Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 174
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Facial Plast Surg ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887750

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumor with a high propensity for nodal involvement, local recurrence, and distant metastases. Up to 50% of MCC arises on head and neck (HN), which may impede oncological treatment due to insufficiently wide excisions and a lower rate of sentinel lymph node detection due to more complicated lymph drainage. Several studies have compared the clinical outcome of HN-MCC with those of non-head and neck (NHN) MCC yielding inconsistent results. This single-center, retrospective analysis compared the clinical outcome of 26 HN-MCC patients with 30 NHN-MCC patients. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method assuming proportional hazards. The mean resection margins were 1.6 and 2.0 cm for the HN and NHN cohort, respectively. Local relapses were more frequently observed in patients with HN-MCC (19 vs. 10%). Patients with HN-MCC had a median OS of 4.3 years compared with 7.5 years in patients with NHN-MCC (p = 0.277). The median OS by tumor stage was 11, 3, 2, and 3 years in stage I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively (p = 0.009). The median DFS in HN-MCC was 10 years and not reached in the cohort with NHN-MCC patients (p = 0.939). Our data suggest a trend toward poorer outcomes of HN-MCC compared with NHN-MCC. Patients with MCC on the head and neck carry a higher risk for local relapse, requiring resolute surgical treatment also in facial localizations at early stages.

2.
Cytotherapy ; 21(11): 1166-1178, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines represent a promising treatment strategy, its exploration in the clinic is hampered due to the need for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facilities and associated trained staff for the generation of large numbers of DCs. The Quantum bioreactor system offered by Terumo BCT represents a hollow-fiber platform integrating GMP-compliant manufacturing steps in a closed system for automated cultivation of cellular products. In the respective established protocols, the hollow fibers are coated with fibronectin and trypsin is used to harvest the final cell product, which in the case of DCs allows processing of only one tenth of an apheresis product. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: We successfully developed a new protocol that circumvents the need for fibronectin coating and trypsin digestion, and makes the Quantum bioreactor system now suitable for generating large numbers of mature human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) by processing a complete apheresis product at once. To achieve that, it needed a step-by-step optimization of DC-differentiation, e.g., the varying of media exchange rates and cytokine concentration until the total yield (% of input CD14+ monocytes), as well as the phenotype and functionality of mature Mo-DCs, became equivalent to those generated by our established standard production of Mo-DCs in cell culture bags. CONCLUSIONS: By using this new protocol for the Food and Drug Administration-approved Quantum system, it is now possible for the first time to process one complete apheresis to automatically generate large numbers of human Mo-DCs, making it much more feasible to exploit the potential of individualized DC-based immunotherapy.

3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2625-2631, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective against a wide variety of cancers. However, they also induce a plethora of unique immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Since for many organ systems symptoms can be unspecific, differential diagnosis with progression of disease or infection may be difficult. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested as a marker for infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CRP in differentiating infectious causes from autoimmune side effects induced by ICIs. METHODS: In order to investigate the role of CRP in irAEs, we screened our patient data base. Only events with full infectious workup were included. In total 88 events of irAEs in 37 melanoma patients were analyzed. CRP levels before and during irAEs were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test for categorical variables. RESULTS: At the onset of irAE, CRP rose in 93% of cases to a mean of 52.7 mg/L (CI 35.1-70.3) from 8.4 mg/L at baseline (normal < 5 mg/L) (P < 0.0001). Other causes of CRP elevation including infectious diseases were excluded, and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were normal in 92% of events. Importantly, in 42% of cases CRP elevations preceded clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: CRP elevation can predict the onset of irAEs in patients treated with ICIs in the absence of infectious disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Imunomodulação , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5452-5456, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416842

