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1.
Am Heart J ; 221: 84-94, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays enhance detection of lower circulating troponin concentrations, but the impact on outcomes in clinical practice is unclear. Our objective was to compare outcomes of chest pain patients discharged from emergency departments (EDs) using hs-cTn and conventional troponin (cTn) assays. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of chest pain patients aged 40-105 years who presented to an ED from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2017, and were discharged home. We compared 30-day and 1-year outcomes of EDs that used hs-cTn versus cTn assays. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Comparisons were conducted with (1) no adjustment; (2) adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and hospital characteristics; and (3) full clinical adjustment. RESULTS: Among the 394,910 patients, 62,138 (15.7%) were evaluated at hs-cTn EDs and 332,772 (84.3%) were evaluated at cTn EDs. Patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs were less likely to have diabetes, hypertension, or prior heart disease. At 30 days, the unadjusted primary outcome rate was lower in hs-cTn EDs (0.9% vs 1.0%, P < .001). The 30-day hazard ratios for the primary outcome were 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.92) for no adjustment and 0.98 (95% CI 0.88-1.08) for full adjustment. Over 1 year, patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs had significantly fewer primary outcomes (3.7% vs 4.1%, P < .001) and lower hazard ratio (0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.98) even after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-cTn testing was associated with a significantly lower adjusted hazard of myocardial infarction, angina, and all-cause hospitalization at 1 year but not 30 days.

2.
Int J Med Inform ; 133: 103937, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population health programs are increasingly reliant on Health Information Technology (HIT). Program HIT architecture description is a necessary step prior to evaluation. Several sociotechnical frameworks have been used previously with HIT programs. The Informatics Stack is a novel framework that provides a thorough description of HIT program architecture. The Emergency Department Return Visit Quality Program (EDRVQP) is a population-level continuous quality improvement (QI) program connecting EDs across Ontario. The objectives of the study were to utilize the Informatics Stack to provide a description of the EDRVQP HIT architecture and to delineate population health program factors that are enablers or barriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Informatics Stack was used to describe the HIT architecture. A qualitative study was completed with semi-structured interviews of key informants across stakeholder organizations. Emergency departments were selected randomly. Purposive sampling identified key informants. Interviews were conducted until saturation. An inductive qualitative analysis using grounded theory was completed. A literature review of peer-reviewed background literature, and stakeholder organization reports was also conducted. RESULTS: 23 business actors from 15 organizations were interviewed. The EDRVQP architecture description is presented across the Informatics Stack levels. The levels from most comprehensive to most basic are world, organization, perspectives/roles, goals/functions, workflow/behaviour/adoption, information systems, modules, data/information/knowledge/wisdom/algorithms, and technology. Enabling factors were the high rate of electronic health record adoption, legislative mandate for data collection, use of functional data standards, implementation flexibility, leveraging validated algorithms, and leveraging existing local health networks. Barriers were privacy legislation and a high turn-around time. DISCUSSION: The Informatics Stack provides a robust approach to thoroughly describe the HIT architecture of population health programs prior to program replication. The EDRVQP is a population health program that illustrates the pragmatic use of continuous QI methodology across a population (provincial) level.

3.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(12): e006498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, 11% of patients seen in the emergency department for atrial fibrillation die within 1 year of the visit. Our objective was to examine the association of rapid (within 3 days), early (7 days), and basic (30 days) outpatient physician follow-up with short- and long-term outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation discharged from an emergency department. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients discharged from one of the 163 emergency departments in Ontario, Canada with a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, 2007 to 2014. We used a landmark analysis with propensity score matching, and logistic regression, to assess all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations at 1 year and 90 days, 30-day return emergency visits, and 1-year oral anticoagulation prescription fills. RESULTS: In the 10 657 patients with rapid follow-up care who were propensity score matched to a patient with follow-up between days 4 and 7, the hazard of a return emergency visit was reduced by 11% (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.98]). It was not associated with mortality or hospitalization. In the 17 234 patients with early follow-up who were matched to a patient with care between days 8 and 30, the rate of 1-year mortality was 11% lower (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]) and 1-year hospitalization was 6% lower (HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-1.00]). Relative to no 30-day care, basic follow-up care was associated with an increased hazard of 90-day hospitalization (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.12-1.56]) but was no longer associated with mortality. In patients with early follow-up, the odds of filling an oral anticoagulation prescription a year later were 64% higher than those without it (OR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.54-1.78]). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with follow-up care between days 8 and 30, follow-up within a week after discharge from an emergency department with atrial fibrillation was associated with a reduction in the rate of death and hospitalization within 1 year, an association that was not present with 30-day follow-up.

