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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061370

RESUMO

Evidence-based medicine is the art of combining "best external evidence", "clinical judgement" and "patient values" for improved daily clinical decision making and is the ultimate goal in modern medicine. Historically, in the field of medical nutrition, there had been a lack of strong evidence from large and high-quality trials resulting in often weak guideline recommendations and therefore insufficient implementation in clinical practice. Particularly in the field of malnutrition, the medical community has long struggled to find evidence-based approaches for effective management by means of screening, assessment and treatment of patients. With recent trials showing that individual medical nutrition therapy has strong effects on clinical outcomes, we should now aim to practice "evidence-based medical nutrition" (EBMN) by combining clinical judgement (e.g., thorough clinical assessment of the malnourished patient), patient preferences (e.g., integration of perspectives of patients and relatives, consideration of comorbidities to define specific energy/protein goals and appropriate route of medical nutrition therapy) and the most current scientific evidence (e.g., trial-supported use of nutritional interventions for individual patients). Such an approach may certainly be helpful to improve clinical outcomes of the vulnerable population of malnourished medical inpatients.

2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. Different studies have shown an association of hyponatremia on admission and worse patient's outcome. Yet, the impact of hyponatremia at discharge or of hyponatremia correction on patient's prognosis is unknown. METHODS: This is a preplanned secondary data analysis from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia and prednisone treatment. The primary outcome was the impact of hyponatremia on admission and at discharge on patient relevant outcomes (i.e. mortality, rehospitalization and recurrence rate) within 180 days. RESULTS: Of the 708 included patients, 185 (26.1%) were hyponatremic on admission. Of these, 28 (15.1%) were still hyponatremic at discharge. 34 (4.8%) patients developed hyponatremia during hospitalization despite being normonatremic on admission. Patients with hyponatremia at discharge had a higher rate of pneumonia recurrence as compared to normonatremic patients (OR 2.68; 95%-CI 1.09-6.95; p = 0.037). Among patients with hyponatremia at discharge, patients who were already hyponatremic on admission showed the strongest association with increased recurrence rate (OR 4.01; 95%-CI 1.08-12.64; p = 0.022). In contrast, recurrence rate was not affected in patients who were hyponatremic on admission but had normalized serum sodium levels at discharge (p = 0.73). CONCLUSION: Mild to moderate hyponatremia at discharge is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. This association is particularly strong for patients who are hyponatremic both on admission and at discharge, emphasizing the importance of hyponatremia correction during hospitalization.

3.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926074

RESUMO

Introduction Recently, an expert consensus on optimal use of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship was published focusing mainly on Europe and the United States. However, for Asia-Pacific countries, recommendations may need adaptation due to differences in types of infections, available resources and standard of clinical care. Methods Practical experience with PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship was discussed among experts from different countries, reflecting on the applicability of the proposed Berlin consensus algorithms for Asia-Pacific. Using a Delphi process, the group reached consensus on two PCT algorithms for the critically ill and the non-critically ill patient populations. Results The group agreed that the existing evidence for PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship in patients with acute respiratory infections and sepsis is generally valid also for Asia-Pacific countries, in regard to proposed PCT cut-offs, emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis and antibiotic stewardship, overruling criteria and inevitable adaptations to clinical settings. However, the group noted an insufficient database on patients with tropical diseases currently limiting the clinical utility in these patients. Also, due to lower resource availabilities, biomarker levels may be measured less frequently and only when changes in treatment are highly likely. Conclusions Use of PCT to guide antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with continuous education and regular feedback to all stakeholders has high potential to improve the utilization of antibiotic treatment also in Asia-Pacific countries. However, there is need for adaptations of existing algorithms due to differences in types of infections and routine clinical care. Further research is needed to understand the optimal use of PCT in patients with tropical diseases.

4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several clinical risk scores for unplanned 30-day readmission have been published, but there is a lack of external validation and head-to-head comparison. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective replication of six clinical risk scores (LACE, HOSPITAL, SEMI, RRS, PARA, Tsui et al.)f DESIGN: Models were fitted with the original intercept and beta coefficients as reported. Otherwise, a logistic model was refitted (SEMI and Tsui et al). We performed subgroup analyses on main admission specialty. This report adheres to the TRIPOD statement for reporting of prediction models. PARTICIPANTS: We used our prospective cohort of 15,639 medical patients from a Swiss tertiary care institution from 2016 through 2018. MAIN MEASURES: Thirty-day readmission rate and area under the curve (AUC < 0.50 worse than chance, > 0.70 acceptable, > 0.80 excellent) CONCLUSIONS: Among several readmission risk scores, HOSPITAL, PARA, and the score from Tsui et al. showed the best predictive abilities and have high potential to improve patient care. Interventional research is now needed to understand the effects of these scores when used in clinical routine. KEY RESULTS: Among the six risk scores externally validated, calibration of the models was overall poor with overprediction of events, except for the HOSPITAL and the PARA scores. Discriminative abilities (AUC) were as follows: LACE 0.53 (95% CI 0.50-0.56), HOSPITAL 0.73 (95% CI 0.72-0.74), SEMI 0.47 (95% CI 0.46-0.49), RRS 0.64 (95% CI 0.62-0.66), PARA 0.72 (95% CI 0.72-0.74), and the score from Tsui et al. 0.73 (95% CI 0.72-0.75). Performance in subgroups did not differ from the overall performance, except for oncology patients in the PARA score (0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.60), and nephrology patients in the SEMI index (0.25, 95% CI 0.18-0.31), respectively.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18506, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the occurrence of refeeding syndrome (RFS), a metabolic condition characterized by electrolyte shifts after initiation of nutritional therapy, has a negative impact on clinical outcomes remains ill-defined. We prospectively investigated a subgroup of patients included in a multicentre, nutritional trial (EFFORT) for the occurrence of RFS. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial investigating the effects of nutritional support in malnourished medical inpatients, we prospectively screened patients for RFS and classified them as "RFS confirmed" and "RFS not confirmed" based on predefined criteria (i.e. electrolyte shifts, clinical symptoms, clinical context, and patient history). We assessed associations of RFS and mortality within 180 days (primary endpoint) and other secondary endpoints using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 967 included patients, RFS was confirmed in 141 (14.6%) patients. Compared to patients with no evidence for RFS, patients with confirmed RFS had significantly increased 180-days mortality rates (42/141 (29.8%) vs 181/826 (21.9%), adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.29), P < .05). Patients with RFS also had an increased risk for ICU admission (6/141 (4.3%) vs 13/826 (1.6%), adjusted OR 2.71 (95% CI 1.01 to 7.27), P < .05) and longer mean length of hospital stays (10.5 ±â€Š6.9 vs 9.0 ±â€Š6.6 days, adjusted difference 1.57 days (95% CI 0.38-2.75), P = .01). CONCLUSION: A relevant proportion of medical inpatients with malnutrition develop features of RFS upon hospital admission, which is associated with long-term mortality and other adverse clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed to develop preventive strategies for RFS in this patient population.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Apoio Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Realimentação/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome da Realimentação/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900477

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hyponatremia is the most prevalent electrolyte disturbance in hospitalized patients. Previous studies have shown a seasonal variation of profound hyponatremia with higher prevalence during warmer months. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at analyzing the seasonal prevalence, sex and age-specific differences of hyponatremia in medical inpatients. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study from January 2009 and December 2015 using prospective administrative data. SETTING: Medical inpatients. PATIENTS: Diagnosis of hypoosmolar hyponatremia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the monthly alteration in hyponatremia prevalence. Secondary outcomes were the association of outdoor temperature with hyponatremia prevalence and differences among sex and age groups. RESULTS: Of 2,426,722 medical inpatients, 84,210 were diagnosed with hypoosmolar hyponatremia, of whom 61% (n=51,262) were female. The highest overall prevalence of hyponatremia was observed in July (4.5%, n=8,976), it was lowest in December (2.7%, n=6,530). The overall prevalence of hyponatremia in women compared to men was higher by 58% (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.56 to 1.60]). The sex-specific difference was most pronounced in the warmest month of July (mean temperature 20.1°C, OR 1.76 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.84]). We observed the strongest association between seasonality and hyponatremia in elderly (>80 years) female inpatients admitted during the month of July (OR 2.40 [95% CI 2.20 to 2.62]). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diagnosed hypoosmolar hyponatremia in medical inpatients increases during summer months with higher outdoor temperature. Elderly female inpatients were most susceptible to the seasonal rise in hyponatremia prevalence.