RESUMO

Therapeutic anticancer vaccination has been adapted as an immunotherapy in several solid tumors. However, the selection of promising candidates from the total quantity of possible epitopes poses a challenge to clinicians and bioinformaticians alike, and very few epitopes have been tested in experimental or clinical settings to validate their efficacy. Here, we present a comprehensive database of predicted nonmutated peptide epitopes derived from genes that are overly expressed in a group of 32 melanoma biopsies compared with healthy tissues and that were filtered against expression in a curated list of survival-critical tissues. We hypothesize that these "self-tolerant" epitopes have two desirable properties: they do not depend on mutations, being immediately applicable to a large patient collective, and they potentially cause fewer autoimmune reactions. To support epitope selection, we provide an aggregated score of expected therapeutic efficiency as a shortlist mechanism. The database has applications in facilitating epitope selection and trial design and is freely accessible at https://www.curatopes.com. SIGNIFICANCE: A database is presented that predicts and scores antitumor T-cell epitopes, with a focus on tolerability and avoidance of severe autoimmunity, offering a supplementary epitope set for further investigation in immunotherapy.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426437

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells already showed impressive clinical regressions in leukemia and lymphoma. However, the development of CAR-T cells against solid tumors lags behind. Here we present the clinical-scale production of CAR-T cells for the treatment of melanoma under full GMP compliance. In this approach a CAR, specific for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is intentionally transiently expressed by mRNA electroporation for safety reasons. The clinical-scale protocol was optimized for: (i) expansion of T cells, (ii) electroporation efficiency, (iii) viability, (iv) cryopreservation, and (v) potency. Four consistency runs resulted in CAR-T cells in clinically sufficient numbers, i.e., 2.4 × 109 CAR-expressing T cells, starting from 1.77x108 PBMCs, with an average expansion of 13.6x, an electroporation efficiency of 88.0% CAR-positive cells, a survival of 74.1% after electroporation, and a viability of 84% after cryopreservation. Purity was 98.7% CD3+ cells, with 78.1% CD3+/CD8+ T cells and with minor contaminations of 1.2% NK cells and 0.6% B cells. The resulting CAR-T cells were tested for cytolytic activity after cryopreservation and showed antigen-specific and very efficient lysis of tumor cells. Although our work is descriptive rather than investigative in nature, we expect that providing this clinically applicable protocol to generate sufficient numbers of mRNA-transfected CAR-T cells will help in moving the field of adoptive cell therapy of cancer forward.

6.
J Immunol Methods ; 472: 55-64, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207210

RESUMO

Introduction of a tumor antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) into patient-derived lymphocytes has already exhibited promising results for the treatment of melanoma and other malignancies in clinical trials. However, insufficient or unsuccessful ex vivo manufacturing of engineered T cells due to low expansion and/or transduction rate can still be observed in some patients. Thus, we isolated human CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and equipped them with a gp100-specific TCR using a lentiviral construct in combination with a novel chemical lentiviral transduction enhancer (Lentiboost) to increase the rate of transduced cells. Following experiments to determine the ideal multiplicity of infection (MOI) and to analyze the efficacy of the transduction enhancer using a GFP-encoding lentivirus, we analyzed in the next step the transduction rate, cell count, and functionality of gp100 TCR-transduced T cells, i.e. antigen-specific cytokine secretion and lytic capacity. In order to increase the number of transduced cells, antigen-specific stimulation was performed, either once for 1 week (1st activation) or twice for another week (2nd activation). In general, each cycle of antigen-specific stimulation resulted in expansion of TCR-positive cells, while no further significant increase of transduced cells was observed after 2nd activation. Cytokine production pattern of transduced cells after antigen encounter, however, revealed significant antigen-specific secretion of TNF and IFNγ after the 1st as well as the 2nd activation. Furthermore, TCR T cells, either activated once or twice, showed significant cytotoxicity towards antigen-positive tumor cells. Taken together, these results show that it is feasible to transduce human T cells using a lentiviral construct in combination with this novel lentiviral transduction enhancer, which shows potential in the growing field of cancer immunotherapy.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195686