4.
CJEM ; 21(6): 789-792, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delays in triage processes in the emergency department (ED) can compromise patient safety. The aim of this study was to provide proof-of-concept that a self-check-in kiosk could decrease the time needed to identify ambulatory patients arriving in the ED. We compared the use of a novel automated self-check-in kiosk to identify patients on ED arrival to routine nurse-initiated patient identification. METHODS: We performed a prospective trail with random weekly allocation to intervention or control processes during a 10-week study period. During intervention weeks, patients used a self-check-in kiosk to self-identify on arrival. This electronically alerted triage nurses to patient arrival times and primary complaint before triage. During control weeks, kiosks were unavailable and patients were identified using routine nurse-initiated triage. The primary outcome was time-to-first-identification, defined as the interval between ED arrival and identification in the hospital system. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) time-to-first-identification was 1.4 minutes (1.0-2.08) for intervention patients and 9 minutes (5-18) for control patients. Regression analysis revealed that the adjusted time-to-first-identification was 13.6 minutes (95% confidence interval 12.8-14.5) faster for the intervention group. CONCLUSION: A self-check-in kiosk significantly reduced the time-to-first-identification for ambulatory patients arriving in the ED.

5.
CMAJ Open ; 7(1): E40-E46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both the research literature and headline news stories indicate that the public cares about how their health data are used. The objective of this study was to learn more about the general public's attitudes toward users and uses of linked administrative health data held by ICES in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Eight focus groups, with a total of 65 members of the general public, were conducted in urban and northern settings in Ontario, Canada, in 2015 and 2017 using qualitative market research panels established by a market research/public opinion research firm. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged: (a) the need for assurance about privacy and security, (b) general support for research based on linked administrative health data with some conditions and (c) mixed and more negative reaction when there is private sector involvement. Two minor themes were also derived from the data: (a) low knowledge and understanding of how linked administrative health data are used for research and (b) mixed views on the need to obtain consent when health data do not include identifying information. INTERPRETATION: The public generally supports research based on linked administrative health data, but there is no blanket approval. Researchers and organizations that hold health data should engage with members of the public to understand and address their concerns about privacy and security and to ensure that research is aligned with social licence, particularly where there is private sector involvement.

6.
Emerg Med Australas ; 31(4): 605-611, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare performance and factors predicting failure to reach Ontario and Australian government time targets between a Canadian (Sunnybrook Hospital) and an Australian (Austin Health) academic tertiary-level hospitals in 2012, and to assess for change of factors and performance in 2016 between the same hospitals. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of patient administrative data in two calendar years. The main outcome measure was reaching Ontario and Australian ED time targets for admissions, high and low urgency discharges. Secondary outcomes were factors predicting failure to reach these targets. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, Sunnybrook and Austin experienced increased patient volume of 10.2% and 19.2%, respectively. Bed capacity decreased at Sunnybrook (-10.8%) but increased at the Austin (+30.3%). For both years, Austin failed to achieve the Australian time target, but succeeded for all Ontario targets except for low urgency discharges. Sunnybrook failed all targets irrespective of year. The top factors for failing Ontario ED length-of-stay targets for both hospitals in 2012 and 2016 were bed request greater than 6 h, access block greater than 1 h, use of cross-sectional imaging, consultation and waiting for the emergency physician greater than 2 h. CONCLUSION: Austin outperformed Sunnybrook for Ontario and Australian government time targets. Both hospitals failed the Australian targets. Factors predicting failure to achieve targets were different between hospitals, but were mainly clinical resources. Sunnybrook focussed on increasing human resources. Austin focussed on increasing human resources, observation unit and hospital beds. Intrinsic hospital characteristics and infrastructure influenced target success.

7.
