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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369776

RESUMO

The nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is crucial in inflammatory and immune responses. NF-κB2 plays a pivotal role in the noncanonical pathway important for peripheral lymphoid organ development, B-cell maturation and antibody production. 1 Heterozygous mutations in the NFKB2 gene have been identified as a molecular cause of primary immunodeficiency. Previously described NF-κB2-defective patients presented with hypogammaglobulinemia in early childhood and suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. 2 Clinical and immunological features are often compatible with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), but additional defects in T and NK cells have been reported. 3-5,9 . Other typical symptoms such as ectodermal dysplasia with alopecia totalis and trachyonychia may be autoimmune manifestations. About half of the patients develop isolated ACTH deficiency with consecutive cortisol deficiency, an unusual feature in large cohorts of CVID patients. Susceptibility to herpes infections has also been described.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiencies caused by severe defects in T-cell immunity are at risk of acquiring life-threatening viral or opportunistic infections. Cellular therapies are necessary to establish normal T-cell function and to allow for long-term survival. This is most commonly achieved by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but the outcome of this procedure is impaired if active infections are present at the time of HSCT. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are a well-established therapeutic strategy following HSCT to treat viral infections, to improve donor cell engraftment or to achieve graft versus leukemia activity in malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of DLIs as first cellular therapy in the treatment of patients with severe T-cell deficiencies. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of data originating from a cohort of six patients with primary T-cell deficiencies who were treated in four different centers and who received transfusions of unselected mature donor lymphocytes prior and not directly related to allogeneic HSCT. DLIs obtained from the peripheral blood of HLA-identical (10/10) family donors were transfused without prior conditioning to treat or to prevent life-threatening infections. RESULTS: All patients are alive with a follow-up of 0.5 to 16.5 years after the initial T-cell administration. Additional cellular therapies were administered in 5/6 patients at 0.8 to 15 months after the first DLI. Mild cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, stage ≤2) was observed in 3/6 patients and resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that unselected HLA-identical DLIs can effectively prevent or contribute to overcome infections with a limited risk for GvHD in T-cell deficient patients. The T-cell system established by this readily available source can provide T-cell function for years and can serve as a bridge to additional cellular therapies or -in specific conditions- as definite treatment.

5.
Nature ; 583(7814): 90-95, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499645

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is characterized by recurrent and often life-threatening infections, autoimmunity and cancer, and it poses major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although the most severe forms of PID are identified in early childhood, most patients present in adulthood, typically with no apparent family history and a variable clinical phenotype of widespread immune dysregulation: about 25% of patients have autoimmune disease, allergy is prevalent and up to 10% develop lymphoid malignancies1-3. Consequently, in sporadic (or non-familial) PID genetic diagnosis is difficult and the role of genetics is not well defined. Here we address these challenges by performing whole-genome sequencing in a large PID cohort of 1,318 participants. An analysis of the coding regions of the genome in 886 index cases of PID found that disease-causing mutations in known genes that are implicated in monogenic PID occurred in 10.3% of these patients, and a Bayesian approach (BeviMed4) identified multiple new candidate PID-associated genes, including IVNS1ABP. We also examined the noncoding genome, and found deletions in regulatory regions that contribute to disease causation. In addition, we used a genome-wide association study to identify loci that are associated with PID, and found evidence for the colocalization of-and interplay between-novel high-penetrance monogenic variants and common variants (at the PTPN2 and SOCS1 loci). This begins to explain the contribution of common variants to the variable penetrance and phenotypic complexity that are observed in PID. Thus, using a cohort-based whole-genome-sequencing approach in the diagnosis of PID can increase diagnostic yield and further our understanding of the key pathways that influence immune responsiveness in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1165-1179.e11, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe early-onset erythroderma and gut inflammation, with massive tissue infiltration of oligoclonal activated T cells are the hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS). OBJECTIVE: The impact of altered gut homeostasis in the cutaneous manifestations of OS remains to be clarified. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 15 patients with OS and the 129Sv/C57BL/6 knock-in Rag2R229Q/R229Q (Rag2R229Q) mouse model. Homing phenotypes of circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in the sera by ELISA and in skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium salt. RESULTS: We show that memory/activated T cells from patients with OS and from the Rag2R229Q mouse model of OS abundantly express the skin homing receptors cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen and CCR4 (Ccr4), associated with high levels of chemokine C-C motif ligands 17 and 22. Serum levels of LPS are also elevated. A broad Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory signature is detected in the periphery and in the skin. Increased Tlr4 expression in the skin of Rag2R229Q mice is associated with enhanced cutaneous inflammation on local and systemic administration of LPS. Likewise, boosting colitis in Rag2R229Q mice results in increased frequency of Ccr4+ splenic T cells and worsening of skin inflammation, as indicated by epidermal thickening, enhanced epithelial cell activation, and dermal infiltration by Th1 effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the existence of an interplay between gut and skin that can sustain skin inflammation in OS.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 20(5): 1447-1450, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663273

RESUMO

Combined immune deficiency due to athymia in patients with complete DiGeorge syndrome can be corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation. Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent concomitant clinical problem in these patients, which persists after thymus transplantation. Cotransplantation of allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid tissue has been attempted but does not achieve durable correction of the patients' hypoparathyroidism due to parathyroid graft rejection. Surprisingly, we observed correction of hypoparathyroidism in one patient after thymus transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of allogeneic parathyroid tissue in the patient's thymus transplant biopsy. Despite a lack of HLA-matching between thymus donor and recipient, the reconstituted immune system displays tolerance toward the thymus donor. Therefore we expect this patient's hypoparathyroidism to be permanently cured. It is recognised that ectopic parathyroid tissue is not infrequently found in the thymus. If such thymuses could be identified, we propose that their use would offer a compelling approach to achieving lasting correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism.

8.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1033-1046, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535575

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with primary immunodeficiency secondary to abnormal recombinase activating genes (RAG) can present with broad clinical phenotypes ranging from early severe infections to autoimmune complications and inflammation. Immunological phenotype may also vary from T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency to combined immunodeficiency or antibody deficiencies with near-normal T and B cell counts and even preserved specific antibody response to pathogens. It is not uncommon that RAG variants of uncertain significance are identified by serendipity during a broad genetic screening process and pathogenic RAG variants are increasingly recognized among all age groups, including adults. Establishing the pathogenicity and clinical relevance of novel RAG variants can be challenging since RAG genes are highly polymorphic. This review paper aims to summarize clinical phenotypes of RAG deficiencies and provide practical guidance for confirming the direct link between specific RAG variants and clinical disease. Lastly, we will review the current understanding of treatment option for patients with varying severity of RAG deficiencies. Area covered: This review discusses the different phenotypes and immunological aspects of RAG deficiencies, the diagnosis dilemma facing clinicians, and an overview of current and advancement in treatments. Expert opinion: A careful analysis of immunological and clinical data and their correlation with genetic findings helps to determine the significance of the genetic polymorphism. Advances in functional assays, as well as anti-cytokine antibodies, make it easier to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

9.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 125-133, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028919

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a fundamental mucosal barrier and actively participate in tolerance and immunity against intestinal contents. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and invariant chain (Ii) molecules are essential for adaptive immune response. MHC II deficiency often presents with gastrointestinal disorders. Intestinal biopsy samples revealed an absence of HLA-DR, Ii, and local immunoglobulins in both hematopoietic immune cells and IECs accompanied by a lack of faecal sIgA. After successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) absent HLA-DR and Ii expression persisted in IECs and faecal stool analysis indicated inflammation and high microbial activity. We describe multifaceted disturbance of adaptive mucosal immunity in MHC II deficient patients suffering from enteropathy. HLA-DR and Ii expression on enterocytes is not restored by HSCT. This may account for increased susceptibility to enteric infections and intestinal inflammation leading to prolonged enteropathy reported in MHC II deficient patients.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Lactente , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

11.
Blood Adv ; 3(6): 862-868, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885997

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare disease caused by defective osteoclast differentiation or function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available in the infantile "malignant" form of OP. Improved clinical and genetic diagnosis of OP has seen the emergence of a cohort of patients with less severe and heterogeneous clinical presentations. This intermediate form of OP does not call for urgent intervention, but patients accumulate debilitating skeletal complications over years and decades, which are severe enough to require curative treatment and may also require intermittent transfusion of blood products. Here we present data from 7 patients with intermediate OP caused by mutations in TCIRG1 (n = 2), CLCN7 (n = 2), RANK (n = 1), SNX10 (n = 1), and CA2 (n = 1), who were transplanted between the ages of 5 to 30 years (mean, 15; median, 12). Donors were matched siblings or family (n = 4), matched unrelated (n = 2), or HLA haploidentical family donors (n = 1). Conditioning was fludarabine and treosulfan based. All 6 patients transplanted from matched donors are currently alive with a follow-up period between 1 and 8 years at time of publication (median, 4 years) and have demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Patients with intermediate OP should be considered for HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Osteopetrose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mutação , Osteopetrose/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

14.
Blood Adv ; 2(19): 2550-2553, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291113

RESUMO

New-onset autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs in 2% to 6% of pediatric patients post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is a significant complication. Incomplete immune recovery following HSCT may predispose to immune dysregulation including autoimmune cytopenias. We describe an innovative therapy for AIHA refractory to proteasome inhibition. In potentially life-threatening AIHA in the context of HSCT, daratumumab may be an effective rescue therapy.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/mortalidade , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 646-655, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the clinical and laboratory spectrum of RAG gene defects in humans, and discuss the mechanisms underlying phenotypic heterogeneity, the basis of immune dysregulation, and the current and perspective treatment modalities. METHODS: Literature review and analysis of medical records RESULTS: RAG gene defects in humans are associated with a surprisingly broad spectrum of clinical and immunological phenotypes. Correlation between in vitro recombination activity of the mutant RAG proteins and the clinical phenotype has been observed. Altered T and B cell development in this disease is associated with defects of immune tolerance. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for the most severe forms of the disease, but a high rate of graft failure has been observed. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG gene defects in humans may represent a diagnostic challenge. There is a need to improve treatment for severe, early-onset forms of the disease. Optimal treatment modalities for patients with delayed-onset disease presenting with autoimmunity and/or inflammation remain to be defined.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Animais , Autoimunidade , Variação Biológica da População , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/genética , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/terapia , Reparo do DNA , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/diagnóstico , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses , Adulto Jovem
18.
Blood ; 129(21): 2928-2938, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331055

RESUMO

Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis, and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Retrospective data on clinical presentation, genetics, and outcome of HSCT were collected from centers in Europe, Asia, and North America for a total of 32 patients born between 1982 and 2011. Age at presentation was <4 weeks in 30 of 32 patients (94%). Grafts originated from mismatched family donors in 17 patients (55%), from matched family donors in 6 patients (19%), and from unrelated marrow or umbilical cord blood donors in 8 patients (26%). Thirteen patients received secondary or tertiary transplants. After transplantation, 21 of 31 patients were reported alive at a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (range: 0.6-23.6 years). All patients who died beyond 6 months after HSCT had persistent or recurrent agranulocytosis due to failure of donor myeloid engraftment. In the absence of conditioning, HSCT was ineffective to overcome agranulocytosis, and inclusion of myeloablative components in the conditioning regimens was required to achieve stable lymphomyeloid engraftment. In comparison with other SCID entities, considerable differences were noted regarding age at presentation, onset, and type of infectious complications, as well as the requirement of conditioning prior to HSCT. Although long-term survival is possible in the presence of mixed chimerism, high-level donor myeloid engraftment should be targeted to avoid posttransplant neutropenia.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucopenia/mortalidade , Leucopenia/terapia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doadores não Relacionados , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Aloenxertos , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucopenia/enzimologia , Leucopenia/genética , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/enzimologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 55(4): 689-96, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by excessive IL-1ß release resulting in severe systemic and organ inflammation. Canakinumab targets IL-1ß and is approved at standard dose for children and adults with all CAPS phenotypes. Limited data are available for the real-life effectiveness of canakinumab in patients living with CAPS. Therefore the aim of the study was to evaluate the real-life dosing and effectiveness of canakinumab in CAPS. METHODS: A multi-centre study of consecutive children and adults with CAPS treated with canakinumab was performed. Demographics, CAPS phenotype and disease activity, inflammatory markers and canakinumab treatment strategy were recorded. Treatment response was assessed using CAPS disease activity scores, CRP and/or serum amyloid A levels. Comparisons between age groups, CAPS phenotypes and centres were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 68 CAPS patients at nine centres were included. All CAPS phenotypes were represented. Thirty-seven (54%) patients were females, the median age was 25 years and 27 (40%) were children, and the median follow-up was 28 months. Overall, complete response (CR) was seen in 72% of CAPS patients, significantly less often in severe (14%) than in mild CAPS phenotypes (79%). Only 53% attained CR on standard dose canakinumab. Dose increase was more commonly required in children (56%) than in adults (22%). Centres with a treat-to-target approach had significantly higher CR rates (94 vs 50%). CONCLUSION: Real-life effectiveness of canakinumab in CAPS was significantly lower than in controlled trials. Treat-to-target strategies may improve the outcome of children and adults living with CAPS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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