RESUMO

The advent of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has proven to be a powerful asset in the arsenal of cancer immunotherapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and certain B cell lymphomas. However, a sizable portion of patients treated with CD19-CAR T cells relapse with CD19-negative cancer cells, necessitating the quest for back-up antigens. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) expression has been reported on leukemic blasts bearing the ill-fated MLL 11q23 rearrangement. We aimed at exploring the use of CSPG4-specific CAR T cells against mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged leukemic blasts, using the precursor B cell leukemia cell line KOPN8 (MLL-MLLT1 translocation) as a model. First, we confirmed CSPG4 expression on KOPN8 cells. Bulk T cells electroporated with mRNA encoding a CSPG4-specific CAR upregulated activation markers and secreted the Th1 cytokines TNF and IFNγ in an antigen-specific manner upon co-culture with KOPN8 cells. More importantly, CSPG4-specific CAR T cells evinced specific degranulation towards KOPN8 cells and specifically lysed KOPN8 target cells in chromium lysis experiments. CSPG4 is a well-established CAR target in cutaneous melanoma. Here, we provide proof-of-principle data for the use of CSPG4-specific CAR T cells against MLL-translocated leukemias.


Assuntos
Antígenos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia de Células B/terapia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Th1/imunologia
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137488

RESUMO

Tumor cells can develop immune escape mechanisms to bypass T cell recognition, e.g., antigen loss or downregulation of the antigen presenting machinery, which represents a major challenge in adoptive T cell therapy. To counteract these mechanisms, we transferred not only one, but two receptors into the same T cell to generate T cells expressing two additional receptors (TETARs). We generated these TETARs by lentiviral transduction of a gp100-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and subsequent electroporation of mRNA encoding a second-generation CSPG4-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Following pilot experiments to optimize the combined DNA- and RNA-based receptor transfer, the functionality of TETARs was compared to T cells either transfected with the TCR only or the CAR only. After transfection, TETARs clearly expressed both introduced receptors on their cell surface. When stimulated with tumor cells expressing either one of the antigens or both, TETARs were able to secrete cytokines and showed cytotoxicity. The confirmation that two antigen-specific receptors can be functionally combined using two different methods to introduce each receptor into the same T cell opens new possibilities and opportunities in cancer immunotherapy. For further evaluation, the use of these TETARs in appropriate animal models will be the next step towards a potential clinical use in cancer patients.

10.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(2)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846484

