack of response to nCRT, or avoid surgery if no residual tumor is present. Imaging, endoscopy, and liquid biomarkers have all failed to detect pCR without performing an esophagectomy. METHODS: In this study, we are enrolling patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Patients will undergo standard evaluation including CT scans, laboratory tests, endoscopy with biopsies, and evaluation by a thoracic surgeon. Tissue biopsy is required for enrollment that will be sent for BH3 profiling and metabolomics. Patients will be treated with standard nCRT followed by surgery. Patients with metastatic disease are not eligible. Surgery at the National Cancer Institute will be minimally-invasive robotic surgery. Patients will remain on study indefinitely with regular clinic visits and imaging tests. DISCUSSION: The mitochondria are critically involved in the intrinsic pathway apoptosis. Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) profiling is a technique to measure a cell's susceptibility to apoptosis. BH3 profiling measures the relative interactions of proteins that induce or block apoptosis. The collective balance of these proteins determines whether a cell is near the threshold to undergo apoptosis. If the cell is near this threshold, then the tumor may be more likely to die when treated with nCRT. The mitochondria secrete metabolites that may be detectable as biomarkers. Metabolomics is a global assessment of all metabolite changes that has been performed for detection, monitoring, prognosis, and treatment response in cancers. Stratification of patients based on whether pCR occurs or not may elucidate metabolomic signatures that may be associated with response. We are asking whether BH3 profiling or a metabolomic signature will correlate with tumor death after nCRT for esophageal cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03223662 ; Clinicaltrials.gov. July 21, 2017.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Genes bcl-2 , Metabolômica , Medicina de Precisão , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Apoptose , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Genes p53 , Humanos , Mutação , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(4): E812-E821, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311298

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are two distinct and predominant types of human lung cancer. IκB kinase α (IKKα) has been shown to suppress lung SCC development, but its role in ADC is unknown. We found inactivating mutations and homologous or hemizygous deletions in the CHUK locus, which encodes IKKα, in human lung ADCs. The CHUK deletions significantly reduced the survival time of patients with lung ADCs harboring KRAS mutations. In mice, lung-specific Ikkα ablation (IkkαΔLu ) induces spontaneous ADCs and promotes KrasG12D-initiated ADC development, accompanied by increased cell proliferation, decreased cell senescence, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. IKKα deletion up-regulates NOX2 and down-regulates NRF2, leading to ROS accumulation and blockade of cell senescence induction, which together accelerate ADC development. Pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase or ROS impairs KrasG12D-mediated ADC development in IkkαΔLu mice. Therefore, IKKα modulates lung ADC development by controlling redox regulatory pathways. This study demonstrates that IKKα functions as a suppressor of lung ADC in human and mice through a unique mechanism that regulates tumor cell-associated ROS metabolism.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Acetofenonas , Acetilcisteína , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
14.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(2): 242-251, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228209

RESUMO

The ectodomain of the plasma membrane ectoenzyme CD38 functions as both an NAD glycohydrolase and an ADP-ribosyl cyclase by catalyzing, respectively, the conversion of NAD to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose. CD38 is attracting particular attention in cancer therapy. An anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) was approved for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. However, the role of CD38 in non-hematological malignancies has not been explored. Previously, we reported that ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolase (ARH)-1 deficiency in mice was associated with tumor development. In the present study, we found that in wild-type and ARH1-deficient mice deletion of the CD38 gene reduced tumor formation. Significant reductions in tumor number were observed in lymphomas, adenocarcinomas and hemangio/histolytic sarcomas. Consistent with a role for CD38 in tumorigenesis, CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout of CD38 in A549 human adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent cell growth, cell invasion and xenograft growth in nude mice. CD38 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated in human lung cancer cell lines and in human lung cancer specimens. CD38 overexpression in tumor cells was identified in 11 of 27 patient samples. In addition, some human lung cancer cell lines had dramatically higher CD38 mRNA and protein expression than normal cells. Consistent with these observations, search of the Oncomine database showed that some human lung adenocarcinomas had higher CD38 mRNA levels compared to normal lung tissues. In total, our data are consistent with the conclusion that CD38 plays a role in murine and human lung tumorigenesis and that anti-CD38 treatment may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus
15.
Hum Pathol ; 71: 1-7, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811252

RESUMO

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is a highly aggressive tumor typically associated with short survival. ALCAM (CD166), a type I transmembrane protein, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In normal cells, ALCAM regulates physiological processes such as angiogenesis and immune response. In cancer, it is associated with neoplastic progression, including invasion, migration, and metastasis. Furthermore, ALCAM is considered one of the cancer stem cell markers such as ALDH1 (ALDH1A1) and SALL4. The PD-L1 (CD274)/PD-1 (PDCD1, CD279) pathway is crucial for the modulation of immune responses in normal cells. Nevertheless, pathologic activation of the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway participates in immune evasion by tumor cells. Many PD-L1-expressing tumor cells have been identified in different types of cancer, including malignant mesothelioma. In this study, 175 well-characterized primary diffuse pleural mesotheliomas, including the epithelioid (n = 148), biphasic (n = 15), and sarcomatoid (n = 12) histotypes, were evaluated immunohistochemically for cancer stem cell markers (ALCAM, ALDH1, and SALL4) and PD-L1 expression. Twenty-five percent of the mesotheliomas (43/175) expressed ALCAM, whereas ALDH1 and SALL4 positivity was seen in 1% to 2% of cases. Thirty-three percent of the analyzed tumors (57/175) contained PD-L1-positive cells. Overall survival was significantly decreased in the cohort of patients with ALCAM- or PD-L1-positive tumors (both P < .01). Furthermore, the multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis identified ALCAM and PD-L1 (both P < 0.01) as potential independent risk factors. Thus, a combination of these 2 markers might be useful for prognostication and planning the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/biossíntese , Proteínas Fetais/biossíntese , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
Oncotarget ; 8(60): 101057-101071, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254145

RESUMO

Limited information is available regarding mechanisms that link the known carcinogenic risk factors of gastro-esophageal reflux and cigarette smoking to metabolic alterations in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In the present study, we utilized a novel in-vitro model to examine whether bile acid and cigarette smoke increase the aggressiveness of EAC and whether these changes are associated with metabolic changes. EAC cells (EACC) were exposed to 10 µg/ml cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and/or 100 µM of the oncogenic bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), for 5 days. These exposure conditions were chosen given their lack of effect on proliferation or viability. DCA and CSC increased invasion, migration, and clonogenicity in EAC cells. These changes were associated with concomitant increases in ATP, ROS, and lactate production indicative of increased mitochondrial respiration as well as glycolytic activity. DCA and CSC exposure significantly decreased expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein implicated in regulation of the proton gradient. Knockdown of UCP2 in EACC phenocopied DCA and CSC exposure as evidenced by increased cell migration, invasion, and clonogenicity, whereas over-expression of UCP2 had an inverse effect. Furthermore, over-expression of UCP2 abrogated DCA and CSC-mediated increases in lactate and ATP production in EACC. DCA and CSC promote the aggressive phenotype of EACC with concomitant metabolic changes occurring via downregulation of UCP2. These results indicate that UCP2 is integral to the aggressive phenotype of EACC. This mechanism suggests that targeting alterations in cellular energetics may be a novel strategy for EAC therapy.

17.
Oncotarget ; 8(43): 73387-73406, 2017 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088715

RESUMO

Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by many cancers correlates with aggressive clinical behavior. As part of the initial studies in a project whose goal was to quantify CXCR4 expression on cancers non-invasively, we examined CXCR4 expression in cancer samples by immunohistochemistry using a validated anti-CXCR4 antibody. Among solid tumors, we found expression of CXCR4 on significant percentages of major types of kidney, lung, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and, notably, on metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. We found particularly high expression of CXCR4 on adrenocortical cancer (ACC) metastases. Microarrays of ACC metastases revealed correlations between expression of CXCR4 and other chemokine system genes, particularly CXCR7/ACKR3, which encodes an atypical chemokine receptor that shares a ligand, CXCL12, with CXCR4. A first-in-human study using 64Cu-plerixafor for PET in an ACC patient prior to resection of metastases showed heterogeneity among metastatic nodules and good correlations among PET SUVs, CXCR4 staining, and CXCR4 mRNA. Additionally, we were able to show that CXCR4 expression correlated with the rates of growth of the pulmonary lesions in this patient. Further studies are needed to understand better the role of CXCR4 in ACC and whether targeting it may be beneficial. In this regard, non-invasive methods for assessing CXCR4 expression, such as PET using 64Cu-plerixafor, should be important investigative tools.

18.
Cancer Res ; 77(22): 6267-6281, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935813

RESUMO

In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from normal human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to investigate epigenetic mechanisms of stemness and pluripotency in lung cancers. We documented key hallmarks of reprogramming in lung iPSCs (Lu-iPSC) that coincided with modulation of more than 15,000 genes relative to parental SAECs. Of particular novelty, we identified the PRC2-associated protein, ASXL3, which was markedly upregulated in Lu-iPSCs and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines and clinical specimens. ASXL3 overexpression correlated with increased genomic copy number in SCLC lines. ASXL3 silencing inhibited proliferation, clonogenicity, and teratoma formation by Lu-iPSCs, and diminished clonogenicity and malignant growth of SCLC cells in vivo Collectively, our studies validate the utility of the Lu-iPSC model for elucidating epigenetic mechanisms contributing to pulmonary carcinogenesis and highlight ASXL3 as a novel candidate target for SCLC therapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6267-81. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular , Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Teratoma/genética , Teratoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transplante Heterólogo
19.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 6(3): 350-365, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713680

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) are notoriously refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Recent insights regarding epigenetic alterations in MPM provide the preclinical rationale for the evaluation of novel combinatorial regimens targeting the epigenome in these neoplasms.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA