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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2985, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532988

RESUMO

Resistive switching can be achieved in a Mott insulator by applying current/voltage, which triggers an insulator-metal transition (IMT). This phenomenon is key for understanding IMT physics and developing novel memory elements and brain-inspired technology. Despite this, the roles of electric field and Joule heating in the switching process remain controversial. Using nanowires of two archetypal Mott insulators-VO2 and V2O3 we unequivocally show that a purely non-thermal electrical IMT can occur in both materials. The mechanism behind this effect is identified as field-assisted carrier generation leading to a doping driven IMT. This effect can be controlled by similar means in both VO2 and V2O3, suggesting that the proposed mechanism is generally applicable to Mott insulators. The energy consumption associated with the non-thermal IMT is extremely low, rivaling that of state-of-the-art electronics and biological neurons. These findings pave the way towards highly energy-efficient applications of Mott insulators.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6312, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286464

RESUMO

We report a pressure study of the metamagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid heterostructure of a quenched FeRh thin film (25 nm) grown on single crystal barium titanate (BTO). It has been previously reported that when the BTO undergoes a crystal transition a massive magnetization and coercivity change is triggered in the highly strain sensitive quenched FeRh thin film. Therefore quenched FeRh makes for an ideal probe for mapping a materials structural phase transitions. In this work we demonstrate this effect as a function of both temperature and hydrostatic pressure. As a result, we present the pressure dependence of the hybrid material which aligns identically with the BTO substrates pressure dependence reported in literature. The concept of combining a structural phase transitional (SPT) material with a magnetostrictive magnetic metal has been shown with vanadium oxides and our findings here prove that this methodology can be extended to strain sensitive metamagnetic materials systems in thin film, and possibly in bulk, heterostructures.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 7645-7649, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205433

RESUMO

Meteorites can contain a wide range of material phases due to the extreme environments found in space and are ideal candidates to search for natural superconductivity. However, meteorites are chemically inhomogeneous, and superconducting phases in them could potentially be minute, rendering detection of these phases difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, we have studied meteorite samples with the ultrasensitive magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy (MFMMS) technique [J. G. Ramírez, A. C. Basaran, J. de la Venta, J. Pereiro, I. K. Schuller, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 093902 (2014)]. Here, we report the identification of superconducting phases in two meteorites, Mundrabilla, a group IAB iron meteorite [R. Wilson, A. Cooney, Nature 213, 274-275 (1967)] and GRA 95205, a ureilite [J. N. Grossman, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 33, A221-A239 (1998)]. MFMMS measurements detected superconducting transitions in samples from each, above 5 K. By subdividing and remeasuring individual samples, grains containing the largest superconducting fraction were isolated. The superconducting grains were then characterized with a series of complementary techniques, including vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and numerical methods. These measurements and analysis identified the likely phases as alloys of lead, indium, and tin.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4292, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152331

RESUMO

Machine learning imitates the basic features of biological neural networks at a software level. A strong effort is currently being made to mimic neurons and synapses with hardware components, an approach known as neuromorphic computing. While recent advances in resistive switching have provided a path to emulate synapses at the 10 nm scale, a scalable neuron analogue is yet to be found. Here, we show how heat transfer can be utilized to mimic neuron functionalities in Mott nanodevices. We use the Joule heating created by current spikes to trigger the insulator-to-metal transition in a biased VO2 nanogap. We show that thermal dynamics allow the implementation of the basic neuron functionalities: activity, leaky integrate-and-fire, volatility and rate coding. This approach could enable neuromorphic hardware to take full advantage of the rapid advances in memristive synapses, allowing for much denser and complex neural networks.

5.
Nature ; 569(7756): 388-392, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043748

RESUMO

Resistive switching, a phenomenon in which the resistance of a device can be modified by applying an electric field1-5, is at the core of emerging technologies such as neuromorphic computing and resistive memories6-9. Among the different types of resistive switching, threshold firing10-14 is one of the most promising, as it may enable the implementation of artificial spiking neurons7,13,14. Threshold firing is observed in Mott insulators featuring an insulator-to-metal transition15,16, which can be triggered by applying an external voltage: the material becomes conducting ('fires') if a threshold voltage is exceeded7,10-12. The dynamics of this induced transition have been thoroughly studied, and its underlying mechanism and characteristic time are well documented10,12,17,18. By contrast, there is little knowledge regarding the opposite transition: the process by which the system returns to the insulating state after the voltage is removed. Here we show that Mott nanodevices retain a memory of previous resistive switching events long after the insulating resistance has recovered. We demonstrate that, although the device returns to its insulating state within 50 to 150 nanoseconds, it is possible to re-trigger the insulator-to-metal transition by using subthreshold voltages for a much longer time (up to several milliseconds). We find that the intrinsic metastability of first-order phase transitions is the origin of this phenomenon, and so it is potentially present in all Mott systems. This effect constitutes a new type of volatile memory in Mott-based devices, with potential applications in resistive memories, solid-state frequency discriminators and neuromorphic circuits.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(18): 8798-8802, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975746