RESUMO

Upon tumor development, new extracellular vesicles appear in circulation. Our knowledge of their relative abundance, function, and overall impact on cancer development is still preliminary. Here, we demonstrate that plasma extracellular vesicles (pEVs) of non-tumor origin are persistently increased in untreated and post-excision melanoma patients, exhibiting strong suppressive effects on the proliferation of tumor cells. Plasma vesicle numbers, miRNAs, and protein levels were elevated two- to tenfold and detected many years after tumor resection. The vesicles revealed individual and clinical stage-specific miRNA profiles as well as active ADAM10. However, whereas pEV from patients preventing tumor relapse down-regulated ß-catenin and blocked tumor cell proliferation in an miR-34a-dependent manner, pEV from metastatic patients lost this ability and stimulated ß-catenin-mediated transcription. Cancer-induced pEV may constitute an innate immune mechanism suppressing tumor cell activity including that of residual cancer cells present after primary surgery.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Melanoma/sangue , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Proteína ADAM10 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Antagomirs/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Proteínas de Membrana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Transfecção , Adulto Jovem
11.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(4): 268-274, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Incidence of melanoma is increasing globally. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as important risk factor for developing skin cancer can be influenced by tanning behavior. Only a few studies are available concerning sun tanning behavior and protective measures. METHODS: An online survey was distributed via social media to assess tanning habits and examine associated demographic and behavioral factors. RESULTS: In total, 403 questionnaires were distributed, and mean age of respondents was 32. Having a tanned skin, feeling warm and relaxed were the most common motivations for tanning. The use of sunscreen varied and seemed to depend on the occasion of UVR exposure, constantly applied during vacation and during tanning, less commonly applied in daily life and during work. Avoiding painful solar dermatitis was more important as motivation for the use of sunscreen than skin cancer prevention. Skin aging as reason for the use of sunscreen was especially important for females younger than 26 years. The most common applied sun protection factor was 16-49. The main reason opposing the use of sunscreen was a too laborious usage, which was significantly associated with male. Beauty was the only association related to tanned skin the majority (62%) agreed with. CONCLUSION: The motivation for tanning and reasons for avoiding sunscreen strongly varies. Knowledge about these factors could be used for improving campaigns with respect to target groups. Clarifying the appropriate application of sunscreen, developing convenient sunscreen formulations and providing information about UVR-induced skin aging could lead to an increased usage of sunscreen and therefore to an improved UVR protection.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 207, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of eosinophils in cancer is not yet completely understood, but patients with eosinophilia show a trend towards longer survival in several types of cancer, including melanoma. However, eosinophil count at initial diagnosis of metastatic melanoma does not predict survival. Since eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) mediates anticancer effects, such as tissue remodelling and cytotoxic activity, we investigated this marker as an early prognostic marker in metastatic melanoma. METHODS: Serum of 56 melanoma patients was collected at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. ECP levels as measured by ELISA were correlated with overall survival (OS) in patients before systemic therapy with immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Statistical analyses were performed using the Log-Rank (Mantel-Cox) test. RESULTS: The median OS for patients with high serum ECP above 12.2 ng/ml was 12 months (n = 39), compared to 28 months for patients with ECP below this threshold (n = 17; p = 0.0642). In patients with cutaneous melanoma, excluding patients with uveal and mucosal melanoma, the survival difference was even more striking (p = 0.0393). ECP's effect size on OS was observed independently of the consecutive therapy. ECP levels were not correlated with LDH levels. CONCLUSION: ECP seems to be a novel prognostic serum marker for the outcome of melanoma patients, which is independent of LDH and easy to perform in clinical practice. The striking negative prognostic value of high ECP level is unanticipated and can guide patient management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteína Catiônica de Eosinófilo/sangue , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Terapia Combinada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eosinofilia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases/sangue , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 462-472, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin cancer with increasing incidence and high mortality rates. MCC has recently become the subject of immune checkpoint therapy, but reliable biomarkers for estimating prognosis, risk stratification, and prediction of response are missing. METHODS: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were detected in peripheral blood from patients with MCC by use of the CellSearch® system. Moreover, CTCs of selected cases were characterized for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), chromosomal aberrations, and programed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) production. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were tested at first blood draw (baseline), and 16 patients had 2 or 3 consecutive measurements to detect CTCs. At baseline, ≥1 CTC (range, 1-790), >1, or ≥5 CTCs/7.5 mL were detected in 21 (41%), 17 (33%), and 6 (12%) patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 21.1 months for 50 patients, detection of CTCs correlated with overall survival (≥1, P = 0.030; >1, P < 0.020; and ≥5 CTCs/7.5 mL, P < 0.0001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the detection of ≥5 CTCs/7.5 mL adjusted to age and sex compared to that of <5 was associated with a reduced overall survival (P = 0.001, hazard ratio = 17.8; 95% CI, 4.0-93.0). MCPyV DNA and genomic aberrations frequently found in MCC tissues could also be detected in single CTCs. Analyzed CTCs were PD-L1 negative or only weakly positive. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CTCs is a prognostic factor of impaired clinical outcome, with the potential to monitor the progression of the disease in real time. Molecular characterization of CTCs might provide new insights into the biology of MCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/diagnóstico , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/metabolismo , Contagem de Células/métodos , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1147-1150, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151962

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that the age-related remodeling of the immune system, known as immunosenescence, could impact the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in leukemia or nonsmall cell lung cancer. We investigated whether senescence markers can predict response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy in melanoma patients. The peripheral blood of patients with newly diagnosed, untreated metastatic melanoma was analyzed by flow cytometry to correlate the frequency of senescence markers with clinical response as measured by RECIST after 12 weeks of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. The loss of surface markers CD27 and CD28 or the expression of Tim-3 and CD57 on T cells was associated with resistance to checkpoint inhibitor blockade, presenting these phenotypes as possible predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Immunosenescence seems to impact on the response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy in melanoma patients. Thus, lymphocyte phenotyping for senescence markers, with the introduction of immunosenescence panels, could be predictive for checkpoint inhibitor response.