Circulation ; 139(9): 1146-1156, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved risk stratification of acute heart failure in the emergency department may inform physicians' decisions regarding patient admission or early discharge disposition. We aimed to validate the previously-derived Emergency Heart failure Mortality Risk Grade for 7-day (EHMRG7) and 30-day (EHMRG30-ST) mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective validation study of patients with acute heart failure at 9 hospitals. We surveyed physicians for their estimates of 7-day mortality risk, obtained for each patient before knowledge of the model predictions, and compared these with EHMRG7 for discrimination and net reclassification improvement. We also prospectively examined discrimination of the EHMRG30-ST model, which incorporates all components of EHMRG7 as well as the presence of ST-depression on the 12-lead ECG. RESULTS: We recruited 1983 patients seeking emergency department care for acute heart failure. Mortality rates at 7 days in the 5 risk groups (very low, low, intermediate, high, and very high risk) were 0%, 0%, 0.6%, 1.9%, and 3.9%, respectively. At 30 days, the corresponding mortality rates were 0%, 1.9%, 3.9%, 5.9%, and 14.3%. Compared with physician-estimated risk of 7-day mortality (PER7; c-statistic, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.78) there was improved discrimination with EHMRG7 (c-statistic, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.87; P=0.022 versus PER7) and with EHMRG7 combined with physicians' estimates (c-statistic, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88; P=0.003 versus PER7). Model discrimination increased nonsignificantly by 0.014 (95% CI, -0.009-0.037) when physicians' estimates combined with EHMRG7 were compared with EHMRG7 alone ( P=0.242). The c-statistic for EHMRG30-ST alone was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.73-0.81) and 30-day model discrimination increased nonsignificantly by addition of physician-estimated risk to 0.78 (95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P=0.187). Net reclassification improvement with EHMRG7 was 0.763 (95% CI, 0.465-1.062) when assessed continuously and 0.820 (0.560-1.080) using risk categories compared with PER7. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical model allowing simultaneous prediction of mortality at both 7 and 30 days identified acute heart failure patients with a low risk of events. Compared with physicians' estimates, our multivariable model was better able to predict 7-day mortality and may guide clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02634762.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
8.
CMAJ ; 190(50): E1468-E1477, 2018 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 1-year mortality rate in patients with heart failure who are discharged from an emergency department is 20%. We sought to determine whether early follow-up after discharge from the emergency department was associated with decreased mortality or subsequent admission to hospital. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study conducted in Ontario, Canada, included adult patients who were discharged from 1 of 163 emergency departments between April 2007 and March 2014 with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Using a propensity score-matched landmark analysis, we assessed follow-up in relation to mortality and admissions to hospital for cardiovascular conditions. RESULTS: Of 34 519 patients, 16 274 (47.1%) obtained follow-up care within 7 days and 28 846 (83.6%) within 30 days. Compared with follow-up between day 8 and 30, patients with follow-up care within 7 days had a lower rate of mortality over 1 year (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.97), and a reduced rate of admission to hospital over 90 days (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.94) and 1 year (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.97); the mortality rate over 90 days in this group trended to a lower rate (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.10-1.00). Follow-up care within 30 days, compared with patients without 30-day follow-up, was associated with a reduction in 1-year mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97) but not admission to hospital (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In this group, there was a trend toward an increase in 90-day admission to hospital (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.29). INTERPRETATION: Follow-up care within 7 days of discharge from the emergency department was associated with lower rates of long-term mortality, as well as subsequent hospital admissions, and a trend to lower short-term mortality rates. Timely access to longitudinal care for patients with heart failure who are discharged from the emergency setting should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(11): e004683, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in developed countries. Whether higher volume EDs have better outcomes, specifically for patients with chest pain, is unknown and pertinent. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a study using population-based data on 498 291 patients ≥40 years old, presenting to ED in Ontario, Canada from 2008 to 2014, with chest pain and were discharged after assessment. We evaluated processes of care after discharge from ED. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death or hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. Hierarchical logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the association of annual ED chest pain volume and outcome. We also determined if there was a volume threshold above which an increased ED volume was not associated with a lower adverse outcome. The mean age of our patients was 59 years, 46.7% were men, and 20% had diabetes mellitus. Patients discharged from higher volume EDs had higher rates of cardiologist consultations, cardiac medication use, and cardiac testing within 30 days of ED assessment. Higher ED volume was associated with significantly lower adjusted odds ratio for mortality or acute coronary syndrome (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92 per each unit increase in the log of volume) at 30 days and at 1 year (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.92). Once the annual ED chest pain volume reached 1400 cases (95% CI, 910-1900), an increase of annual chest pain volume of 100 was associated with relative decrease in the odds of the composite outcome at 30 days of <1%. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluations of chest pain in EDs with higher chest pain volume had lower rates of death or hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome. There was a volume threshold above which an increase in volume was no longer associated with reduced outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ontário/epidemiologia , Medição da Dor , Alta do Paciente
10.
