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1.
Environ Res ; 186: 109534, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361526

RESUMO

Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors (EDs) and are associated with potential diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. In 2002, the plasticizer 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced as an alternative to phthalates in the European market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total exposure to phthalate and DINCH metabolites from EXHES Tarragona, Spain cohort of pregnant women. On the one hand, the analytical determination of phthalate and DINCH metabolites in urine was carried out. On the other hand, the reconstructed exposure was calculated for phthalates and DINCH using their metabolites concentration measured in the urine. Thirteen different phthalate metabolites and two metabolites of DINCH were measured and detected in almost all pregnant women's urine samples (n = 60). There were significant correlations between metabolites of the same parent compounds, and also between DEHP and MBzP metabolites, DiNP and BBZP metabolites, and DEHP and DiNP metabolites respectively. The exposure of pregnant women to phthalate and DINCH parent compounds were also back calculated using the levels of each metabolite found in pregnant women urine (reconstructed exposure). Besides, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to predict the cumulative amount of MEHP (a principal metabolite of DEHP in urine). To proceed with that, DEHP reconstructed exposure and estimated exposure from the same cohort (previously studied by the same authors) were simulated using the PBPK model. Results showed that the reconstructed-PBPK simulation was closer to the 24 h biomonitoring data than the estimated PBPK-simulation., This clearly shows that the combination of reconstructed exposure with the PBPK model is a good tool to predict chemicals exposure. However, some discrepancies between simulated and biomonitored values were found. This can be associated with other sources that contribute to the total exposure and emphasises the need to consider multi-routes exposure for the widely distributed chemicals like phthalates and DINCH.

2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 140: 111298, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220626

RESUMO

This study was aimed at comparing the toxicity effects on cell viability and the obesogenic activity of Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol F (BPF), by in vitro assays with a preadipocytic 3T3-L1 cell line. To compare the toxic potential and select the concentrations of each chemical not showing a decrease in cell viability, MTT assay was performed. The cell phenotype was determined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by red oil O staining. To determine the expression levels of the different adipogenic proteins the Western Blot test was performed. The results from MTT assay showed a greater toxic effect of BPA - at equal and even lower concentrations-than its analogues. However, BPS followed by BPF showed a greater neutral lipid storage capacity than BPA, which was reflected in the increase of the protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma γ (PPARγ) and acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). In summary, these BPA analogues -especially BPS- present a greater endocrine potential activity than BPA.

3.
Environ Res ; 166: 25-34, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859370

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) and Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are two wide spread chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors (ED). The present study aims to estimate the non-dietary (dermal, non-dietary ingestion and inhalation) exposure to BPA and DEHP for a pregnant women cohort. In addition, to assess the prenatal exposure for the fetus, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used. It was adapted for pregnancy in order to assess the internal dosimetry levels of EDs (BPA and DEHP) in the fetus. Estimates of exposure to BPA and DEHP from all pathways along with their relative importance were provided in order to establish which proportion of the total exposure came from diet and which came from non-dietary exposures. In this study, the different oral dosing scenarios (dietary and non-dietary) were considered keeping inhalation as a continuous exposure case. Total non-dietary mean values were 0.002 µg/kgbw/day (0.000; 0.004 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for BPA and 0.597 µg/kgbw/day (0.116 µg/kgbw/day and 1.506 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for DEHP. Indoor environments and especially dust ingestion were the main non-dietary contributors to the total exposure of BPA and DEHP with 60% and 81%. However, as expected, diet showed the higher contribution to total exposure with > 99.9% for BPA and 63% for DEHP. Although diet was considered the primary source of exposure to BPA and phthalates, it must be taken into account that with non-dietary sources the first-pass metabolism is lacking, so these may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources. The present study is in the framework of "Health and environmental-wide associations based on large population surveys" (HEALS) project (FP7-603946).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Exposição Materna , Fenóis/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Espanha
4.
Environ Res ; 158: 566-575, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715785

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to Endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has been associated with obesity and diabetes diseases in childhood, as well as reproductive, behavioral and neurodevelopment problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prenatal exposure to BPA and DEHP through food consumption for pregnant women living in Tarragona County (Spain). Probabilistic calculations of prenatal exposure were estimated by integrated external and internal dosimetry modelling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Physical characteristic data from the cohort, along with food intake information from the questionnaires (concentrations of BPA and DEHP in different food categories and the range of the different food ratios), were used to estimate the value of the total dietary intake for the Tarragona pregnancy cohort. The major contributors to the total dietary intake of BPA were canned fruits and vegetables, followed by canned meat and meat products. In turn, milk and dairy products, followed by ready to eat food (including canned dinners), were the most important contributors to the total dietary intake of DEHP. Despite the dietary variations among the participants, the intakes of both chemicals were considerably lower than their respective current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Internal dosimetry estimates suggest that the plasma concentrations of free BPA and the most important DEHP metabolite, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), in pregnant women were characterized by transient peaks (associated with meals) and short half-lives (< 2h). In contrast, fetal exposure was characterized by a low and sustained basal BPA and MEHP concentration due to a lack of metabolic activity in the fetus. Therefore, EDs may have a greater effect on developing organs in young children or in the unborn child.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Dieta , Dietilexilftalato/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Exposição Materna , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(4): 190-191, oct.-dic. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-129196

RESUMO

La construcción en Constantí (Condado de Tarragona, Cataluña) de la primera, y hasta ahora la única incineradora de residuos peligrosos (IRP) en España, terminó en 1999. En este estudio medimos las concentraciones de determinadas sustancias orgánicas en la sangre y la orina de los trabajadores de la IRP. Las muestras se recogieron en 2011, perteneciendo a 18 hombres y 9 mujeres trabajadores de la instalación después de aproximadamente 12 años de operaciones regulares en las instalaciones. Los resultados se compararon con valores de referencia obtenidos al inicio de la puesta en marcha de la IRP, así como con los datos disponibles para 2008, 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron los niveles en plasma de hexaclorobenceno (HCB), bifenilos policlorados (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, y 180), dibenzo-p-dioxinas y dibenzofuranos (PCDD/Fs), y los niveles en orina de 2,4 - y 2,5-diclorofenol (DCP), 2,4,5 - y 2,4,6-triclorofenol (TCP), pentaclorofenol (PCP) y 1-hidroxipireno (HP-1).En plasma, las concentraciones medias fueron las siguientes: 10,8 μg/kg de lípidos para el HCB; 0,8 μg/kg de lípidos paraPCB28; 0,3 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB52; 0,5 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB101; 42,2 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB138; 18,5 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB153 y 51,2 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB180. Para PCDD/Fs, la concentración media fue de 4,6 ng EQT-I/kg lípidos (4,7 ng lípidos EQT-OMS/kg). Estos niveles, así como los que se encontraron en las muestras de orina, son coincidentes con niveles disponibles en los estudios previos realizados en la misma empresa. Los niveles detectados no indican exposiciones laborales en los trabajadores de la IRP a PCDD/Fs ni a las otras sustancias orgánicas evaluadas. Sin embargo, estos resultados deben considerarse con precaución ya que el número de participantes es limitado y no se dispone de datos sobre las concentraciones en el aire de las sustancias químicas consideradas. En consecuencia, no permiten derivar conclusiones para la aplicación de medidas de higiene industrial en otras IRP (AU)


