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1.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1863631, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643689

RESUMO

We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of radiation with ipilimumab in patients with melanoma with ≥2 metastatic lesions. Here, we report the final full clinical analysis. Patients received RT (6 or 8 Gy x 2 or 3 doses) to a single lesion followed by 4 cycles of ipilimumab. The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose of RT, and secondary endpoint was response at non-radiated sites. Twenty-two patients with treatment-naïve (n = 11) or treatment-refractory (n = 11) Stage IV melanoma were enrolled. There were 31 treatment-related adverse events (AEs), of which 16 were deemed immune-related. Eleven patients had grade 3 AEs (no grade 4/5). There were no dose-limiting toxicities related to the radiation/ipilimumab combination. Five of 22 patients (22.7%, 95% CI 7.8-45.4%) had partial response as best response and three (13.6%) had stable disease. Median overall survival was 10.7 months (95% CI, 4.9 months to not-estimable) and median progression-free survival 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.9 months to 7.8 months). Seven patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up (median follow-up 89.2 months), most of whom received pembrolizumab after progression. Radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab was well tolerated and yielded a response rate that compares favorably to the objective response rate with ipilimumab alone. Furthermore, 32% of patients are long-term survivors, most of whom received pembrolizumab. Based on these results, the recommended dose that was used in subsequent Phase 2 trials was 8 Gy x 3 doses. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01497808 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

2.
Cell Rep ; 33(13): 108571, 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378668

RESUMO

Here, we report that functional heterogeneity of macrophages in cancer could be determined by the nature of their precursors: monocytes (Mons) and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs). Macrophages that are differentiated from M-MDSCs, but not from Mons, are immune suppressive, with a genomic profile matching that of M-MDSCs. Immune-suppressive activity of M-MDSC-derived macrophages is dependent on the persistent expression of S100A9 protein in these cells. S100A9 also promotes M2 polarization of macrophages. Tissue-resident- and Mon-derived macrophages lack expression of this protein. S100A9-dependent immune-suppressive activity of macrophages involves transcription factor C/EBPß. The presence of S100A9-positive macrophages in tumor tissues is associated with shorter survival in patients with head and neck cancer and poor response to PD-1 antibody treatment in patients with metastatic melanoma. Thus, this study reveals the pathway of the development of immune-suppressive macrophages and suggests an approach to their selective targeting.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; : e204759, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057696

RESUMO

Importance: Serious illness conversations (SICs) are structured conversations between clinicians and patients about prognosis, treatment goals, and end-of-life preferences. Interventions that increase the rate of SICs between oncology clinicians and patients may improve goal-concordant care and patient outcomes. Objective: To determine the effect of a clinician-directed intervention integrating machine learning mortality predictions with behavioral nudges on motivating clinician-patient SICs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted across 20 weeks (from June 17 to November 1, 2019) at 9 medical oncology clinics (8 subspecialty oncology and 1 general oncology clinics) within a large academic health system in Pennsylvania. Clinicians at the 2 smallest subspecialty clinics were grouped together, resulting in 8 clinic groups randomly assigned to the 4 intervention wedge periods. Included participants in the intention-to-treat analyses were 78 oncology clinicians who received SIC training and their patients (N = 14 607) who had an outpatient oncology encounter during the study period. Interventions: (1) Weekly emails to oncology clinicians with SIC performance feedback and peer comparisons; (2) a list of up to 6 high-risk patients (≥10% predicted risk of 180-day mortality) scheduled for the next week, estimated using a validated machine learning algorithm; and (3) opt-out text message prompts to clinicians on the patient's appointment day to consider an SIC. Clinicians in the control group received usual care consisting of weekly emails with cumulative SIC performance. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percentage of patient encounters with an SIC in the intervention group vs the usual care (control) group. Results: The sample consisted of 78 clinicians and 14 607 patients. The mean (SD) age of patients was 61.9 (14.2) years, 53.7% were female, and 70.4% were White. For all encounters, SICs were conducted among 1.3% in the control group and 4.6% in the intervention group, a significant difference (adjusted difference in percentage points, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.3-4.5; P < .001). Among 4124 high-risk patient encounters, SICs were conducted among 3.6% in the control group and 15.2% in the intervention group, a significant difference (adjusted difference in percentage points, 11.6; 95% CI, 8.2-12.5; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, an intervention that delivered machine learning mortality predictions with behavioral nudges to oncology clinicians significantly increased the rate of SICs among all patients and among patients with high mortality risk who were targeted by the intervention. Behavioral nudges combined with machine learning mortality predictions can positively influence clinician behavior and may be applied more broadly to improve care near the end of life. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03984773.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970131

RESUMO

Importance: Machine learning (ML) algorithms can identify patients with cancer at risk of short-term mortality to inform treatment and advance care planning. However, no ML mortality risk prediction algorithm has been prospectively validated in oncology or compared with routinely used prognostic indices. Objective: To validate an electronic health record-embedded ML algorithm that generated real-time predictions of 180-day mortality risk in a general oncology cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study comprised a prospective cohort of patients with outpatient oncology encounters between March 1, 2019, and April 30, 2019. An ML algorithm, trained on retrospective data from a subset of practices, predicted 180-day mortality risk between 4 and 8 days before a patient's encounter. Patient encounters took place in 18 medical or gynecologic oncology practices, including 1 tertiary practice and 17 general oncology practices, within a large US academic health care system. Patients aged 18 years or older with outpatient oncology or hematology and oncology encounters were included in the analysis. Patients were excluded if their appointment was scheduled after weekly predictions were generated and if they were only evaluated in benign hematology, palliative care, or rehabilitation practices. Exposures: Gradient-boosting ML binary classifier. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the patients' 180-day mortality from the index encounter. The primary performance metric was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Among 24 582 patients, 1022 (4.2%) died within 180 days of their index encounter. Their median (interquartile range) age was 64.6 (53.6-73.2) years, 15 319 (62.3%) were women, 18 015 (76.0%) were White, and 10 658 (43.4%) were seen in the tertiary practice. The AUC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88-0.90) for the full cohort. The AUC varied across disease-specific groups within the tertiary practice (AUC ranging from 0.74 to 0.96) but was similar between the tertiary and general oncology practices. At a prespecified 40% mortality risk threshold used to differentiate high- vs low-risk patients, observed 180-day mortality was 45.2% (95% CI, 41.3%-49.1%) in the high-risk group vs 3.1% (95% CI, 2.9%-3.3%) in the low-risk group. Integrating the algorithm into the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Elixhauser comorbidity index-based classifiers resulted in favorable reclassification (net reclassification index, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.04-0.14] and 0.23 [95% CI, 0.20-0.27], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prognostic study, an ML algorithm was feasibly integrated into the electronic health record to generate real-time, accurate predictions of short-term mortality for patients with cancer and outperformed routinely used prognostic indices. This algorithm may be used to inform behavioral interventions and prompt earlier conversations about goals of care and end-of-life preferences among patients with cancer.

5.
Immunotherapy ; 12(13): 951-956, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772616

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint blockade therapies including cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors have become indispensable tools for treating melanoma and other cancers. An increasing number of diverse cutaneous adverse reactions to immunotherapy have been documented in the literature and have been reported to affect up to 40% of patients treated with targeted therapies. Method & results: Herein, we report a case of a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with checkpoint inhibitor therapy who developed vitiligo, gastritis and hepatitis, all identified as adverse immune events and attributable to his immunotherapy regimen. He subsequently developed acquired idiopathic generalized hypohidrosis with biopsy of lesional skin demonstrating a peri-eccrine lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusion: These findings suggest this acquired generalized hypohidrosis represents a lymphocyte-mediated adverse immune event related to this patient's checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

6.
Immunity ; 52(5): 825-841.e8, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396847

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a major barrier to current anti-cancer immunotherapies. Despite this, the developmental biology of exhausted CD8+ T cells (Tex) remains poorly defined, restraining improvement of strategies aimed at "re-invigorating" Tex cells. Here, we defined a four-cell-stage developmental framework for Tex cells. Two TCF1+ progenitor subsets were identified, one tissue restricted and quiescent and one more blood accessible, that gradually lost TCF1 as it divided and converted to a third intermediate Tex subset. This intermediate subset re-engaged some effector biology and increased upon PD-L1 blockade but ultimately converted into a fourth, terminally exhausted subset. By using transcriptional and epigenetic analyses, we identified the control mechanisms underlying subset transitions and defined a key interplay between TCF1, T-bet, and Tox in the process. These data reveal a four-stage developmental hierarchy for Tex cells and define the molecular, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms that could provide opportunities to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbial diversity is associated with improved response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Based on the known detrimental impact that antibiotics have on microbiome diversity, we hypothesized that antibiotic receipt prior to ICI would be associated with decreased survival. METHODS: Patients with stage III and IV melanoma treated with ICI between 2008 and 2019 were selected from an institutional database. A window of antibiotic receipt within 3 months prior to the first infusion of ICI was pre-specified. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes were melanoma-specific mortality and immune-mediated colitis requiring intravenous (IV) steroids. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: There were 568 patients in our database, of which 114 received antibiotics prior to ICI. 35.9% of patients had stage III disease. On multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis of patients with stage IV disease, the antibiotic-exposed group had statistically significantly worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.57, p<.001). The same effect was observed among antibiotic-exposed patients with stage III disease (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.31-5.87, p=.007). When limited to only patients who received adjuvant ICI (N = 89), antibiotic-exposed patients also had statistically significantly worse OS (HR 4.84, 95% CI 1.09-21.50, p=.04). The antibiotic group had a greater incidence of colitis (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02-4.52, p=.046). CONCLUSION: Patients with stage III and IV melanoma exposed to antibiotics prior to ICI had statistically significantly worse OS than unexposed patients. Antibiotic exposure was associated with greater incidence of moderate to severe immune-mediated colitis. Given the large number of antibiotics prescribed annually, physicians should be judicious with their use in cancer populations likely to receive ICI.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 90: 105951, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer often receive care that is not aligned with their personal values and goals. Serious illness conversations (SICs) between clinicians and patients can help increase a patient's understanding of their prognosis, goals and values. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this study, we describe the design of a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to evaluate the impact of an intervention that employs machine learning-based prognostic algorithms and behavioral nudges to prompt oncologists to have SICs with patients at high risk of short-term mortality. Data are collected on documented SICs, documented advance care planning discussions, and end-of-life care utilization (emergency room and inpatient admissions, chemotherapy and hospice utilization) for patients of all enrolled clinicians. CONCLUSION: This trial represents a novel application of machine-generated mortality predictions combined with behavioral nudges in the routine care of outpatients with cancer. Findings from the trial may inform strategies to encourage early serious illness conversations and the application of mortality risk predictions in clinical settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03984773.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2915-2926, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has transformed melanoma treatment, but optimal sequencing of ICB and surgery for clinically evident nodal metastasis remains undefined. We evaluated adjuvant-only (AT) and neoadjuvant/adjuvant (NAT) ICB with respect to survival outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy (1 January 2011 to 31 July 2018) and received perioperative ICB at an academic center were identified. AT was defined as postoperative ICB, and NAT was defined as one to two cycles of ICB prior to resection with continuation of therapy following surgery. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were estimated. RESULTS: Of 59 patients, 18 (31%) received AT and 41 (69%) received NAT. The AT and NAT groups did not differ in age (median 53 vs. 62 years, p = 0.16) or stage (IIIB 33% vs. 29%, IIIC 56% vs. 68%, IIID 11% vs. 2%, p = 0.34). Although 3-year DFS did not differ significantly by treatment sequencing (NAT vs. AT, hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, p = 0.17), NAT was associated with improved 3-year DDFS (HR 0.38, p = 0.028). Of 39 NAT patients with evaluable pathologic response, 23 (59%) and 5 (13%) had a pathologic partial response (pPR) and pathologic complete response (pCR), respectively. Patients with pPR/pCR experienced improved 3-year DFS (HR 0.16, p = 0.001), LRFS (HR 0.17, p = 0.003), and DDFS (HR 0.26, p = 0.029) compared with those with no response. Three-year MSS did not differ significantly by response (p = 0.062). CONCLUSION: NAT may be associated with improved 3-year DDFS compared with AT sequencing, and allows for early assessment of pathologic response. Further prospective evaluation of treatment sequencing is warranted.

11.
Mol Cell ; 77(3): 633-644.e5, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836388

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease, despite recent improvements in therapy. Eradicating all melanoma cells even in drug-sensitive tumors is unsuccessful in patients because a subset of cells can transition to a slow-cycling state, rendering them resistant to most targeted therapy. It is still unclear what pathways define these subpopulations and promote this resistant phenotype. In the current study, we show that Wnt5A, a non-canonical Wnt ligand that drives a metastatic, therapy-resistant phenotype, stabilizes the half-life of p53 and uses p53 to initiate a slow-cycling state following stress (DNA damage, targeted therapy, and aging). Inhibiting p53 blocks the slow-cycling phenotype and sensitizes melanoma cells to BRAF/MEK inhibition. In vivo, this can be accomplished with a single dose of p53 inhibitor at the commencement of BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy. These data suggest that taking the paradoxical approach of inhibiting rather than activating wild-type p53 may sensitize previously resistant metastatic melanoma cells to therapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1915997, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651973

RESUMO

Importance: Machine learning algorithms could identify patients with cancer who are at risk of short-term mortality. However, it is unclear how different machine learning algorithms compare and whether they could prompt clinicians to have timely conversations about treatment and end-of-life preferences. Objectives: To develop, validate, and compare machine learning algorithms that use structured electronic health record data before a clinic visit to predict mortality among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of 26 525 adult patients who had outpatient oncology or hematology/oncology encounters at a large academic cancer center and 10 affiliated community practices between February 1, 2016, and July 1, 2016. Patients were not required to receive cancer-directed treatment. Patients were observed for up to 500 days after the encounter. Data analysis took place between October 1, 2018, and September 1, 2019. Exposures: Logistic regression, gradient boosting, and random forest algorithms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was 180-day mortality from the index encounter; secondary outcome was 500-day mortality from the index encounter. Results: Among 26 525 patients in the analysis, 1065 (4.0%) died within 180 days of the index encounter. Among those who died, the mean age was 67.3 (95% CI, 66.5-68.0) years, and 500 (47.0%) were women. Among those who were alive at 180 days, the mean age was 61.3 (95% CI, 61.1-61.5) years, and 15 922 (62.5%) were women. The population was randomly partitioned into training (18 567 [70.0%]) and validation (7958 [30.0%]) cohorts at the patient level, and a randomly selected encounter was included in either the training or validation set. At a prespecified alert rate of 0.02, positive predictive values were higher for the random forest (51.3%) and gradient boosting (49.4%) algorithms compared with the logistic regression algorithm (44.7%). There was no significant difference in discrimination among the random forest (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.89), gradient boosting (AUC, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85-0.89), and logistic regression (AUC, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.84-0.88) models (P for comparison = .02). In the random forest model, observed 180-day mortality was 51.3% (95% CI, 43.6%-58.8%) in the high-risk group vs 3.4% (95% CI, 3.0%-3.8%) in the low-risk group; at 500 days, observed mortality was 64.4% (95% CI, 56.7%-71.4%) in the high-risk group and 7.6% (7.0%-8.2%) in the low-risk group. In a survey of 15 oncology clinicians with a 52.1% response rate, 100 of 171 patients (58.8%) who had been flagged as having high risk by the gradient boosting algorithm were deemed appropriate for a conversation about treatment and end-of-life preferences in the upcoming week. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, machine learning algorithms based on structured electronic health record data accurately identified patients with cancer at risk of short-term mortality. When the gradient boosting algorithm was applied in real time, clinicians believed that most patients who had been identified as having high risk were appropriate for a timely conversation about treatment and end-of-life preferences.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4621-4630, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint and BRAF-targeted inhibitors have demonstrated significant survival benefits for advanced melanoma patients within the context of clinical trials. We sought to determine their impact on overall survival (OS) at a population level in order to better understand the current landscape for patients diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the National Cancer Database. Patients diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma were categorized by diagnosis year into two cohorts preceding the advent of novel therapies (P1: 2004-2005, P2: 2008-2009) and a contemporary group (P3: 2012-2013). OS was estimated using standard time-to-event statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 3720 patients, 525 (14%) were diagnosed in P1, 1375 (37%) in P2, and 1820 (49%) in P3. Median age at diagnosis increased over time (58, 59, and 61 years in P1, P2, and P3, respectively, P = 0.004). OS increased between P2 (median 49.3 months) and P3 (median 58.2 months, Bonferroni-corrected log-rank P < 0.001) but did not differ between P1 (median 50.5 months) and P2 (Bonferroni-corrected log-rank P > 0.99). These differences persisted on multivariable analysis. OS improved for patients diagnosed in P3 compared with P1 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, P < 0.001] but not P2 compared with P1 (HR 0.96, P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: OS has significantly improved nationally for patients newly diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma in the era of novel melanoma therapies. OS outcomes will likely continue to evolve as these agents are increasingly utilized in the adjuvant setting. These data may help to better inform affected patients with respect to prognosis.


Assuntos
Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
15.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(8): 1371-1380, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239316

RESUMO

Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 induce durable responses in some patients with melanoma and are being tested in a variety of human cancers. However, these therapies are ineffective for a majority of patients across tumor types. Further understanding the immune alterations induced by these therapies may enable the development of novel strategies to enhance tumor control and biomarkers to identify patients most likely to respond. In several murine models, including colon26, MC38, CT26, and B16 tumors cotreated with GVAX, anti-CTLA-4 efficacy depends on interactions between the Fc region of CTLA-4 antibodies and Fc receptors (FcR). Anti-CTLA-4 binding to FcRs has been linked to depletion of intratumoral T regulatory cells (Treg). In agreement with previous studies, we found that Tregs infiltrating CT26, B16-F1, and autochthonous Braf V600E Pten -/- melanoma tumors had higher expression of surface CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) than other T-cell subsets, and anti-CTLA-4 treatment led to FcR-dependent depletion of Tregs infiltrating CT26 tumors. This Treg depletion coincided with activation and degranulation of intratumoral natural killer cells. Similarly, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma patient-derived tumor tissue, Tregs had higher sCTLA-4 expression than other intratumoral T-cell subsets, and Tregs infiltrating NSCLC expressed more sCTLA-4 than circulating Tregs. Patients with cutaneous melanoma who benefited from ipilimumab, a mAb targeting CTLA-4, had higher intratumoral CD56 expression, compared with patients who received little to no benefit from this therapy. Furthermore, using the murine CT26 model we found that combination therapy with anti-CTLA-4 plus IL15/IL15Rα complexes enhanced tumor control compared with either monotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515