CMAJ Open ; 6(2): E151-E161, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 25% of the population has hypertension. The number of patients seeking care for hypertension in emergency departments has increased by more than 60% in the last decade, with less than 10% of these patients subsequently admitted to hospital. Managing physicians recommend early follow-up to patients who are discharged from the emergency department, but there is a paucity of literature assessing the impact or timing of follow-up on patient outcomes. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort design, we included patients more than 65 years of age who were discharged from an Ontario emergency department with a primary diagnosis of hypertension between 2007 and 2014. We identified 2 cohorts: an incident cohort, and a cohort in which patients were on no more than 1 class of evidence-based antihypertensive medication at the time of presentation. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of early follow-up care (within 7 d) and basic care (8-30 d), compared with no care within 30 days, on patient use of a new evidence-based antihypertensive medication 1 year later. RESULTS: Our study included 2088 patients with a new diagnosis of hypertension (the first cohort), and 6420 patients in the second cohort. Of patients with new diagnoses, 48.2% and 30.2% obtained early and basic follow-up care, respectively, compared with 50.0% and 30.9% of patients in the second cohort. Compared with patients without follow-up care within 30 days, the adjusted odds of filling an evidence-based antihypertensive medication prescription 1 year later in the incident group were 2.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86-2.99) for those who received early care, and 2.00 (95% CI 1.55-2.58) for those who received basic care. The adjusted odds in the second cohort were 2.12 (95% CI 1.84-2.43) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.69-2.27), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Early follow-up care after leaving an emergency department with a diagnosis of hypertension was associated with improved long-term use of evidence-based antihypertensive medication. As patients increasingly present to the emergency department for hypertension, a formal, timely follow-up care system could improve patient use of evidence-based antihypertensive medication.

11.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 25(3): 169-177, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade (EHMRG) scale, derived in 86 Canadian emergency departments (EDs), stratifies patients with acute-decompensated heart failure (ADHF) according to their 7-day mortality risk. We evaluated its external validity in a Spanish cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We applied the EHMRG scale to ADHF patients consecutively included in the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency departments (EAHFE) registry (29 Spanish EDs) and measured its performance. Patients were distributed into quintiles according to the original and their self-defined score cutoffs. The 7-day mortality rates were compared internally among different categories and with categories of Canadian cohorts. RESULTS: The EAHFE group [n: 1553 patients; 80 (10) years; 55.6% women] had a 5.5% 7-day mortality rate and the EHMRG scale c-statistic was 0.741 (95% confidence interval: 0.688-0.793) compared with 0.807 (0.761-0.842) and 0.804 (0.763-0.840) obtained in the Canadian derivation and validation cohorts. The mortality rate of the EAHFE group mortality increased progressively as the quintile categories increased using intervals defined by either the Canadian or the Spanish EHMRG score cutoffs, although with more regular increments with the EAHFE-defined intervals; using the latter, patients at quintiles 2, 3, 4, 5a and 5b had (compared with quintile 1) odds ratios of 1.77, 3.36, 4.44, 9.39 and 16.19, respectively. CONCLUSION: The EHMRG scale stratified risk in an ADHF cohort that included both palliative and nonpalliative patients in Spanish EDs, showing an extrapolation to a higher mortality risk cohort than the original derivation sample. Stratification improved when the score was recalibrated in the Spanish cohort.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco Ajustado , Fatores de Risco
12.
CJEM ; 20(3): 377-391, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with cardiovascular diseases are common in the emergency department (ED), and continuity of care following that visit is needed to ensure that they receive evidence-based diagnostic tests and therapy. We examined the frequency of follow-up care after discharge from an ED with a new diagnosis of one of three cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or hypertension, who were discharged from 157 non-pediatric EDs in Ontario, Canada, between April 2007 and March 2014. We determined the frequency of follow-up care with a family physician, cardiologist, or internist within seven and 30 days, and assessed the association of patient, emergency physician, and family physician characteristics with obtaining follow-up care using cause-specific hazard modeling. RESULTS: There were 41,485 qualifying ED visits. Just under half (47.0%) had follow-up care within seven days, with 78.7% seen by 30 days. Patients with serious comorbidities (renal failure, dementia, COPD, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cancer) had a lower adjusted hazard of obtaining 7-day follow-up care (HRs 0.77-0.95) and 30-day follow-up care (HR 0.76-0.95). The only emergency physician characteristic associated with follow-up care was 5-year emergency medicine specialty training (HR 1.11). Compared to those whose family physician was remunerated via a primarily fee-for-service model, patients were less likely to obtain 7-day follow-up care if their family physician was remunerated via three types of capitation models (HR 0.72, 0.81, 0.85) or via traditional fee-for-service (HR 0.91). Findings were similar for 30-day follow-up care. CONCLUSIONS: Only half of patients discharged from an ED with a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and hypertension were seen within a week of being discharged. Patients with significant comorbidities were less likely to obtain follow-up care, as were those with a family physician who was remunerated via primarily capitation methods.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 70(5): 648-658.e2, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712607

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Much effort has been expended to understand what care experiences patients value in the emergency department (ED), yet little is known about which outcomes patients value after ED care. Our goal is to define outcomes of ED care that are valued by patients discharged from the ED, with the goal of informing the development of a patient-reported outcome measure for ED care. METHODS: We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with patients recruited during their care at 1 of 2 EDs and interviewed in either English or French 1 to 9 days after their visit. Patients who were hospitalized were excluded. Interviews focused on perceived outcomes of care since the ED visit and expectations of care before the ED visit. We identified themes with standard descriptive content analysis techniques and a modified version of the constant comparative method, drawing on grounded theory methods. RESULTS: We interviewed 46 patients in English (n=38) or French (n=8). Participants with diverse reasons for seeking care appeared to value common outcomes from ED care that centered around 4 themes: understanding the cause and expected trajectory of their symptoms; reassurance; symptom relief; and having a plan to manage their symptoms, resolve their issue, or pursue further medical care. These themes were also reflected in the expectations participants recalled having when they decided to seek care in the ED. CONCLUSION: The 4 outcomes defined constitute areas for improvement and will inform the development of an ED patient-reported outcome questionnaire. Consideration should be given to measuring patient-reported outcomes separately from patient experience.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients discharged home from an emergency department with AKI are not well described. This study describes their characteristics and outcomes and compares these outcomes to two referent groups. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada from 2003 to 2012 of 6346 patients aged ≥40 years who were discharged from the emergency department with AKI (defined using serum creatinine values). We analyzed the risk of all-cause mortality, receipt of acute dialysis, and hospitalization within 30 days after discharge. We used propensity score methods to compare all-cause mortality to two referent groups. We matched 4379 discharged patients to 4379 patients who were hospitalized from the emergency department with similar AKI stage. We also matched 6188 discharged patients to 6188 patients who were discharged home from the emergency department with no AKI. RESULTS: There were 6346 emergency department discharges with AKI. The mean age was 69 years and 6012 (95%) had stage 1, 290 (5%) had stage 2, and 44 (0.7%) had stage 3 AKI. Within 30 days, 149 (2%) (AKI stage 1: 127 [2%]; stage 2: 15 [5%]; stage 3: seven [16%]) died, 22 (0.3%) received acute dialysis, and 1032 (16%) were hospitalized. An emergency department discharge versus hospitalization with AKI was associated with lower mortality (3% versus 12%; relative risk, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.3). An emergency department discharge with AKI versus no AKI was associated with higher mortality (2% versus 1%; relative risk, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Patients discharged home from the emergency department with AKI are at risk of poor 30-day outcomes. A better understanding of care in this at-risk population is warranted, as are testing strategies to improve care.

15.