The construction in Constantí (Tarragona County, Catalonia) of the first, and up till now the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain, finished in 1999. In this study, we measured the concentrations of a number of organic substances determined in blood and urine of the HWI workers. Samples of 18 men and 9 women, classified according to the irrespective workplaces, were collected in 2011, after approximately 12 years of regular operations in the facility. The current results were compared with those of the baseline survey, as well as with the most recent surveys performed in 2008, 2009and 2010. Plasma analyses were carried out for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 28, 52, 101,138, 153, and 180) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), while the levels of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP)were measured in urine samples. In plasma, the mean concentrations were the following: 10.8 μg/kg lipid for HCB; 0.8 μg/kg lipid for PCB28; 0.3 μg/kg lipid for PCB52; 0.5 μg/kg lipid for PCB101; 42.2 μg/kg lipid for PCB138; 18.5 μg/kg lipid forPCB153, and 51.2 μg/kg lipid for PCB180. For PCDD/Fs, the mean concentration was 4.6 ng I-TEQ/kg lipid (4.7 ng WHOTEQ/kg lipid). These levels, as well as those found in urine samples, are in agreement with the data of previous surveys performed in the same area. The current results in HWI workers do not show any evident sign of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs and other organic substances. However, these results must be considered only as an indication of potential exposure, as the study presents notable limitations, such as the reduced number of participants and the lack of data relative to the air concentrations of chemicals. Consequently, general conclusions cannot be derived and the results should not be used as a basis for the implementation of industrial hygiene measures in other HWIs (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Dioxinas/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Perigosos , Armazenamento de Resíduos Perigosos , Contêineres de Resíduos Perigosos
6.
Hamostaseologie ; 29 Suppl 1: S69-73, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19763348

RESUMO

With early prophylactic treatment our haemophilic children grow up in good health. Nevertheless, we cannot prevent every bleeding. Those bleedings may be just subclinical but they could lead to overloading of the knee and more and more of the ankle joint in the long term. Motion analysis can help to understand this process and prevent it. A comparison of the gait function of haemophilic and healthy children of the age 3-18 years showed distinct functional differences especially in the youngest age group (3-6 years). Apparently, the coordination skill gait rhythm was significantly worse in the heamophilic group. All measured functional deficits can be treated with physiotherapy. Possible reasons for these early functional differences are overprotection and/or early subclinical bleedings.


Assuntos
Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/patologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fator IX/uso terapêutico , Fator VIII/uso terapêutico , Hemartrose/etiologia , Hemartrose/patologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Relações Pais-Filho
7.
Infection ; 37(1): 49-51, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18974929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the desirability of replacing closed suction systems after 72 h rather than after 24 h (manufacturer's recommendations) because it is possible that a reduction in the frequency of manipulations might reduce the risk of exogenous nosocomial pneumonia. We investigated the presence of time-dependent differences (after 24 h and 72 h) in pathogen survival/growth in artificially contaminated closed suction catheters (OptiFlo). DESIGN: The trial simulated bacterial contamination of the airways using a suspension of 2 x 10(3) CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Contamination was performed on a total of 80 catheters. Forty were contaminated a total of eight times every 45-60 min. Another 40 catheters underwent the same procedure 24 times over three consecutive days. Microbiological analysis of the catheters took place after 24 h and 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: The mean S. aureus load was 9.4 CFU/catheter after eight suction procedures and 6.2 CFU/catheter after 24 suction procedures (3 days). Mean growth of P. aeruginosa was 5.3 CFU/catheter, and 8.2 CFU/catheter after 3 days. There was no statistically significant difference between day 1 and 3 for S. aureus (p = 0.474), but there was for P. aeruginosa (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that, from an experimental point of view, it remains controversial whether routine change of closed suction catheters can be extended from 24 h to 72 h. However, clinical evidence suggests that prolonged use of a closed suctioning system is safe.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cateterismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 130-4, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17492387

RESUMO

In recent years, incineration has been demonstrated to be a commercially available technology for hazardous waste (HW) disposal (Richter and Johnke, 2004). However, because of the potential adverse effects of toxic emissions, waste incinerators are still an important cause for concern for the public. In spite of that, compliance with current EU emissions has vastly reduced the probability of adverse health effects (Glorennec et al., 2005). With respect to metals, a number of studies have shown that these elements are emitted by industrial, medical and municipal waste incinerators (Schumacher et al., 1997; Rimmer et al., 2006). Filter ash is an especially problematic residue because it contains high metal concentrations (Lisk et al., 1989). After combustion in modern HW incinerators (HWIs), metals contained in HW are mainly collected in bottom and fly ash, with only small quantity of metals being discharged from the stack as particulate matter or vapor (Jung et al., 2004). However, the atmospheric emission of these elements is a matter of concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Incineração , Metais/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Chemosphere ; 67(9): S295-300, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17207841

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in milk from women living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain, were determined. The study was performed after 4 years of regular operations in the facility and the present PCB levels were compared with baseline concentrations obtained in a pre-operational program. PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS in 15 samples. In the present study planar PCBs ranged from 1.3 to 6.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat with a mean value of 3.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. After adding dioxin-like mono-ortho-PCBs the total PCB-TEQ concentrations ranged from 3.8 to 13.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat (mean value: 8.7 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A comparison of the current data with those obtained in the baseline study showed significant decreases for both planar and total WHO-TEQ of PCBs: 47.9% and 44.6%, respectively. PCB concentrations in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those living near industrial areas (10.1 and 7.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, respectively). Mean PBDE concentrations were 2.2 and 2.5 ng/g fat for women living in urban and industrial zones, respectively. Dietary intake of PCBs and PBDEs for a standard adult woman samples were 898 and 843 ng/day for PCBs, and 72 and 63 ng/day for PBDEs, for residents in urban and industrials areas, respectively. This study suggests that dietary intake is more relevant for human exposure to PCBs and PBDEs than living near the HWI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Incineração , Leite Humano/química , Éteres Fenílicos/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Adulto , Cidades , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Resíduos Perigosos , Habitação , Humanos , Indústrias , Éteres Fenílicos/metabolismo , Éteres Fenílicos/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Espanha
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 49(3): 290-8, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16132416

RESUMO

In 1998 and 2001, the levels of a number of elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were determined in 40 soil and 40 herbage samples collected near a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constantí, Catalonia, Spain). In 2003, soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points in which samples had been taken in the previous surveys. During the period 1998-2003, As, Be, Cr, Ni, and V levels showed significant increases in soils. In contrast, the levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn significantly decreased. With respect to herbage, while Cr, Mn, and V concentrations significantly increased, those of As levels diminished. On the other hand, human health risks derived from metal ingestion and inhalation of soils were also assessed. In relation to noncarcinogenic risks, all elements presented a value inside the safe interval. In turn, Cd and Cr were also in the safe interval of carcinogenic risks, whereas in contrast As levels clearly exceeded the regulatory limits concerning carcinogenic risks. According to the results of the previous (2001) and current (2003) surveys, the fluctuations in the metal concentrations suggest that the influence of the HWI is minimal in relation to other metal pollution sources in the area.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Espanha
11.
Chemosphere ; 57(1): 43-9, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15288198

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in breast milk from mothers living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) were determined. Monitoring was performed after three years of regular operations in the facility and the present results were compared with baseline concentrations obtained in a pre-operational program. PCDD/PCDF levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS in 15 samples. In the present study, PCDD/PCDF concentrations ranged from 4.9 to 39.9 pg I-TEQ/g fat (5.1-46.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat), with a median value of 7.7 pg I-TEQ/g fat (9.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). In the baseline survey, PCDD/PCDF concentrations ranged between 5.9 and 17.1 pg I-TEQ/g fat, with a median value of 11.7 pg I-TEQ/g fat. In relation to this, a percentage of reduction of 34.2% was noted. This decrease is in agreement with the relevant reduction found in the dietary intake of PCDD/PCDFs between both surveys. The results of the present study, as well as other recent environmental and biological data, indicate that living in the vicinity of this HWI should not mean additional health risks due to PCDD/PCDFs for the general population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Furanos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Incineração , Espanha
12.
Environ Pollut ; 132(1): 1-11, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15276268

RESUMO

The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 soil and 12 wild chard samples collected in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban/residential zones and in presumably unpolluted sites (control samples). In soils, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1002 and 112 ng/g (dry weight) for samples collected near chemical industries and unpolluted sites, respectively. With the exception of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, anthracene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, no significant differences in the levels of the remaining PAHs were found among the different zones of sample collection. In chard samples, the highest value (sum of 16 PAHs) was observed in the residential area, followed by the industrial and the unpolluted zones, with concentrations of 179, 58 and 28 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. In general terms, the current PAH concentrations in soil and vegetation are lower than the levels reported in a number of investigations from different regions and countries. They are also below the maximum PAH concentrations allowed by the Catalan legislation for different uses of soil.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Acenaftenos/análise , Antracenos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Indústria Química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorenos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espanha , Saúde da População Urbana
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 321(1-3): 59-69, 2004 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15050385

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted (blank samples) sites. Human health risks derived from metal inhalation and ingestion of soils were also assessed. With the exception of an increase in the levels of Cd and V, significant differences in soil samples from the industrial and the unpolluted zone were not found. In chard samples, significant differences between collection sites were only noted for V concentrations. For non-carcinogenic risks, the current levels of metals in the industrial area were lower than those considered as safe for the general population. In relation to carcinogenic risks, only As ingestion and Cr inhalation in the industrial zone might potentially cause an increase of the cases of cancer. A Kohonen self-organized map (an Artificial Neural Network) showed differences in metal concentrations according to the zone of origin of the samples. The current results suggest that although in general terms the petrochemical complex is not a relevant metal pollution source for the area, attention should be paid to As, Cr and V.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Análise de Variância , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Espanha
14.
Chemosphere ; 54(10): 1375-82, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14659939

RESUMO

Artificial neural network (ANN) has been recently introduced as a tool for data analysis. In this study, Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOMs), a special type of neural network, were applied to a set of PCDD/PCDF concentrations found in 54 human milk and 83 food samples, which were collected in a number of countries all over the world. Data were obtained from the scientific literature. The purpose of the study was to find a potential relationship between PCDD/PCDF congener profiles in human milk and the dietary habits of the different countries in which samples were collected. The comparison of the SOM component planes for human milk and foodstuffs indicates that those countries with a greater fish consumption show also higher PCDD/PCDF concentrations in human milk. SOMs enable both the visualization of sample units and the visualization of congener distribution.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Humanos
15.
Environ Int ; 29(4): 415-21, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12705938

RESUMO

In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of metals and PCDD/PCDFs, in May 2001 soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs. In general terms, metal concentrations in soils did not change between May 2000 and May 2001, while significant decreases in the levels of Cr, Ni and V were found in herbage. On the other hand, no significant differences in the mean I-TEQ values of PCDD/PCDFs were found in soil and herbage samples. The results of this survey show that according to the annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs the environmental impact of the cement plant on the area under its direct influence is not relevant.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Manufaturas , Plantas/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 49(2): 153-9, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12375862

RESUMO

Congener profiles are the fractional distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) congeners in an environmental release, or in an environmental or biological sample. In 1999, an adaptation to the EU legislation on pollutant emissions from the stack was carried out in an old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) from Montcada (Barcelona, Spain). The main goal of the present study was to determine if the environmental PCDD/F levels in the area under direct influence of the facility were mainly due to PCDD/F emissions from the plant. For this purpose, soil and herbage samples were collected near the MSWI before (1998) and after (2000) the technical improvements were performed. PCDD/F congener profiles were determined and compared with those from samples collected in a suburban area of Constantí (Tarragona, Spain) outside of direct emissions from any MSWI. The results of the present study suggest that the MSWI here assessed is not the main responsible for the environmental PCDD/F concentrations in the area under evaluation. Other PCDD/F emission sources in the same area seem also to have a notable impact on the atmospheric levels of these pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Incineração , Plantas/química
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 43(4): 461-5, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12399917