7.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 36(2): 136-140, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895231

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the refeeding syndrome, to discuss more recent advice on diagnosis and treatment, and to raise awareness of this still poorly understood metabolic condition. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, evidence regarding the refeeding syndrome has been very limited. A number of reviews and case reports exist, but only a few are randomized trials. Recently, it has been shown that the vast majority of physicians are unaware of this metabolic condition. Precise guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome were lacking for a long time. Now, a consensus statement is available, providing guidance from experts in the field on the management of patients at increased risk of refeeding syndrome (RFS) receiving nutritional therapy. SUMMARY: Due to the increased use of nutritional therapy in inpatient settings, physicians should be aware of possible side effects, particularly in connection with the refeeding syndrome. In this context, every patient should undergo a risk assessment for refeeding syndrome and stratification before starting nutritional therapy. For patients at high risk, nutritional support should be administered with adapted energy and fluid support during the replenishment phase. In addition, the occurrence of RFS during nutritional therapy must be continuously evaluated, and appropriate steps taken if necessary.

10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20162, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The physical appearance of a physician may influence patients’ perceptions of that physician’s quality of care. There is a lack of studies investigating whether physician appearance is indeed associated with patient satisfaction and mortality. METHODS: This observational study included adult medical inpatients treated at a Swiss tertiary care hospital between 2013 and 2016. We investigated associations of gender and physician appearance (hair colour, wearing of glasses) with in-hospital mortality and perceived quality of care, assessed by a telephone interview 30 days after admission. Regression models were adjusted for patient age, patient gender, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: We included 18,259 inpatients treated by 494 different physicians during their hospital stay. We had full information regarding patient-perceived quality of care for 9917 patients. Overall, 860 patients (4.7%) died in the hospital and 1479 (14.9%) reported low satisfaction with their care. After multivariable adjustment, there was no difference in mortality or patient-perceived quality of care whether physicians did or did not wear glasses and whether they were male or female. The hair colour of residents was also not associated with outcomes. However, patients treated by grey-haired attending physicians, compared to those with dark or blond hair, had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that physician gender or appearance has little influence on the quality of care provided to hospitalised medical patients. Whether the small but significant mortality benefit observed for grey-haired attending physicians is possibly confounded by age and physician experience clearly needs further investigation. Nevertheless, our analysis provides empirical evidence that having at least some grey-haired attending physicians in the medical physician team seems to be beneficial for patients, even if patients do not recognise the clear superiority of their care.

11.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) identifies patients at risk of malnutrition. We studied the prognostic implications of this score with regard to short-term and long-term clinical outcomes in a well-characterised cohort of medical inpatients from a previous trial. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of an investigator-initiated, prospective randomised controlled multicenter trial in Switzerland (EFFORT) that compared the effects of an individualised nutritional support intervention with standard of care. We investigated associations between admission NRS and several short-term and long-term outcomes using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 2028 patients, 31% had an NRS of 3, 38% of 4 and 31% of ≥5 points, and 477 (24%) died during the 180 days of follow-up. For each point increase in NRS, we found a stepwise increase in risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.48), p = 0.048) and 180-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.37 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.55), p < 0.001). NRS was associated with length of hospital stay (adjusted difference of 0.60 days per NRS point increase, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.97, p = 0.002) and functional outcomes at 180 days (adjusted decrease in Barthel index of -4.49 points per NRS point increase, 95%CI -6.54 to -2.45, p < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, associations of NRS and short-term adverse outcomes were less pronounced in patients receiving nutritional support (intervention group) compared to control group patients (adjusted HR for 30-day mortality 1.12 [95%CI 0.83 to 1.52, p = 0.454] vs. 1.33 [95%CI 1.02 to 1.72, p = 0.032]). CONCLUSION: The NRS is a strong and independent risk score for malnutrition-associated mortality and adverse outcomes over 180 days. Our data provide strong evidence that the nutritional risk, however, is modifiable and can be reduced by the provision of adequate nutritional support.

12.
Am J Med ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum albumin levels resulting from inflammation-induced capillary leakage or disease-related anorexia during acute illness are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated the relationship of nutritional status and inflammation with low serum albumin levels and 30-day mortality in a large cohort. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients in the medical emergency department of a Swiss tertiary care center and investigated associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as markers of inflammation and poor nutritional status, respectively, with low serum albumin levels and mortality using multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Among the 2465 patients, 1019 (41%) had low serum albumin levels (<34 g/L), 619 (25.1%) had increased nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 ≥3), and 1086 (44.1%) had CRP values >20 mg/L. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis, and comorbidities revealed elevated CRP values (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 10.51, 95% confidence interval, 7.51-14.72, P <.001) and increased malnutrition risk (adjusted OR 2.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.98-4.15, P <.001) to be associated with low serum albumin levels, even adjusting for both parameters. Low serum albumin levels, elevated CRP values, and increased nutritional risk independently predicted 30-day mortality, with areas under the curve of 0.77, 0.70, and 0.75, respectively. Combination of these 3 parameters showed an area under the curve of 0.82 to predict mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated parameters of inflammation and high nutritional risk were independently associated with hypoalbuminemia. All 3 parameters independently predicted mortality. Combining them during initial evaluation of patients in emergency departments facilitates mortality risk stratification.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1915138, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747030

RESUMO

Importance: Malnutrition affects a considerable proportion of the medical inpatient population. There is uncertainty regarding whether use of nutritional support during hospitalization in these patients positively alters their clinical outcomes. Objective: To assess the association of nutritional support with clinical outcomes in medical inpatients who are malnourished or at nutritional risk. Data Sources: For this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, a search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase was conducted from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2019; the included studies were published between 1982 and 2019. Study Selection: A prespecified Cochrane protocol was followed to identify trials comparing oral and enteral nutritional support interventions with usual care and the association of these treatments with clinical outcomes in non-critically ill medical inpatients who were malnourished. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias; data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mortality. The secondary outcomes included nonelective hospital readmissions, length of hospital stay, infections, functional outcome, daily caloric and protein intake, and weight change. Results: A total of 27 trials (n = 6803 patients) were included, of which 5 (n = 3067 patients) were published between 2015 and 2019. Patients receiving nutritional support compared with patients in the control group had significantly lower rates of mortality (230 of 2758 [8.3%] vs 307 of 2787 [11.0%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.97). A sensitivity analysis suggested a more pronounced reduction in the risk of mortality in recent trials (2015 or later) (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79) compared with that in older studies (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.72-1.22), in patients with established malnutrition (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34-0.80) compared with that in patients at nutritional risk (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62-1.18), and in trials with high protocol adherence (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.84) compared with that in trials with low protocol adherence (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.76). Nutritional support was also associated with a reduction in nonelective hospital readmissions (14.7% vs 18.0%; risk ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.96), higher energy intake (mean difference, 365 kcal; 95% CI, 272-458 kcal) and protein intake (mean difference, 17.7 g; 95% CI, 12.1-23.3 g), and weight increase (0.73 kg; 95% CI, 0.32-1.13 kg). No significant differences were observed in rates of infections (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.64-1.16), functional outcome (mean difference, 0.32; 95% CI, -0.51 to 1.15), and length of hospital stay (mean difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.58 to 0.09). Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that despite heterogeneity and varying methodological quality among trials, nutritional support was associated with improved survival and nonelective hospital readmission rates among medical inpatients who were malnourished and should therefore be considered when treating this population.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18113, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770235

RESUMO

The impact of vitamin D deficiency on the recovery of patients with malnutrition remains undefined. Our aim was to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a well-characterized cohort of patients with malnutrition and its association with outcomes.Within this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, we examined the association of vitamin D deficiency and adverse clinical outcomes over a follow-up of 180 days in hospitalized patients at risk for malnutrition. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels upon admission and defined Vitamin D deficiency when levels were <50nmol/l. The primary endpoint was 180-day mortality.The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our cohort of 828 patients was 58.2% (n = 482). Patients with vitamin D deficiency had increased 180-day mortality rates from 23.1% to 29.9% (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.94, P = .03). When adjusting the analysis for demographics, comorbidities, and randomization, this association remained significant for the subgroup of patients not receiving vitamin D treatment (adjusted odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.62, P = .04). There was no significantly lower risk for mortality in the subgroup of vitamin D deficient patients receiving vitamin D treatment compared to not receiving treatment (adjusted odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13, P = .15).Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the population of malnourished inpatients and is negatively associated with long-term mortality particularly when patients are not receiving vitamin D treatment. Our findings suggest that malnourished patients might benefit from vitamin D screening and treatment in case of deficiency.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fragilidade/sangue , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/complicações , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 701-709, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581127

