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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(11): e007405, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176455

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart that may occur because of infections, immune system activation, or exposure to drugs. The diagnosis of myocarditis has changed due to the introduction of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present an expert consensus document aimed to summarize the common terminology related to myocarditis meanwhile highlighting some areas of controversies and uncertainties and the unmet clinical needs. In fact, controversies persist regarding mechanisms that determine the transition from the initial trigger to myocardial inflammation and from acute myocardial damage to chronic ventricular dysfunction. It is still uncertain which viruses (besides enteroviruses) cause direct tissue damage, act as triggers for immune-mediated damage, or both. Regarding terminology, myocarditis can be characterized according to etiology, phase, and severity of the disease, predominant symptoms, and pathological findings. Clinically, acute myocarditis (AM) implies a short time elapsed from the onset of symptoms and diagnosis (generally <1 month). In contrast, chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy indicates myocardial inflammation with established dilated cardiomyopathy or hypokinetic nondilated phenotype, which in the advanced stages evolves into fibrosis without detectable inflammation. Suggested diagnostic and treatment recommendations for AM and chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy are mainly based on expert opinion given the lack of well-designed contemporary clinical studies in the field. We will provide a shared and practical approach to patient diagnosis and management, underlying differences between the European and US scientific statements on this topic. We explain the role of histology that defines subtypes of myocarditis and its prognostic and therapeutic implications.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215881

RESUMO

AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) might be used as prospective biomarkers for the identification of unexplained heart failure caused by a viral and/or inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to identify and to evaluate prognostic miRNAs in serum of patients with inflammatory heart diseases diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsies. METHODS AND RESULTS: After TaqMan® OpenArray® screening of 754 unique circulating miRNAs in serum of biopsy-proven patients [184 patients with inflammatory and/or virally induced myocardial diseases (DCMi), 25 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and 25 healthy donors], we identified seven miRNAs of interest (P < 0.05). These data have been verified by single qRT-PCR assays in other biopsy-proven patients (159 patients with viral and/or inflammatory myocardial diseases, 46 patients with DCM, and 60 healthy donors). The expression of let-7f, miR-197, miR-223, miR-93, and miR-379 allowed us to differentiate between patients with a virus and/or inflammation and healthy donors (P < 0.05) with the specificity over 93%. Based on the expression of miR-21 and miR-30a-5p, we could sort out patients with DCM from all other study groups (P < 0.05) with the specificity over 95%. CONCLUSIONS: This miRNA profile provides for the first time a new non-invasive diagnostic perspective to identify patients with intramyocardial inflammation and/or viral persistence only from single serum sample, independently of prescribed therapy and time of symptoms onset. It allows the early finding of those patients relevant for myocardial biopsy for exact diagnosis and further proscription of causal aetiology-driven specific treatment.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 70-72, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045427

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has reached pandemic levels. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 have been reported frequently, however evidence for a causal relationship has not been established. This report describes the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes in a patient with symptoms of heart failure, in whom endomyocardial biopsy was investigated following a latency period of 4 weeks after the onset of pulmonary symptoms. The viral infection was accompanied by myocardial inflammation indicating an infection of the heart muscle.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2544-2552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790159

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this retrospective single-centre study was to evaluate the non-invasive detection of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-established chronic myocardial inflammation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) using T1 and T2 mapping. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 52 retrospectively identified HFrEF patients who underwent EMB and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. EMB was defined according to the position statement of the European Society of Cardiology and served as reference to identify inflammation in all patients. A control group of healthy volunteers with prior cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 58) was also identified. Global and segmental T1 and T2 values as well as septal measurements and tissue heterogeneity parameters were calculated. Out of the 52 patients with HFrEF, 33 patients had myocardial inflammation detected by EMB, while 19 patients were EMB negative for inflammation. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 31% in both groups (P = 0.97). Global T1 and T2 values in HFrEF patients were significantly higher compared with healthy controls (T1 1275 ± 69 ms vs. 1,175 ± 44 ms, P < 0.001; T2 40.0 ± 3.4 ms vs. 37.9 ± 1.6 ms, P < 0.001). The distribution of T1 and T2 values between patients with and without EMB-proven chronic myocardial inflammation was not statistically different when regarding global (T1 1292 ± 71 ms vs. 1266 ± 67 ms, P = 0.26; T2 40.0 ± 2.6 ms vs. 40.0 ± 3.9 ms, P = 1.0), septal (T1 1299 ± 63 ms vs. 1289 ± 76 ms, P = 0.76; T2 40.1 ± 3.5 ms vs 40.0 ± 6.4 ms, P = 0.49) or maximum segmental values (T1 1414 ± 111 ms vs. 1363 ± 88 ms, P = 0.15; T2 47.3 ± 5.2 ms vs. 48.8 ± 11.8 ms, P = 0.53). