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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 7, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum phagocyte-derived alarmins S100A8/9 and S100A12 are considered useful for the assessment of inflammatory diseases. Our study evaluated the use of S100 proteins in a pediatric clinical setting for estimating disease activity and supporting diagnosis. METHODS: Patients (n = 136) who had S100 proteins tested as part of clinical care were included in this study and relevant information obtained from the medical record: C-reactive protein (CRP), disease activity status (inactive: = 0 joint; active: > 0 active joint), systemic symptoms in systemic JIA (sJIA), and symptoms of flare of other autoinflammatory and fever syndromes. Patients were categorized as: sJIA, non-systemic JIA (nsJIA), other defined autoinflammatory syndromes (AID) and systemic undifferentiated recurring fever syndromes (SURFS). RESULTS: Patients with sJIA (n = 21) had significantly higher levels of S100A8/9 and S100A12 compared to patients with nsJIA (n = 49), other AIDs (n = 8) or SURFS (n = 14) (all p < 0.0001). Compared to CRP [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) = 0.7], S100 proteins were superior in differentiating sJIA from AID and SURFS [AUC = 0.9]. S100A8/9 and S100A12 levels were not associated with disease activity in nsJIA, AID or SURFS. S100A8/9 and S100A12 levels were significantly higher in active sJIA compared to inactive (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0002 respectively). CONCLUSION: Compared to other autoinflammatory and fever syndromes, sJIA patients have markedly higher levels of S100A8/9 and S100A12 proteins which may assist with diagnosis. S100 levels slightly outperformed CRP in distinguishing sJIA from other diagnoses and in sJIA disease activity. S100 proteins may aid in monitoring disease activity in sJIA patients.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 225-231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) characterised by a vicious cycle of immune amplification that can culminate in overwhelming inflammation and multiorgan failure. The clinical features of MAS overlap with those of active sJIA, complicating early diagnosis and treatment. We evaluated adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2), a protein of unknown function released principally by monocytes and macrophages, as a novel biomarker of MAS. METHODS: We established age-based normal ranges of peripheral blood ADA2 activity in 324 healthy children and adults. We compared these ranges with 173 children with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including systemic and non-systemic JIA, Kawasaki disease, paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile dermatomyositis. RESULTS: ADA2 elevation beyond the upper limit of normal in children was largely restricted to sJIA with concomitant MAS, a finding confirmed in a validation cohort of sJIA patients with inactive disease, active sJIA without MAS or sJIA with MAS. ADA2 activity strongly correlated with MAS biomarkers including ferritin, interleukin (IL)-18 and the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible chemokine CXCL9 but displayed minimal association with the inflammatory markers C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Correspondingly, ADA2 paralleled disease activity based on serial measurements in patients with recurrent MAS episodes. IL-18 and IFN-γ elicited ADA2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and ADA2 was abundant in MAS haemophagocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings collectively identify the utility of plasma ADA2 activity as a biomarker of MAS and lend further support to a pivotal role of macrophage activation in this condition.

3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(2): 361-366, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a childhood arthritis with features of autoinflammation and high risk of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). IL-18 has been shown to have key roles in sJIA and MAS. We aimed to examine IL-18 levels in sJIA in relation to disease activity and history of MAS and other disease biomarkers namely S100 proteins and CXCL9. METHODS: Total IL-18, CXCL9 and S100 proteins levels were determined in 40 sJIA patients, and IL-18 levels were compared between patients with regards to disease activity, history of MAS, and other biomarkers. RESULTS: Total IL-18 levels were significantly higher in patients with active sJIA (median 16 499 pg/ml; interquartile range (IQR) 4816-61 839), and remained persistently elevated even in the majority of patients with inactive disease (1164 pg/ml; IQR 587-3444). Patients with history of MAS had significantly higher IL-18 levels (13 380 pg/ml; IQR 4212-62 628) as compared with those without MAS history (956.5 pg/ml; IQR 276.3-4262.5). Total IL-18 performed well with area under the curve of 0.8145 and 0.84 in predicting disease activity and history of MAS, respectively. We observed moderate correlation between IL-18 and CXCL9 (R = 0.56), S100A8/A9 (R = 0.47) and S100A12 (R = 0.46). The correlation was stronger for ferritin (R = 0.74) and overall for those with active disease. CONCLUSION: Total IL-18 levels were elevated in the majority of sJIA patients regardless of clinical features, but were higher in patients with active disease and history of MAS. Change in IL-18 may reflect increased disease activity or development of MAS.