RESUMO

Objective: Adrenal insufficiency in the outpatient setting is associated with excess morbidity, mortality, and impaired quality of life. Evidence on its health-care burden in medical inpatients is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the health-care burden of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) among hospitalized inpatients. Design and methods: In this nationwide cohort study, adult medical patients with either PAI or SAI hospitalized between 2011 and 2015 were compared with propensity-matched (1:1) medical controls, respectively. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality. Main secondary outcomes included ICU admission rate, length-of-hospital stay, 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission rates. Results: In total, 594 hospitalized cases with PAI and 4880 cases with SAI were included. Compared with matched controls, in-hospital mortality was not increased among PAI or SAI patients, respectively. Patients with adrenal insufficiency were more likely to be admitted to ICU (PAI: OR 1.9 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.72) and SAI: OR 1.5 (95% CI, 1.35 to 1.75)). Length of hospital stay was prolonged by 1.0 days in PAI patients (8.9 vs 7.9 days (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.93)), and by 3.3 days in SAI patients (12.1 vs 8.8 days (95% CI, 2.82 to 3.71)), when compared with matched controls. Patients with SAI were found to have higher 30-day and 1-year readmission rates (14.1 vs 12.1% and 50.0 vs 40.7%; P < 0.001) than matched controls. Conclusions: While no difference in in-hospital mortality was found, adrenal insufficiency was associated with prolonged length of hospital stay, and substantially higher rates of ICU admission and hospital readmission.

16.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 40(4): 465-475, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585473

RESUMO

Biomarkers are increasingly used in patients with serious infections in the critical care setting to complement clinical judgment and interpretation of other diagnostic and prognostic tests. The main purposes of such blood markers are (1) to improve infection diagnosis (i.e., differentiation between bacterial vs. viral vs. fungal vs. noninfectious), (2) to help in the early risk stratification and thus provide prognostic information regarding the risk for mortality and other adverse outcomes, and (3) to optimize antibiotic tailoring to individual needs of patients ("antibiotic stewardship").Especially in critically ill patients, in whom sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, rapid diagnosis is desirable to start timely and specific treatment.Besides some biomarkers, such as procalcitonin, which is well established and has shown positive effects in regard to utilization of antimicrobials and clinical outcomes, there is a growing number of novel markers from different pathophysiological pathways, where the final proof of an added value to clinical judgment and ultimately clinical benefit to patients is still lacking.Without a doubt, the addition of blood biomarkers to clinical medicine has had a strong impact on the way we care for patients today. Recent trials show that as an adjunct to other clinical and laboratory parameters these markers provide important information about risks for bacterial infection and resolution of infection. Moreover, biomarkers can help to optimize management of patients with serious illness in the intensive care unit, thereby offering more individualized treatment courses with overall improvements in clinical outcomes.

18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20112, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401806

RESUMO

Although malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in the inpatient setting, particularly in older patients with multiple morbidities, the medical community has struggled to find efficient, evidence-based approaches for its prevention and treatment. From an evolutionary perspective, illness-related low appetite may be seen as a protective response with the goals to accelerate recovery from disease by improving autophagy. In line with this, earlier trials in the intensive care setting including severely ill patients have demonstrated unwarranted effects of overnutrition on patient outcomes. Uncertainties regarding the best approach to the malnourished inpatient in conjunction with a lack of strong trial data may, in part, explain the low level of attention that hospital medical staff have paid to the issue of malnutrition in the non-critical care inpatient setting. The recent Effect of early nutritional support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes and Recovery of malnourished medical inpatients Trial (EFFORT) study, however, has shown that individualized nutritional support reduces severe complications and improves mortality in medical inpatients, with positive effects on functional outcomes and quality of life. These results from a high quality effectiveness trial in conjunction with other studies, such as the NOURISH trial, should prompt us to improve our management of malnutrition in the inhospital setting. This procedure should start with a systematic screening for risk of malnutrition of admitted patients, effective assessment of nutritional status in multidisciplinary teams including dieticians, nurses and physicians, and early start of individualized adequate nutritional support of at risk patients to reach nutritional goals. Understanding the optimal use of nutritional support in patients with acute illness is complex because timing, route of delivery, and the amount and type of nutrients may all affect patient outcomes. Also, particularly for patients on the medical ward, factors like the logistics of catering, staffing to provide food and support the patient (i.e., number of nurses and dieticians), motivation/understanding of the patient to eat in defiance of appetite, the empathic human factor of nutritional care, the quality of meals, the taste of supplements, and unnecessary fasting for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures have a strong influence on nutritional care of patients. Further research and clinical trials are required to better understand, step by step, how we can use clinical nutrition best to maximize recovery of our patient and improve their functional status and their quality of life. Such evidence regarding nutritional therapy may allow us to implement  personalized nutrition-driven interventions in the future.

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