RESUMO

Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
17.
J Cutan Pathol ; 46(3): 190-194, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRAF inhibition has improved overall survival in patients with BRAF mutant melanoma, but this is associated with a range of known and predictable cutaneous side effects, including squamous cell carcinomas associated with RAS mutations. METHODS: We identified three severely dysplastic nevi, one atypical intraepidermal melanocytic proliferation, and four melanoma in situ lesions, newly arising in four patients undergoing treatment with vemurafenib. To characterize mutations in these atypical melanocytic lesions, we used a custom iPlex panel detecting 74 mutations in 13 genes known to play a role in melanoma pathogenesis. RESULTS: We identified an NRAS mutation at codon 61 (Q61R) and a rare BRAF exon 11 mutation (G466A) in atypical melanocytic lesions that arose in patients treated with vemurafenib. CONCLUSION: There appears to be development or accelerated growth of atypical melanocytic lesions in the setting of BRAF inhibition. Our results underscore the need for careful surveillance for melanocytic lesions in patients on BRAF inhibitor therapy and shed light on potential mechanisms for melanoma pathogenesis in the context of BRAF pathway blockade. Further studies are warranted to show a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
19.
Cancer Discov ; 9(2): 220-229, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442709

RESUMO

Clinical trials repurposing lysosomotropic chloroquine (CQ) derivatives as autophagy inhibitors in cancer demonstrate encouraging results, but the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we report a novel dimeric CQ (DC661) capable of deacidifying the lysosome and inhibiting autophagy significantly better than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Using an in situ photoaffinity pulldown strategy, we identified palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) as a molecular target shared across monomeric and dimeric CQ derivatives. HCQ and Lys05 also bound to and inhibited PPT1 activity, but only DC661 maintained activity in acidic media. Knockout of PPT1 in cancer cells using CRISPR/Cas9 editing abrogates autophagy modulation and cytotoxicity of CQ derivatives, and results in significant impairment of tumor growth similar to that observed with DC661. Elevated expression of PPT1 in tumors correlates with poor survival in patients in a variety of cancers. Thus, PPT1 represents a new target in cancer that can be inhibited with CQ derivatives. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies PPT1 as the previously unknown lysosomal molecular target of monomeric and dimeric CQ derivatives. Genetic suppression of PPT1 impairs tumor growth, and PPT1 levels are elevated in cancer and associated with poor survival. These findings provide a strong rationale for targeting PPT1 in cancer. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 151.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Cancer Discov ; 9(3): 396-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563872

RESUMO

Resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi + MEKi) in BRAF-mutant tumors occurs through heterogeneous mechanisms, including ERK reactivation and autophagy. Little is known about the mechanisms by which ERK reactivation or autophagy is induced by BRAFi + MEKi. Here, we report that in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, BRAFi + MEKi induced SEC61-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocation of the MAPK pathway via GRP78 and KSR2. Inhibition of ER translocation prevented ERK reactivation and autophagy. Following ER translocation, ERK exited the ER and was rephosphorylated by PERK. Reactivated ERK phosphorylated ATF4, which activated cytoprotective autophagy. Upregulation of GRP78 and phosphorylation of ATF4 were detected in tumors of patients resistant to BRAFi + MEKi. ER translocation of the MAPK pathway was demonstrated in therapy-resistant patient-derived xenografts. Expression of a dominant-negative ATF4 mutant conferred sensitivity to BRAFi + MEKi in vivo. This mechanism reconciles two major targeted therapy resistance pathways and identifies druggable targets, whose inhibition would likely enhance the response to BRAFi + MEKi. SIGNIFICANCE: ERK reactivation and autophagy are considered distinct resistance pathways to BRAF + MEK inhibition (BRAFi + MEKi) in BRAF V600E cancers. Here, we report BRAFi + MEKi-induced ER translocation of the MAPK pathway is necessary for ERK reactivation, which drives autophagy. The ER translocation mechanism is a major druggable driver of resistance to targeted therapy.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 305.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Animais , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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