RESUMO

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators cause concern to the populations living in the vicinity of these facilities. In this study, the health risks of PCDD/F exposure were assessed for adults and children living 500 and 1,000 m from the MSW incinerator. A comparative analysis was performed before (1998) and after (2000) pronounced decreases in PCDD/F air emissions from the stack were noted as a consequence of technical improvements in the facility. At 500 m, total environmental exposure to PCDD/Fs diminished from 5.102 x 10(-5) to 1.271 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day for adults, and from 8.131 x 10(-5) to 2.656 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day for children, which means a reduction of 75.1% for adults and 67.3% for children between 1998 and 2000. At 1,000 m, total environmental PCDD/F exposure diminished from 4.087 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day in 1998 to 0.995 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day in 2000 and from 6.294 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day in 1998 to 1.983 x 10(-5) ng I-TEQ/kg/day in 2000 for adults and children, respectively. However, these reductions are almost imperceptible compared with the contribution of dietary intake of PCDD/F to total exposure to these contaminants. The present results corroborate that for MSW incinerators with modern technologies, human PCDD/F exposure is mainly due to background contamination.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Criança , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Incineração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 75(7): 500-6, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12172897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine blood and urine concentrations of a number of metals and organic substances in workers at a hazardous-waste incinerator (HWI) 1 year after regular operations in the facility, and to compare these concentrations with the baseline levels. METHODS: The employees were divided into three groups according to their workplaces. Plasma analyses of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and urinary analyses of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) were carried out. The blood concentrations of beryllium, manganese, mercury and lead, and the urine levels of cadmium, chromium, nickel and vanadium were also determined. RESULTS: The current plasma HCB, PCB and PCDD/F levels, and the urine levels of chlorophenols (CLPs) and 1-HP did not show significant differences between workplace groups or the baseline concentrations. Moreover, no significant differences between metal levels could be observed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The lack of differences between the current levels of metals and organic substances and the respective baseline concentrations, together with the absence of differences depending on the workplace indicate that the potential exposure of HWI workers to the analyzed compounds was insignificant. According to these results, 1 year of potential exposure to the above metals and organic substances would not mean any specific health problem for the workers at the HWI.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Incineração , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Adulto , Humanos , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Compostos Orgânicos/sangue , Compostos Orgânicos/urina , Espanha , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
19.
Chemosphere ; 48(2): 187-93, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12117053

RESUMO

In April 1996 and 1998, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were determined in 40 herbage samples collected in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) under construction in Constanti (Catalonia, Spain). In April 2000, 20 months after the HWI began operating, herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points in which samples had been taken in the previous surveys. PCDD/F concentrations ranged between 0.13 and 0.65 ng I-TEQ/kg (dry matter), with a median and mean values of 0.29 and 0.32 ng I-TEQ/kg (dry matter), respectively. The results were compared with those obtained in the 1996 (median, 0.53 ng I-TEQ/kg; mean, 0.61 ng I-TEQ/kg) and the 1998 (median, 0.23 ng I-TEQ/kg; mean, 0.31 ng I-TEQ/kg) surveys. While in the period 1996-1998 a significant decrease (49%, P < 0.001) in the mean PCDD/F levels was noted, in the period 1998-2000 an increase of 3% (P > 0.05) was found in the concentrations of PCDD/Fs. The analysis of the results suggests two potential hypotheses: either the emissions of PCDD/Fs from the HWI are not negligible, or the current PCDD/F emissions from other sources near the HWI remained at similar levels to those reached in 1998. Anyhow, an exhaustive evaluation of the present data shows an absence of notable PCDD/F contamination by the HWI in the area under its direct influence. It seems also probable that the decline in the atmospheric levels of PCDD/Fs due other emission sources of PCDD/Fs in this area is currently stopped.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Plantas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos , Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacocinética , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Espanha
20.
Chemosphere ; 48(2): 209-17, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12117056

RESUMO

In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Tl, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in 16 soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). Metal concentrations were also analyzed in air filters from three sampling stations placed nearthe facility. For most metals, concentrations were similar or even lower than previously reported values for other areas from Catalonia. On the other hand, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) were also determined in four soil and 16 herbage samples. Mean values were 0.37 and 0.16 ng I-TEQ/kg for soils and herbage, respectively, values which in comparison with data from other surveys are rather low. No significant differences between metal and PCDD/F concentrations in samples collected at distances lower or greater than 3.5 km of the facility were noted. The current results show that the cement plant has a low impact on the metal and PCDD/F levels in the environment under direct influence of the facility. These results should be of interest to assess future temporal variations in the levels of metals and PCDD/Fs in this area.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Manufaturas , Plantas/química , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Espanha
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