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2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947585

RESUMO

Outcomes for adults with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are poor with chemotherapy, particularly in later salvage. The TOWER study examined survival, remission, bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and safety with blinatumomab versus chemotherapy. This report examined outcomes separately for study treatment as first or later salvage. Adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell precursor ALL relapsed/refractory to chemotherapy were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive blinatumomab by continuous infusion for 4 weeks in 6-week cycles, or standard salvage chemotherapy. Overall survival for blinatumomab versus chemotherapy was higher both in first salvage and in later salvage. Safety was similar between patients in first salvage and those in later salvage. Blinatumomab as later salvage was associated with higher complete remission rates and served as a bridge to allogeneic HSCT, supporting the use of blinatumomab in both settings. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02013167.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460693

RESUMO

Aplastic anaemia (AA) is infrequently observed in pregnancy. We describe 19 pregnancies in 9 women at a tertiary care centre over a period of 30 years. Spontaneous resolution of AA did not occur postpartum in the five pregnancies where AA was first diagnosed in pregnancy. In the remaining pregnancies, although haematological indices declined and transfusion support was needed in 35% of pregnancies, relapses were not observed. There were no deaths, but complications occurred in 79% of pregnancies. Preterm delivery and postpartum haemorrhage were observed in 21% and 26% of pregnancies, respectively.

4.
Support Care Cancer ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341536

RESUMO

Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 antagonists as anti-emetic prophylaxis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving induction chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting persist in many cases. We performed a Phase II single-arm study evaluating the use of aprepitant on days 1-5, in combination with a 5-HT antagonist on days 1-3, in AML patients undergoing induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin on days 1-3 plus cytarabine, given as a continuous infusion, on days 1-7. This was compared to a retrospective cohort of AML patients that received the same chemotherapy regimen with a 5-HT antagonist but without aprepitant. The cumulative incidence of vomiting/retching by the end of day 5 was significantly lower in the aprepitant vs. the control group (26.3 vs. 52.8%, p = 0.013). The cumulative incidence of nausea by the end of day 5 was 61% in the aprepitant group vs. 75% in the control group. The total use of supplemental anti-emetics on days 2-5 was also significantly lower in the aprepitant group (p = 0.01). In contrast, the cumulative incidence of vomiting/retching by the end of day 8, the incidence of vomiting/retching on days 6-8, and the use of anti-emetics on days 6-8, were not significantly different between the two groups. The results suggest that the use of aprepitant may be associated with a lower rate of emesis during aprepitant dosing days, but not afterward. However, this requires confirmation in a randomized trial.

5.
Blood Adv ; 2(13): 1522-1531, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954814

RESUMO

In the phase 3 TOWER study, blinatumomab demonstrated an overall survival benefit over standard-of-care chemotherapy (SOC) in adults with relapsed or refractory (r/r) Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nearly all patients in both treatment arms experienced an adverse event (AE), and the incidence rate of serious AEs was higher for blinatumomab. However, as treatment exposure differed between the 2 arms, we conducted an exploratory safety analysis comparing exposure-adjusted event rates (EAERs) of blinatumomab vs SOC. Analyses were conducted for all patients who received therapy (safety population). Patients received a median (range) of 2 cycles (1-9) of blinatumomab (N = 267) vs 1 cycle (1-4) of SOC (N = 109). Grade ≥3 AE rates were generally higher in cycle 1 of blinatumomab than in cycle 2 (76% vs 37%). After adjusting for time on treatment, EAERs of grade ≥3 were significantly lower for blinatumomab vs SOC overall (10.73 vs 45.27 events per patient-year; P < .001) and for events of clinical interest, including infections (1.63 vs 6.49 events per patient-year; P < .001), cytopenias (3.64 vs 20.07 events per patient-year; P < .001), and neurologic events (0.38 vs 0.95 events per patient-year; P = .008). The EAER of grade ≥3 cytokine-release syndrome was higher for blinatumomab than for SOC (0.16 vs 0 events per patient-year; P = .038). These data further support the role of blinatumomab as an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with r/r Ph- ALL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02013167.