5.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748120

RESUMO

We describe 10 children with Alagille syndrome and inflammatory arthritis. In our centers, the prevalence of chronic arthritis in patients with Alagille syndrome is approximately 50 times higher compared with the general population. Arthritis was refractory to most treatment. Patients with Alagille syndrome should routinely be screened for musculoskeletal symptoms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710506

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Interleukin (IL) 18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and elevated blood IL-18 concentrations associate with disease activity in Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) and poor clinical outcomes in severe inflammatory and septic conditions. OBJECTIVE: While recent investigations provide mechanistic evidence for a contribution of IL-18 to (hyper)inflammation in sepsis and MAS, we sought to study regulatory mechanisms underlying human IL-18 expression. METHODS: Samples from in vivo and in vitro endotoxin re-challenge experiments, inflammatory disease patients and isolated human monocytes treated with various stimulants and drugs were tested for cytokine gene and protein expression. Serum IL-18 expression with or without JAK/STAT-inhibition was analyzed in two MAS mouse models as well as a patient with recurrent MAS. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Peripheral blood as well as monocytic IL-18 expression escaped lipopolysacharide (LPS)-induced immunoparalysis. LPS-stimulated primary human monocytes revealed a specific IL-18 expression kinetics controlled by IFNα/ß-signaling. JAK/STAT-inhibition or IFNß-neutralization during LPS-stimulation blunted cytokine expression. Similarly, microtubule destabilizing drugs abrogated LPS-induced IL18 expression, which could be fully reversed by addition of IFNα/ß. Ex vivo analysis of inflammatory disease patients' whole blood revealed strong correlation of type I interferon score and IL18 expression, while JAK/STAT-inhibition in two MAS mouse models as well as a patient with recurrent MAS strongly reduced IL-18 serum levels. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that IL-18 (but not IL-1ß) production from human monocytes requires cooperate toll-like receptor and IFNα/ß-signaling. Interference with IFNα/ß-expression or signaling following JAK/STAT-inhibition may control catastrophic hyperinflammation in MAS. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601430

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants G1 and G2 are known to result in risk for kidney disease in patients of African ancestry. APOL1-associated nephropathy typically occurs in association with certain environmental factors or systemic diseases. As such, there has been increasing evidence of the role of interferon (IFN) pathways in the pathogenesis of APOL1-associated collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus, 2 conditions that are associated with high IFN levels. Collapsing glomerulopathy has also been described in patients receiving exogenous IFN therapy administered for various medical conditions. We describe a patient with a genetic condition that results in an increased IFN state, stimulator of IFN genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), who developed collapsing glomerulopathy during a flare of his disease. The patient was found to have APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants. This case supports the role of IFN in inducing APOL1-associated collapsing glomerulopathy.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572403

RESUMO

Inflammatory arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exhibit the shared feature of changes in activation and polarization of circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages. Numerous microRNAs (miRs) have been found to have key functions in regulating inflammation and macrophage polarization. Although there is increasing interest in the roles of miRs in both RA and JIA, less is known regarding how miRs relate to functional properties of immune cells, including monocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, miRs can function both to promote inflammatory phenotypes and pro-inflammatory polarization, as well as through negative-feedback loops to limit inflammation. Here, we review the functional roles of several miRs in macrophages in inflammatory arthritis, with a particular focus on vivo effects of miR alteration in experimental arthritis. We also consider how current efforts to target miRs clinically could modify functional monocyte and macrophage polarization in vivo, and serve as novel therapies for diseases such as RA and JIA.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1722-1731, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of a novel parenchymal lung disease (LD), increasingly detected in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, 61 cases were investigated using physician-reported clinical information and centralised analyses of radiological, pathological and genetic data. RESULTS: LD was associated with distinctive features, including acute erythematous clubbing and a high frequency of anaphylactic reactions to the interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab. Serum ferritin elevation and/or significant lymphopaenia preceded LD detection. The most prevalent chest CT pattern was septal thickening, involving the periphery of multiple lobes ± ground-glass opacities. The predominant pathology (23 of 36) was pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or endogenous lipoid pneumonia (PAP/ELP), with atypical features including regional involvement and concomitant vascular changes. Apparent severe delayed drug hypersensitivity occurred in some cases. The 5-year survival was 42%. Whole exome sequencing (20 of 61) did not identify a novel monogenic defect or likely causal PAP-related or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)-related mutations. Trisomy 21 and young sJIA onset increased LD risk. Exposure to IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors (46 of 61) was associated with multiple LD features. By several indicators, severity of sJIA was comparable in drug-exposed subjects and published sJIA cohorts. MAS at sJIA onset was increased in the drug-exposed, but was not associated with LD features. CONCLUSIONS: A rare, life-threatening lung disease in sJIA is defined by a constellation of unusual clinical characteristics. The pathology, a PAP/ELP variant, suggests macrophage dysfunction. Inhibitor exposure may promote LD, independent of sJIA severity, in a small subset of treated patients. Treatment/prevention strategies are needed.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1943-1954, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is associated with a recently recognized, albeit poorly defined and characterized, lung disease (LD). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and histopathologic and immunologic features of this novel inflammatory LD associated with systemic JIA (designated SJIA-LD). METHODS: Clinical data collected since 2010 were abstracted from the medical records of patients with systemic JIA from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Epidemiologic, cellular, biochemical, genomic, and transcriptional profiling analyses were performed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with SJIA-LD were identified. Radiographic findings included diffuse ground-glass opacities, subpleural reticulation, interlobular septal thickening, and lymphadenopathy. Pathologic findings included patchy, but extensive, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and mixed features of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and endogenous lipoid pneumonia. Compared to systemic JIA patients without LD, those with SJIA-LD were younger at the diagnosis of systemic JIA (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P = 0.007), more often had prior episodes of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) (OR 14.5, P < 0.001), had a greater frequency of adverse reactions to biologic therapy (OR 13.6, P < 0.001), and had higher serum levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) (median 27,612 pg/ml versus 5,413 pg/ml; P = 0.047). Patients with SJIA-LD lacked genetic, serologic, or functional evidence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor pathway dysfunction, a feature that is typical of familial or autoimmune PAP. Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with SJIA-LD rarely demonstrated proteinaceous material and had less lipid-laden macrophages than that seen in patients with primary PAP (mean 10.5% in patients with SJIA-LD versus 66.1% in patients with primary PAP; P < 0.001). BAL fluid from patients with SJIA-LD contained elevated levels of IL-18 and the interferon-γ-induced chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10. Transcriptional profiling of the lung tissue from patients with SJIA-LD identified up-regulated type II interferon and T cell activation networks. This signature was also present in SJIA-LD human lung tissue sections that lacked substantial histopathologic findings, suggesting that this activation signature may precede and drive the lung pathology in SJIA-LD. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary disease is increasingly detected in children with systemic JIA, particularly in association with MAS. This entity has distinct clinical and immunologic features and represents an uncharacterized inflammatory LD.

11.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 48, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe a Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) survey of North American pediatric rheumatologists that assesses physician attitudes on withdrawal of medications in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA). METHODS: A REDCap anonymous electronic survey was distributed to 100 random CARRA JIA workgroup physician-voting members. The survey had three broad sections including: A) demographic information; B) physicians' opinions on clinical inactive disease (CID) in SJIA and C) existing practices for withdrawing medications in SJIA. RESULTS: The survey had an 86% response rate. 88 and 93% of participants agreed with the current criteria for CID and clinical remission on medications (CRM) respectively. 78% thought it necessary to meet CRM before tapering medications except steroids. 76% use CARRA SJIA consensus treatment plans always or the majority of the time. All participants weaned steroids first in SJIA patients on combination therapy, 47% waited > 6 months before tapering additional medications. 35% each tapered methotrexate over > 6 months and 2-6 months; however, 39% preferred tapering anakinra, canakinumab and tocilizumab more quickly over 2-6 months and favored spacing the dosing interval for canakinumab and tocilizumab. When patients are on combination therapy with methotrexate and biologics, 58% preferred tapering methotrexate first while others considered patient/family preference and adverse effects to guide their choice. CONCLUSION: Most CARRA members surveyed use published consensus treatment plans for SJIA and agree with validated definitions of CID and CRM. There was agreement with tapering steroids first in SJIA. There was considerable variability with tapering decisions of all other medications.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Desprescrições , Reumatologistas , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Immunol ; 202(5): 1635-1643, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683706

RESUMO

CD163 facilitates regulation and resolution of inflammation and removal of free hemoglobin and is highly expressed in myeloid cells from patients with inflammatory disorders, such as systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Our recent studies indicate that regulation of CD163 mRNA expression is a key functional property of polarized monocytes and macrophages and is mediated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, including via microRNAs. The goal of the current study is to develop a multiparameter flow cytometry panel incorporating detection of CD163 mRNA for polarized monocyte and macrophage populations in disorders such as SJIA and MAS. THP-1 cells and CD14+ human monocytes were stained using fluorochrome-conjugated Abs to myeloid surface markers, along with CD163 mRNA. Staining for mRNA could reliably detect CD163 expression while simultaneously detecting different macrophage populations using Abs targeting CD14, CD64, CD80, CD163, and CD209. This approach was found to be highly sensitive for increased mRNA expression when macrophages were polarized with IL-10 [M(IL-10)], with a strong signal over a broad range of IL-10 concentrations, and showed distinct kinetics of CD163 mRNA and protein induction upon IL-10 stimulation. Finally, this panel demonstrated clear changes in polarization markers in unstimulated monocytes from patients with SJIA and MAS, including upregulated CD163 mRNA and increased CD64 expression. This approach represents a robust and sensitive system for RNA flow cytometry, useful for studying CD163 expression as part of a multimarker panel for human monocytes and macrophages, with broad applicability to the pathogenesis of hyperinflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/análise , Citometria de Fluxo , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores de Superfície Celular/análise , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(11): 1599-1605, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autoinflammatory diseases can cause irreversible tissue damage due to systemic inflammation. Recently, the Autoinflammatory Disease Damage Index (ADDI) was developed. The ADDI is the first instrument to quantify damage in familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, mevalonate kinase deficiency and tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. The aim of this study was to validate this tool for its intended use in a clinical/research setting. METHODS: The ADDI was scored on paper clinical cases by at least three physicians per case, independently of each other. Face and content validity were assessed by requesting comments on the ADDI. Reliability was tested by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using an 'observer-nested-within-subject' design. Construct validity was determined by correlating the ADDI score to the Physician Global Assessment (PGA) of damage and disease activity. Redundancy of individual items was determined with Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The ADDI was validated on a total of 110 paper clinical cases by 37 experts in autoinflammatory diseases. This yielded an ICC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.89). The ADDI score correlated strongly with PGA-damage (r=0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.95) and was not strongly influenced by disease activity (r=0.395, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55). After comments from disease experts, some item definitions were refined. The interitem correlation in all different categories was lower than 0.7, indicating that there was no redundancy between individual damage items. CONCLUSION: The ADDI is a reliable and valid instrument to quantify damage in individual patients and can be used to compare disease outcomes in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/complicações , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/complicações , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/complicações , Humanos , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/complicações , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/diagnóstico , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 30(5): 514-520, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870499