Am Heart J ; 181: 60-65, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading reasons for emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalization. However, externally validated risk algorithms for acute prognostication of heart failure patients are not available. Thus, many low-risk patients are hospitalized and some high-risk patients are discharged home, which, in some cases, may lead to death. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of the ACUTE study is to perform a prospective validation of the Emergency Heart failure Mortality Risk Grade (EHMRG), which is a risk score derived to predict 7-day mortality in the ED setting. The second objective is to independently validate the 30-day model extension of the risk score (EHMRG30-ST) in the same cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with HF presenting to the ED will be recruited with a waiver of informed consent as a minimal risk study. The ED physician will calculate the EHMRG 7-day risk score, but treatment decisions will not be influenced by the predictive models. Follow-up will be obtained using probabilistic linkage with the Registered Persons Database of vital statistics, whereby deaths will be ascertained. We will examine mortality rates according to EHMRG and EHMRG30-ST algorithms. We will also compare physician-judged risk estimates, based on clinical judgment alone, with the EHMRG score. CONCLUSION: The ACUTE study will determine if a retrospectively derived algorithm for simultaneous estimation of 7-day and 30-day mortality risk can accurately identify low- and high-risk patients with acute HF and improve upon physician-judged risk estimation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Etários , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Comorbidade , Creatinina/sangue , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Humanos , Metolazona/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Oximetria , Potássio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina/sangue
16.
Trials ; 17(1): 439, 2016 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact. The goals of this study are to improve TB care provided by LHWs in Malawi by refining, implementing, and evaluating a knowledge translation strategy designed to address a recognized gap in LHWs' TB and job-specific knowledge and, through this, to improve patient outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: We are employing a mixed-methods design that includes a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation using qualitative methods. Trial participants will include all health centers providing TB care in four districts in the South East Zone of Malawi. The intervention employs educational outreach, a point-of-care reminder tool, and a peer support network. The primary outcome is proportion of treatment successes, defined as the total of TB patients cured or completing treatment, with outcomes taken from Ministry of Health treatment records. With an alpha of 0.05, power of 0.80, a baseline treatment success of 0.80, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.1 based on our pilot study, and an estimated 100 clusters (health centers providing TB care), a minimum of 6 patients per cluster is required to detect a clinically significant 0.10 increase in the proportion of treatment successes. Our process evaluation will include interviews with LHWs and patients, and a document analysis of LHW training logs, quarterly peer trainer meetings, and mentorship meeting notes. An estimated 10-15 LHWs and 10-15 patients will be required to reach saturation in each of 2 planned interview periods, for a total of 40-60 interview participants. DISCUSSION: This study will directly inform the efforts of knowledge users within TB care and, through extension of the approach, other areas of care provided by LHWs in Malawi and other low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02533089 . Registered 20 August 2015. Protocol Date/Version 29 May 2016/Version 2.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Tuberculose/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tamanho da Amostra , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(7)2016 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27451461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) presenting to the emergency department (ED) can be admitted to care settings of different intensity, where the intensive care unit (ICU) is the highest intensity, ward admission is intermediate intensity, and those discharged home are of lowest intensity. Despite the costs associated with higher-intensity care, little is known about disposition decisions and outcomes of HF patients treated in different care settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified predictors of ICU or ward admission and determined whether survival differs in patients admitted to higher-intensity versus lower-intensity care settings (ie, ICU vs ward, or ward vs ED-discharged). Among 9054 patients (median, 78 years; 51% men) presenting to an ED in Ontario, Canada, 1163 were ICU-admitted, 5240 ward-admitted, and 2651 were ED-discharged. Predictors of ICU (vs ward) admission included: use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.36-2.98), higher respiratory rate (OR, 1.10 per 5 breaths/min; 95% CI, 1.05-1.15), and lower oxygen saturation (OR, 0.90 per 5%; 95% CI, 0.86-0.94; all P<0.001). Predictors of ward-admitted versus ED-discharged were similar. Propensity-matched analysis comparing lower-risk ICU to ward-admitted patients demonstrated a nonsignificant trend at 100 days (relative risk [RR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.43-1.10; P=0.148). At 1 year, however, survival was higher among those initially admitted to ICU (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.94; P=0.022). There was no survival difference among low-risk ward-admitted versus ED-discharged patients. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory factors were associated with admission to higher-intensity settings. There was no difference in early survival between some lower-risk patients admitted to higher-intensity units compared to those treated in lower-intensity settings.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Alta do Paciente , Taxa de Sobrevida , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Ontário/epidemiologia , Oximetria , Pontuação de Propensão , Taxa Respiratória
18.
CJEM ; 18(2): 121-32, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a program of research to derive and test the reliability of a clinical prediction rule to identify high-risk older adults using paramedics' observations. METHODS: We developed the Paramedics assessing Elders at Risk of Independence Loss (PERIL) checklist of 43 yes or no questions, including the Identifying Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tool items. We trained 1,185 paramedics from three Ontario services to use this checklist, and assessed inter-observer reliability in a convenience sample. The primary outcome, return to the ED, hospitalization, or death within one month was assessed using provincial databases. We derived a prediction rule using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We enrolled 1,065 subjects, of which 764 (71.7%) had complete data. Inter-observer reliability was good or excellent for 40/43 questions. We derived a four-item rule: 1) "Problems in the home contributing to adverse outcomes?" (OR 1.43); 2) "Called 911 in the last 30 days?" (OR 1.72); 3) male (OR 1.38) and 4) lacks social support (OR 1.4). The PERIL rule performed better than a proxy measure of clinical judgment (AUC 0.62 vs. 0.56, p=0.02) and adherence was better for PERIL than for ISAR. CONCLUSIONS: The four-item PERIL rule has good inter-observer reliability and adherence, and had advantages compared to a proxy measure of clinical judgment. The ISAR is an acceptable alternative, but adherence may be lower. If future research validates the PERIL rule, it could be used by emergency physicians and paramedic services to target preventative interventions for seniors identified as high-risk.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 16: 54, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Malawi is facing a critical shortage of skilled healthcare workers. In response to this crisis, a formal cadre of lay health workers (LHW) has been established and now carries out several basic health care services, including outpatient TB care and adherence support. While ongoing training and supervision are recognized as essential to the effectiveness of LHW programs, information is lacking as to how these needs are best addressed. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore LHWs responses to a tailored knowledge translation intervention they received, designed to address a previously identified training and knowledge gap. METHODS: Forty-five interviews were conducted with 36 healthcare workers. Fourteen to sixteen interviews were done at each of 3 evenly spaced time blocks over a one year period, with 6 individuals interviewed more than once to assess for change both within and across individuals overtime. RESULTS: Reported benefits of the intervention included: increased TB, HIV, and job-specific knowledge; improved clinical skills; and increased confidence and satisfaction with their work. Suggestions for improvement were less consistent across participants, but included: increasing the duration of the training, changing to an off-site venue, providing stipends or refreshments as incentives, and adding HIV and drug dosing content. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant departure of the study intervention from the traditional approach to training employed in Malawi, the intervention was well received and highly valued by LHW participants. Given the relative low-cost and flexibility of the methods employed, this appears a promising approach to addressing the training needs of LHW programs, particularly in Low- and Middle-income countries where resources are most constrained.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade
20.
Anesthesiology ; 124(4): 804-14, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26825151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been focused on low-value healthcare services. Through Choosing Wisely campaigns, routine laboratory testing before low-risk surgery has been discouraged in the absence of clinical indications. The authors investigated rates, determinants, and institutional variation in laboratory testing before low-risk procedures. METHODS: Patients who underwent ophthalmologic surgeries or predefined low-risk surgeries in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2013, were identified from population-based administrative databases. Preoperative blood work was defined as a complete blood count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin, or basic metabolic panel within 60 days before an index procedure. Adjusted associations between patient and institutional factors and preoperative testing were assessed with hierarchical multivariable logistic regression. Institutional variation was characterized using the median odds ratio. RESULTS: The cohort included 906,902 patients who underwent 1,330,466 procedures (57.1% ophthalmologic and 42.9% low-risk surgery) at 119 institutions. Preoperative blood work preceded 400,058 (30.1%) procedures. The unadjusted institutional rate of preoperative blood work varied widely (0.0 to 98.1%). In regression modeling, significant predictors of preoperative testing included atrial fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.58; 95% CI, 2.51 to 2.66), preoperative medical consultation (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.65 to 1.71), previous mitral valve replacement (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.10 to 2.58), and liver disease (AOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.55 to 1.84). The median odds ratio for interinstitutional variation was 2.43. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that testing is associated with a range of clinical covariates. However, an association was similarly identified with preoperative consultation, and significant variation between institutions exists across the jurisdiction.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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