6.
Blood Rev ; 32(5): 416-425, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706486

RESUMO

The International Working Group (IWG) response criteria for acute myeloid leukemia, published in 2003, have remained the standard by which the efficacy of new drugs is measured in clinical trials. Over the last decade, concepts related to treatment response have been challenged by several factors; for example, the dissociation between early clinical response and survival outcome in older patients, the recognition that epigenetic and newer differentiating-agent therapies may produce delayed responses and also hematologic improvement/transfusion independence without a morphologic response, and evidence that remissions without minimal (or measurable) residual disease (MRD) may result in outcomes superior to those of morphologic remissions with persistent MRD. The evolving role of MRD status as a potential surrogate for predicting long-term survival has enhanced the clinical need to standardize and incorporate emerging technologies that enable deeper responses beyond those recognized by the IWG, and to pre-emptively identify patients at risk of early relapse. The potential for therapeutic interventions to erase MRD and alter the natural history represents an important and open research question. Reviewed here are some of the implications and challenges associated with establishing and incorporating new treatment response criteria, initially into clinical research, and eventually into real-world practice.

7.
Blood ; 131(26): 2906-2914, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739753

RESUMO

In the phase 3 TOWER study, blinatumomab significantly improved overall survival in adults with relapsed or refractory (R/R) Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) relative to standard-of-care chemotherapy. A secondary objective of this study was to assess the impact of blinatumomab on health-related quality of life (HRQL) as measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). This analysis included the 342 of 405 randomized patients for whom baseline and ≥1 postbaseline result were available in any EORTC multi-item scale or single-item measure. In general, patients receiving blinatumomab (n = 247) reported better posttreatment HRQL across all QLQ-C30 subscales, based on descriptive mean change from baseline, than did those receiving chemotherapy (n = 95). The hazard ratios for time to deterioration (TTD) of ≥10 points from baseline in HRQL or death ranged from 0.42 to 0.81 in favor of blinatumomab, with the upper bounds of the 95% confidence interval <1.0 across all measures, except insomnia, social functioning, and financial difficulties; sensitivity analysis of TTD in HRQL without the event of death were consistent with these findings. When treatment effect over time was tested using a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures analysis, P < .05 was reached for blinatumomab vs chemotherapy for all subscale measures except financial difficulties. The clinically meaningful benefits in overall survival and HRQL support the clinical value of blinatumomab in patients with R/R Ph- BCP-ALL when compared with chemotherapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02013167.

8.
Leuk Res ; 68: 22-28, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518628

RESUMO

We evaluated outcomes of 100 patients with high risk AML treated with Ida-FLAG induction as first-line therapy. 72 achieved remission with one cycle; 19 did not. High risk cytogenetics and TP53 mutations were associated with failure to achieve remission. In those reaching remission, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was associated with better relapse-free and overall survival. Those not achieving remission with induction therapy were extremely unlikely to reach remission with further therapy and had a dismal prognosis. Exploratory molecular analysis confirmed persistence of the dominant genetic mutations identified at diagnosis. Ex vivo chemosensitivity did not demonstrate significant differences between responders and non-responders. Thus, Ida-FLAG induction has a high chance of inducing remission in patients with high risk AML. Those achieving remission require allogeneic transplantation to achieve cure; those not achieving remission rarely respond to salvage chemotherapy and have a dismal outcome. Alternatives to conventional chemotherapy must be considered in this group.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 852, 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with World Health Organization-defined acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) not otherwise specified, patients with AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) are generally older and more likely to have poor-risk cytogenetics, leading to poor response and prognosis. More than one-half of all older (≥65 years) patients in the phase 3 AZA-AML-001 trial had newly diagnosed AML-MRC. METHODS: We compared clinical outcomes for patients with AML-MRC treated with azacitidine or conventional care regimens (CCR; induction chemotherapy, low-dose cytarabine, or supportive care only) overall and within patient subgroups defined by cytogenetic risk (intermediate or poor) and age (65-74 years or ≥75 years). The same analyses were used to compare azacitidine with low-dose cytarabine in patients who had been preselected to low-dose cytarabine before they were randomized to receive azacitidine or CCR (ie, low-dose cytarabine). RESULTS: Median overall survival was significantly prolonged with azacitidine (n = 129) versus CCR (n = 133): 8.9 versus 4.9 months (hazard ratio 0.74, [95%CI 0.57, 0.97]). Among patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, median overall survival with azacitidine was 16.4 months, and with CCR was 8.9 months (hazard ratio 0.73 [95%CI 0.48, 1.10]). Median overall survival was significantly improved for patients ages 65-74 years treated with azacitidine compared with those who received CCR (14.2 versus 7.3 months, respectively; hazard ratio 0.64 [95%CI 0.42, 0.97]). Within the subgroup of patients preselected to low-dose cytarabine before randomization, median overall survival with azacitidine was 9.5 months versus 4.6 months with low-dose cytarabine (hazard ratio 0.77 [95%CI 0.55, 1.09]). Within the low-dose cytarabine preselection group, patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics who received azacitidine had a median overall survival of 14.1 months versus 6.4 months with low-dose cytarabine, and patients aged 65-74 years had median survival of 14.9 months versus 5.2 months, respectively. Overall response rates were similar with azacitidine and CCR (24.8% and 17.3%, respectively), but higher with azacitidine versus low-dose cytarabine (27.2% and 13.9%). Adverse events were generally comparable between the treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: Azacitidine may be the preferred treatment for patients with AML-MRC who are not candidates for intensive chemotherapy, particularly patients ages 65-74 years and those with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov on February 16, 2010 ( NCT01074047 ).


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Blood Res ; 7(4): 30-40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804680

RESUMO

The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older patients is undergoing rapid changes, with a number of important publications in the past five years. Because of this, a group of Canadian leukemia experts has produced an update to the Canadian Consensus Guidelines that were published in 2013, with several new agents recommended, subject to availability. Recent studies have supported the survival benefit of induction chemotherapy for patients under age 80, except those with major co-morbidities or those with adverse risk cytogenetics who are not candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Midostaurin should be added to induction therapy for patients up to age 70 with a FLT3 mutation, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin for de novo AML up to age 70 with favorable or intermediate risk cytogenetics. Daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 is the recommended dose for 3+7 induction therapy. Acute promyelocytic leukemia should be treated with arsenic trioxide plus all-trans retinoic acid, regardless of age, with cytotoxic therapy added upfront only for those with initial white blood count > 10. HSCT may be considered for selected suitable patients up to age 70-75. Haploidentical donor transplants may be considered for older patients. For non-induction candidates, azacitidine is recommended for those with adverse risk cytogenetics, while either a hypomethylating agent (HMA) or low-dose cytarabine can be used for others. HMA may also be used for relapsed/refractory disease after chemotherapy. For patients with secondary AML, CPX-351 is recommended for fit patients age 60-75.

12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 116: 159-177, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693797

RESUMO

Azacitidine is recommended front-line treatment for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for intensive treatment regimens, and was recently granted approval in the European Union for treatment of adult AML. Reviewed here is azacitidine experience in AML, including: mechanistic and pharmacokinetic data; safety and efficacy in controlled trials; treatment effects in AML subpopulations defined by disease characteristics; experience in unselected patients treated in the community setting; clinical outcomes relative to other approved AML therapies; and experience with azacitidine-based combination treatment regimens. Collectively, these data suggest that (a) azacitidine may prolong overall survival to a similar or greater extent than do other approved AML treatments, but with less toxicity, (b) azacitidine may be the preferred treatment option for older patients with unfavorable cytogenetics, and (c) experience and outcomes with azacitidine in the clinic are similar to those seen in clinical trials. Continued investigation of combination regimens on an azacitidine backbone is warranted.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 17(11): 774-781, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe the distribution and impact of comorbidities on outcomes in patients with myelofibrosis, a disease characterized by aberrant bone marrow function with eventual fibrosis. Comorbidities were scored using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) and the Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), in which a score ≥ 3 indicates severe comorbidities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 306 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of myelofibrosis. Patients were seen from 1999 to 2014 with a median follow-up of 2 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess the impact of comorbidities on overall survival and leukemic transformation from the date of presentation to our center. A series of descriptive analyses were performed examining the distribution of comorbidities captured by the scales. RESULTS: On multivariable survival analysis, an ACE-27 score of 3 was associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.58; P = .03) compared with a lower score of 0 to 1. An HCT-CI score ≥ 3 was marginally significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (HR 1.60; 95% CI 0.96-2.68; P = .07). ACE-27 captured a greater spectrum of cardiovascular and venous thrombotic disease. No impact of comorbidities on leukemic transformation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although the presence of severe comorbidities was lower when assessed by ACE-27 (13%) compared with HCT-CI (23%), and the spectrums of comorbidities captured were different, the overall impact of severe comorbidities as assessed by both scales appears to be similar and associated with a survival disadvantage.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/etiologia , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
N Engl J Med ; 376(9): 836-847, 2017 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blinatumomab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody construct that enables CD3-positive T cells to recognize and eliminate CD19-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts, was approved for use in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL on the basis of single-group trials that showed efficacy and manageable toxic effects. METHODS: In this multi-institutional phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adults with heavily pretreated B-cell precursor ALL, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive either blinatumomab or standard-of-care chemotherapy. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 405 patients who were randomly assigned to receive blinatumomab (271 patients) or chemotherapy (134 patients), 376 patients received at least one dose. Overall survival was significantly longer in the blinatumomab group than in the chemotherapy group. The median overall survival was 7.7 months in the blinatumomab group and 4.0 months in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death with blinatumomab vs. chemotherapy, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.93; P=0.01). Remission rates within 12 weeks after treatment initiation were significantly higher in the blinatumomab group than in the chemotherapy group, both with respect to complete remission with full hematologic recovery (34% vs. 16%, P<0.001) and with respect to complete remission with full, partial, or incomplete hematologic recovery (44% vs. 25%, P<0.001). Treatment with blinatumomab resulted in a higher rate of event-free survival than that with chemotherapy (6-month estimates, 31% vs. 12%; hazard ratio for an event of relapse after achieving a complete remission with full, partial, or incomplete hematologic recovery, or death, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.71; P<0.001), as well as a longer median duration of remission (7.3 vs. 4.6 months). A total of 24% of the patients in each treatment group underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher were reported in 87% of the patients in the blinatumomab group and in 92% of the patients in the chemotherapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with blinatumomab resulted in significantly longer overall survival than chemotherapy among adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL. (Funded by Amgen; TOWER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02013167 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(2)2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212292

RESUMO

We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine ("AML-001" cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria ("AAR (001-like)" cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for "AML-001" versus "AAR (001-like)" cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML ("AAR (WHO-AML)" cohort; n = 193). Within the registry population, median OS for AAR patients meeting trial inclusion criteria versus all WHO-AML patients was 10.8 versus 11.8 months (p = 0.599), respectively. We thus tested and confirmed the efficacy of azacitidine as a front-line agent in patients with AML, >30% BM blasts and WBC ≤ 15 G/L in a routine clinical practice setting. We further show that the efficacy of azacitidine does not appear to be limited to AML patients who meet stringent clinical trial inclusion criteria, but instead appears efficacious as front-line treatment in all patients with WHO-AML.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Medula Óssea/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Hematol Oncol ; 35(4): 810-813, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27597292

RESUMO

We analyzed the outcome of 80 sequential patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and evaluated the influence of molecular monitoring by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the estimated 5-year relapse-free survival and overall survival were 58% and 66%, respectively. Patients who were in molecular remission at the completion of consolidation chemotherapy had a 21% risk of relapse, while the relapse risk for those in molecular remission at the end of 2 years was 5.5%. Our data indicate that postconsolidation molecular remission does not necessarily preclude disease relapse and further monitoring is required. In contrast, molecular negativity by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the end of 2 years is associated with a low risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nature ; 540(7633): 433-437, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27926740

RESUMO

Refractoriness to induction chemotherapy and relapse after achievement of remission are the main obstacles to cure in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). After standard induction chemotherapy, patients are assigned to different post-remission strategies on the basis of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities that broadly define adverse, intermediate and favourable risk categories. However, some patients do not respond to induction therapy and another subset will eventually relapse despite the lack of adverse risk factors. There is an urgent need for better biomarkers to identify these high-risk patients before starting induction chemotherapy, to enable testing of alternative induction strategies in clinical trials. The high rate of relapse in AML has been attributed to the persistence of leukaemia stem cells (LSCs), which possess a number of stem cell properties, including quiescence, that are linked to therapy resistance. Here, to develop predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers related to stemness, we generated a list of genes that are differentially expressed between 138 LSC+ and 89 LSC- cell fractions from 78 AML patients validated by xenotransplantation. To extract the core transcriptional components of stemness relevant to clinical outcomes, we performed sparse regression analysis of LSC gene expression against survival in a large training cohort, generating a 17-gene LSC score (LSC17). The LSC17 score was highly prognostic in five independent cohorts comprising patients of diverse AML subtypes (n = 908) and contributed greatly to accurate prediction of initial therapy resistance. Patients with high LSC17 scores had poor outcomes with current treatments including allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The LSC17 score provides clinicians with a rapid and powerful tool to identify AML patients who do not benefit from standard therapy and who should be enrolled in trials evaluating novel upfront or post-remission strategies.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Cancer Med ; 5(11): 3031-3040, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734609

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells meet the higher energy, metabolic, and signaling demands of the cell by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein translation. Blocking mitochondrial protein synthesis through genetic and chemical approaches kills human AML cells at all stages of development in vitro and in vivo. Tigecycline is an antimicrobial that we found inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis in AML cells. Therefore, we conducted a phase 1 dose-escalation study of tigecycline administered intravenously daily 5 of 7 days for 2 weeks to patients with AML. A total of 27 adult patients with relapsed and refractory AML were enrolled in this study with 42 cycles being administered over seven dose levels (50-350 mg/day). Two patients experienced DLTs related to tigecycline at the 350 mg/day level resulting in a maximal tolerated dose of tigecycline of 300 mg as a once daily infusion. Pharmacokinetic experiments showed that tigecycline had a markedly shorter half-life in these patients than reported for noncancer patients. No significant pharmacodynamic changes or clinical responses were observed. Thus, we have defined the safety of once daily tigecycline in patients with refractory AML. Future studies should focus on schedules of the drug that permit more sustained target inhibition.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Minociclina/farmacocinética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Recidiva , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Tigeciclina , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Invest New Drugs ; 34(5): 614-24, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27406088

RESUMO

ENMD-2076 is a novel, orally-active molecule that inhibits Aurora A kinase, as well as c-Kit, FLT3 and VEGFR2. A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and toxicities of ENMD-2076 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Patients received escalating doses of ENMD-2076 administered orally daily [225 mg (n = 7), 375 mg (n = 6), 325 mg (n = 9), or 275 mg (n = 5)]. Twenty-seven patients were treated (26 AML; 1 CMML-2). The most common non-hematological toxicities of any grade, regardless of association with drug, were fatigue, diarrhea, dysphonia, dyspnea, hypertension, constipation, and abdominal pain. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) consisted of grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 typhilitis, grade 3 syncope and grade 3 QTc prolongation). Of the 16 evaluable patients, one patient achieved a complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), three experienced a morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) with a major hematologic improvement in platelets (HI-P), and 5 other patients had a reduction in marrow blast percentage (i.e. 11-65 %). The RP2D in this patient population is 225 mg orally once daily.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Pirazóis , Pirimidinas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Aurora Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/metabolismo , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores
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