Assuntos
Imunossenescência/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Antígenos CD57/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 106: 12-23, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453170

RESUMO

AIM: To characterise clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathologic characteristics and assess the treatment and outcome of neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint therapy. METHODS: The side-effect registry and the institutional database from ten skin cancer centres were queried for reports on myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by checkpoint inhibitors. In total, 38 patients treated with ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab for metastatic skin cancer were evaluated and characterised. RESULTS: Myositis was the most frequent neuromuscular adverse event. In 32% of cases, myositis was complicated by concomitant myocarditis. Furthermore, cases of isolated myocarditis, myasthenia gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica, radiculoneuropathy and asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation were reported. The onset of side-effects ranged from the first week of treatment to 115 weeks after the start of therapy. Most of the cases were severe (49% grade III-IV Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), and there were two fatalities (5%) due to myositis and myositis with concomitant myocarditis. Only half of the cases (50%) completely resolved, whereas the rest was either ongoing or had sequelae. Steroids were given in 80% of the resolved cases and in 40% of the unresolved cases. CONCLUSION: Immune-mediated neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors greatly vary in presentation and differ from their idiopathic counterparts. These side-effects can be life threatening and may result in permanent sequelae. Occurrence of these side-effects must be taken into consideration for patient information, especially when considering adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies and monitoring, which should include regular surveillance of creatine kinase.

16.
Life Sci Alliance ; 1(6): e201800093, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519676

RESUMO

During inflammation, murine and human monocytes can develop into dendritic cells (DC), but this process is not entirely understood. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by mature human DC (maDC) differentiate peripheral monocytes into immature DC, expressing a unique marker pattern, including 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan), Zbtb46, CD64, and CD14. While EV from both maDC and immature DC differentiated monocytes similar to GM-CSF/IL-4 stimulation, only maDC-EV produced precursors, which upon maturation stimulus developed into T-cell-activating and IL-12p70-secreting maDC. Mechanistically, maDC-EV induced cell signaling through GM-CSF, which was abundant in EV as were IL-4 and other cytokines and chemokines. When injected into the mouse skin, murine maDC-EV attracted immune cells including monocytes that developed activation markers typical for inflammatory cells. Skin-injected EV also reached lymph nodes, causing a similar immune cell infiltration. We conclude that DC-derived EV likely serve to perpetuate an immune reaction and may contribute to chronic inflammation.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 38(11): 6571-6577, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node status is a strong prognostic factor in melanoma. However, up to 21% of sentinel lymph node-negative patients develop locoregional and distant metastases during follow-up. AIM: To analyze risk factors for locoregional and distant metastasis in patients with sentinel lymph node-negative melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 545 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) between 2005 and 2013 at our hospital. Data for 449 patients with a negative SNB were analyzed regarding risk factors and development of metastases. Follow-up was performed until 2016. RESULTS: A total of 72 SNB-negative patients developed metastases, including 25 (34.7%) distant and 47 (63.3%) locoregional metastases. Locoregional metastases occurred earlier compared to distant metastases (with a mean of 24.2 and 23.5 months for regional lymph node and cutaneous metastases, respectively, vs. 31.4 months for distant metastases). Patients with metastases despite negative SNB had a greater tumor thickness (p=0.001), a higher rate of nodular melanoma (p=0.001), ulceration (p<0.001), and were older (p=0.05) compared to SNB-negative patients without subsequent metastases. Out of SNB-negative patients, 16% developed metastases. CONCLUSION: Close clinical follow-up including sonography of the draining lymph node region is mandatory for melanoma patients regardless of SNB status.