RESUMO

Controlling the electronic properties of oxides that feature a metal-insulator transition (MIT) is a key requirement for developing a new class of electronics often referred to as "Mottronics." A simple, controllable method to switch the MIT properties in real time is needed for practical applications. Here we report a giant, nonvolatile resistive switching (ΔR/R > 1,000%) and strong modulation of the MIT temperature (ΔTc > 30 K) in a voltage-actuated V2O3/PMN-PT [Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3] heterostructure. This resistive switching is an order of magnitude larger than ever encountered in any other similar systems. The control of the V2O3 electronic properties is achieved using the transfer of switchable ferroelastic strain from the PMN-PT substrate into the epitaxially grown V2O3 film. Strain can reversibly promote/hinder the structural phase transition in the V2O3, thus advancing/suppressing the associated MIT. The giant resistive switching and strong Tc modulation could enable practical implementations of voltage-controlled Mott devices and provide a platform for exploring fundamental electronic properties of V2O3.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(5): 057601, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821990

RESUMO

The interdependences of different phase transitions in Mott materials are fundamental to the understanding of the mechanisms behind them. One of the most important relations is between the ubiquitous structural and electronic transitions. Using IR spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and x-ray diffraction, we show that the metal-insulator transition is coupled to the structural phase transition in V_{2}O_{3} films. This coupling persists even in films with widely varying transition temperatures and strains. Our findings are in contrast to recent experimental findings and theoretical predictions. Using V_{2}O_{3} as a model system, we discuss the pitfalls in measurements of the electronic and structural states of Mott materials in general, calling for a critical examination of previous work in this field. Our findings also have important implications for the performance of Mott materials in next-generation neuromorphic computing technology.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(20): 207601, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864371

RESUMO

Here, we photoinduce and directly observe with x-ray scattering an ultrafast enhancement of the structural long-range order in the archetypal Mott system V_{2}O_{3}. Despite the ultrafast increase in crystal symmetry, the change of unit cell volume occurs an order of magnitude slower and coincides with the insulator-to-metal transition. The decoupling between the two structural responses in the time domain highlights the existence of a transient photoinduced precursor phase, which is distinct from the two structural phases present in equilibrium. X-ray nanoscopy reveals that acoustic phonons trapped in nanoscale twin domains govern the dynamics of the ultrafast transition into the precursor phase, while nucleation and growth of metallic domains dictate the duration of the slower transition into the metallic phase. The enhancement of the long-range order before completion of the electronic transition demonstrates the critical role the nonequilibrium structural phases play during electronic phase transitions in correlated electrons systems.

9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 9(6): 1254-1258, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595249

RESUMO

We have discovered an unexpected correlation between the operational temperature of the brain and cognitive abilities across a wide variety of animal species. This correlation is extracted from available data in the literature of the temperature range Δ T at which an animal's brain can operate and its encephalization quotient EQ, which can be used as a proxy for cognitive ability. In particular, we found a power-law dependence between Δ T and EQ. These data support the theory that the brain behaves as a critical system where temperature is one of the critical parameters, tuning the performance of the neural network.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Metodologias Computacionais , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Temperatura , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Pesquisa
10.
Nanoscale ; 9(43): 17074-17079, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086780

RESUMO

The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13471, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044131

RESUMO

We report on a strain-induced and temperature dependent uniaxial anisotropy in V2O3/Ni hybrid thin films, manifested through the interfacial strain and sample microstructure, and its consequences on the angular dependent magnetization reversal. X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space maps identify the in-plane crystalline axes of the V2O3; atomic force and scanning electron microscopy reveal oriented rips in the film microstructure. Quasi-static magnetometry and dynamic ferromagnetic resonance measurements identify a uniaxial magnetic easy axis along the rips. Comparison with films grown on sapphire without rips shows a combined contribution from strain and microstructure in the V2O3/Ni films. Magnetization reversal characteristics captured by angular-dependent first order reversal curve measurements indicate a strong domain wall pinning along the direction orthogonal to the rips, inducing an angular-dependent change in the reversal mechanism. The resultant anisotropy is tunable with temperature and is most pronounced at room temperature, which is beneficial for potential device applications.

12.
Rev Mod Phys ; 89(2)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890576

RESUMO

This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange spring magnets, spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and non-collinear spin textures, non-linear dynamics including spin torque transfer and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(23): 15218-25, 2015 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989751

RESUMO

The phase evolution and morphology of the solid state FeF2 conversion reaction with Li has been characterized using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). An epitaxial FeF2(110) film was grown on a MgF2(110) single crystal substrate and exposed to atomic lithium in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. A series of ARXPS spectra was taken after each Li exposure to obtain depth resolved chemical state information. The Li-FeF2 reaction initially proceeded in a layer-by-layer fashion to a depth of ∼1.2 nm. Beyond this depth, the reaction front became non-planar, and regions of unreacted FeF2 were observed in the near-surface region. This reaction progression is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, the composition of the reacted layer was similar to that of electrochemically reacted FeF2 electrodes. An intermediary compound FexLi2-2xF2, attributed to iron substituted in the LiF lattice, has been identified using XPS. These measurements provide insight into the atomistics and phase evolution of high purity FeF2 conversion electrodes without contamination from electrolytes and binders, and the results partially explain the capacity losses observed in cycled FeF2 electrodes.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(9): 097202, 2015 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25793846

RESUMO

The exchange bias of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) bilayers is found to be strongly dependent on the ferromagnetic spin configuration. The widely accepted inverse proportionality of the exchange bias field with the ferromagnetic thickness is broken in FM layers thinner than the FM correlation length. Moreover, an anomalous thermal dependence of both exchange bias field and coercivity is also found. A model based on springlike domain walls parallel to the AFM-FM interface quantitatively accounts for the experimental results and, in particular, for the deviation from the inverse proportionality law. These results reveal the active role the ferromagnetic spin structure plays in AFM-FM hybrids which leads to a new paradigm of the exchange bias phenomenon.

15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 7333, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25476841

RESUMO

We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures.

16.
Rep Prog Phys ; 77(9): 093902, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25222051

RESUMO

This article introduces magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy (MFMMS) as a unique and high-sensitivity technique for use in the search for new superconductors. MFMMS measures reflected microwave power as a function of temperature. The modulation induced by the external ac magnetic field enables the use of phase locked detection with the consequent sensitivity enhancement. The MFMMS signal across several prototypical structural, magnetic, and electronic transitions is investigated. A literature review on microwave absorption across superconducting transitions is included. We show that MFMMS can be used to detect superconducting transitions selectively with very high sensitivity.

17.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6259, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25178929

RESUMO

The configuration and evolution of coexisting mesoscopic domains with contrasting material properties are critical in creating novel functionality through emergent physical properties. However, current approaches that map the domain structure involve either spatially resolved but protracted scanning probe experiments without real time information on the domain evolution, or time resolved spectroscopic experiments lacking domain-scale spatial resolution. We demonstrate an elegant experimental technique that bridges these local and global methods, giving access to mesoscale information on domain formation and evolution at time scales orders of magnitude faster than current spatially resolved approaches. Our straightforward analysis of laser speckle patterns across the first order phase transition of VO2 can be generalized to other systems with large scale phase separation and has potential as a powerful method with both spatial and temporal resolution to study phase separation in complex materials.

18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(3): 033701, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24689586

RESUMO

We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 139(3): 034701, 2013 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23883046

RESUMO

Phthalocyanines, a class of macrocyclic, square planar molecules, are extensively studied as semiconductor materials for chemical sensors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other applications. In this study, we use angular dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy as a quantitative probe of the orientation and electronic structure of H2-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine molecular thin films. NEXAFS measurements at both the carbon and nitrogen K-edges reveal that phthalocyanine films deposited on sapphire have upright molecular orientations, while films up to 50 nm thick deposited on gold substrates contain prostrate molecules. Although great similarity is observed in the carbon and nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra recorded for the films composed of prostrate molecules, the H2-phthalocyanine exhibits the cleanest angular dependence due to its purely out-of-plane π* resonances at the absorption onset. In contrast, organometallic-phthalocyanine nitrogen K-edges have a small in-plane resonance superimposed on this π* region that is due to a transition into molecular orbitals interacting with the 3dx(2)-y(2) empty state. NEXAFS spectra recorded at the metal L-edges for the prostrate films reveal dramatic variations in the angular dependence of specific resonances for the Cu-phthalocyanines compared with the Fe-, and Co-phthalocyanines. The Cu L3,2 edge exhibits a strong in-plane resonance, attributed to its b1g empty state with dx(2)-y(2) character at the Cu center. Conversely, the Fe- and Co- phthalocyanine L3,2 edges have strong out-of-plane resonances; these are attributed to transitions into not only b1g (dz(2)) but also eg states with dxz and dyz character at the metal center.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(5): 056601, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23414038

RESUMO

We show that the main mechanism for the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide VO(2) is due to local Joule heating and not a purely electronic effect. This "tour de force" experiment was accomplished by using the fluorescence spectra of rare-earth doped micron sized particles as local temperature sensors. As the insulator-metal transition is induced by a dc voltage or dc current, the local temperature reaches the transition temperature indicating that Joule heating plays a predominant role. This has critical implications for the understanding of the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition and has a direct impact on applications which use dc voltage or dc current to externally drive the transition.

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