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The past decade has seen substantial progress in defining the cause and pathogenesis of the chronic childhood arthropathy systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and its related complication macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The purpose of this review is to describe and synthesize advances in this field, particularly since 2016, with the potential to transform clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Newly developed MAS classification criteria have been further studied and validated in other diseases and populations, as well as a recently proposed score to distinguish MAS from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. There has also been substantial progress toward understanding the genetic underpinnings of SJIA and MAS, both through targeted study of specific genes and the results of a large genome-wide association study. The immunopathogenesis of SJIA has been further elucidated through several studies regarding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-18, interferon (IFN)γ, and how their interplay impacts emergence of MAS. Finally, big data studies integrating genomic information with immunophenotypes have potential to provide novel insights into disease mechanisms in SJIA. SUMMARY: Collectively, these research advances have significant implications regarding the classification and diagnosis of SJIA and MAS, and support a next generation of biologic treatments including kinase inhibitors and targeted interleukin-18 or IFNγ blockade.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/genética , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/genética , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Citocinas/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia
15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 38, 2018 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED). She was diagnosed with generalized epilepsy with a normal brain MRI and an electroencephalogram (EEG) showing occasional generalized spike and slow wave discharges. Her diagnostic evaluation showed no signs of autoimmunity or genetic causes of epilepsy or periodic fever syndromes but persistently elevated serum inflammatory markers including S100 alarmin proteins. She experienced prompt clinical response to IL-1 blockade with first anakinra and then canakinumab, with near complete resolution of clinical seizures. Additionally, she displayed marked improvements in quality of life and social/academic functioning. Baseline gene expression studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from this patient showed significantly activated gene pathways suggesting systemic immune activation, including focal adhesion, platelet activation, and Rap1 signaling, which is an upstream regulator of IL-1ß production by the NLRP3 inflammasome. It also showed activation of genes that characterize inflammasome-mediated autoinflammatory disorders and no signs of interferon activation. This gene expression signature was largely extinguished after anakinra treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that patients with epilepsy responsive to immune modulation may have distinct autoinflammatory features supporting IL-1 blockade. As such, IL-1 blockade may be highly efficacious adjunctive medication for certain refractory epilepsy syndromes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/complicações , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/complicações , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/sangue , Feminino , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/sangue , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/farmacologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo
16.
Int Immunol ; 30(5): 195-203, 2018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420734

RESUMO

Hyperferritinemia and pronounced hemophagocytosis help distinguish a subset of patients with a particularly inflammatory and deadly systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Two clinically similar disorders typify these hyperferritinemic syndromes: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). HLH is canonically associated with a complete disturbance of perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas MAS occurs in the context of the related rheumatic diseases systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and adult-onset Still's disease, with associated IL-1 family cytokine activation. In practice, however, there are accumulating lines of evidence for innate immune dysregulation in HLH as well as partial impairments of cytotoxicity in MAS, and these mechanisms likely represent only a fraction of the host and environmental factors driving hyperferritinemic inflammation. Herein, we present new findings that highlight the pathogenic differences between HLH and MAS, two conditions that present with life-threatening hyperinflammation, hyperferritinemia and hemophagocytosis.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Animais , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Fagocitose/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(6): 963-970, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and has pathologic similarity to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Intronic variants in UNC13D are found in patients with familial HLH type 3 (FHLH3), but the role of noncoding variants in MAS is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify deep intronic UNC13D variants in patients with MAS. METHODS: A custom enrichment library was constructed to sequence a genomic region of ~1 Mb flanking UNC13D in 24 patients with systemic JIA, recurrent MAS, and negative results of prior genetic (exon/coding) testing. The functional consequences of intronic variants were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), electromobility shift assay, in vitro transcriptional enhancer assays, and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation assays. RESULTS: We evaluated a patient with systemic JIA and recurrent MAS in whom a novel functional intronic variant in UNC13D, c.117+143A>G, was observed. This variant occurred in a proposed regulatory region that drives lymphocyte-specific UNC13D expression and is associated with reduced transcript levels in patient PBMCs. This variant also disrupted NF-κB binding to a functional transcriptional enhancer, leading to reduced enhancer activity in vitro. Partial knockdown of UNC13D expression also led to impaired NK cell degranulation. An additional patient was identified with a previously described UNC13D intronic variant, for a total noncoding variant hit rate of 8.3% (2 of 24). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the notion that intronic variants in key regulatory regions may be associated with MAS in patients with systemic JIA and support deep sequencing approaches when causative coding variants are not identified.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/genética , Íntrons/genética , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva
18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 103(1): 71-85, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345059

RESUMO

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a severe childhood arthropathy with features of autoinflammation. Monocytes and macrophages in SJIA have a complex phenotype with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that combine features of several well characterized in vitro conditions used to activate macrophages. An important anti-inflammatory phenotype is expression of CD163, a scavenger receptor that sequesters toxic pro-inflammatory complexes that is highly expressed in both active SJIA and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CD163 is most strongly up-regulated by IL-10 (M(IL-10)), and not by other conditions that reflect features seen in SJIA monocytes such as M(LPS+IC). MicroRNA plays key roles in integrating cellular signals such as those in macrophage polarization, and as such we hypothesize microRNAs regulate macrophage functional responses in SJIA including CD163 expression. We find that 2 microRNAs previously found to be elevated in active SJIA, miR-125a-5p and miR-181c, significantly reduced macrophage CD163 expression through 2 distinct mechanisms. Neither microRNA was elevated in M(IL-10) with robust CD163 expression, but were instead induced in M(LPS+IC) where they restricted CD163 mRNA expression. Mir-181 species directly targeted CD163 mRNA for degradation. In contrast, miR-125a-5p functions indirectly, as transcriptome analysis of miR-125a-5p overexpression identified "cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions" as the most significantly repressed gene pathway, including decreased IL10RA, required for IL-10-mediated CD163 expression. Finally, overexpression of miR-181c inhibited CD163 anti-inflammatory responses to hemoglobin or high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) complexes. Together, these data show that microRNA utilizes multiple mechanisms to integrate well-characterized polarization phenotypes and regulate macrophage functional properties seen in SJIA.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Artrite Juvenil/genética , Artrite Juvenil/metabolismo , Criança , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(3): 409-419, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess performance of the 2016 macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) classification criteria for patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) who develop MAS while treated with biologic medications. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to identify patients with MAS while being treated with interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blocking agents. Clinical and laboratory information was compared to a large previously compiled historical cohort. RESULTS: Eighteen publications were identified, and after removing duplicates, 35 patients treated with canakinumab and 49 patients with tocilizumab were available for analysis; 5 anakinra-treated patients were excluded due to limited numbers. MAS classification criteria were less likely to classify tocilizumab-treated patients as having MAS compared to the historical cohort or canakinumab-treated patients (56.7%, 78.5%, and 84%, respectively; P < 0.01). Patients who developed MAS while treated with canakinumab trended towards lower ferritin at MAS onset than the historical cohort (4,050 versus 5,353 ng/ml; P = 0.18) but had no differences in other cardinal clinical or laboratory features. In comparison, patients who developed MAS while treated with tocilizumab were less likely febrile and had notably lower ferritin levels (1,152 versus 5,353 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Other features of MAS were more pronounced in patients treated with tocilizumab, including lower platelet counts, lower fibrinogen, and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels. Mortality rates for patients with MAS treated with tocilizumab or canakinumab were not significantly different from the historical cohort. CONCLUSION: These findings show substantial alterations in MAS features that may limit utility of defined criteria for diagnosis of systemic JIA patients treated with biologic agents.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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