Assuntos
Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/patologia , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Immunol Methods ; 463: 89-96, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266448

RESUMO

Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have been successfully used for immunotherapy of cancer and infections. A major obstacle is the need for high-level class A cleanroom cGMP facilities for DC generation. The CliniMACS Prodigy® (Prodigy) represents a new platform integrating all GMP-compliant manufacturing steps in a closed system for automated production of various cellular products, notably T cells, NK cells and CD34+ cells. We now systematically tested its suitability for producing human mature monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), and optimized it by directly comparing the Prodigy approach to our established standard production of Mo-DCs from elutriated monocytes in dishes or bags. Upon step-by-step identification of an optimal cell concentration for the Prodigy's CentriCult culture chamber, the total yield (% of input CD14+ monocytes), phenotype, and functionality of mature Mo-DCs were equivalent to those generated by the standard protocol. Technician's labor time was comparable for both methods, but the Prodigy approach significantly reduced hands-on time and high-level clean room resources. In summary, using our optimized conditions for the CliniMACS Prodigy, human Mo-DCs for clinical application can be generated almost automatically in a fully closed system. A significant drawback of the Prodigy approach was, however, that due to the limited size of the CentriCult culture chamber, in contrast to our standard semi-closed elutriation approach, only one fourth of an apheresis could be processed at once.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Dendríticas , Monócitos , Automação Laboratorial/instrumentação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucaférese , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103488

RESUMO

Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent a cell subpopulation that combines characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. Through their endogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs), they reveal a pronounced intrinsic anti-tumor activity. Thus, a NKT cell transfected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which recognizes a tumor-specific surface antigen, could attack tumor cells antigen-specifically via the CAR and additionally through its endogenous TCR. NKT cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanded, and electroporated with mRNA encoding a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific CAR. The CAR expression on NKT cells and their in vitro functionality were analyzed. A transfection efficiency of more than 80% was achieved. Upon stimulation with melanoma cells, CAR-NKT cells produced cytokines antigen-specifically. Compared with conventional CAR-T cells, cytokine secretion of CAR-NKT cells was generally lower. Specific cytotoxicity, however, was similar with CAR-NKT cells showing a trend towards improved cytotoxicity. Additionally, CAR-NKT cells could kill target cells through their endogenous TCRs. In summary, it is feasible to generate CAR-NKT cells by using mRNA electroporation. Their CAR-mediated cytotoxicity is at least equal to that of conventional CAR-T cells, while their intrinsic cytotoxic activity is maintained. Thus, CAR-NKT cells may represent a valuable alternative to conventional CAR-T cells for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/terapia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Oncotarget ; 9(48): 28903-28909, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988983

RESUMO

Dual immune-checkpoint blockade with the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab (1 mg/kg) and standard-dose ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) is the mainstay of immunotherapy in advanced melanoma and it is approved since 2016. However, severe side effects (grade 3/4) occur in up to 60% of the patients. Recently, clinical trials have shown similar anti-tumor activity with a more favorable toxicity profile in patients treated with low-dose ipilimumab (1 mg/kg) and standard-dose pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg). In this study we report on the real-world experience of this dosing regime in advanced melanoma patients not eligible for clinical trials. A total of 33 patients with metastatic melanoma (24 with cutaneous and 9 with uveal melanoma) were assessed, retrospectively. Brain metastases were present in 33% of the patients and lactate dehydrogenase was elevated in 70%. Overall response rates were 38% and 0% in cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma respectively. Median overall survival was not reached in cutaneous melanoma and was 18 months in uveal melanoma. In 18% of the patients at least one treatment-related severe adverse event was observed. Our observation that the combination of standard dose pembrolizumab and low-dose ipilimumab has a favorable toxicity profile yet anti-tumor activity comparable to the approved standard-dose combination regime in advanced patients not suitable for enrollment in clinical trials is encouraging.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA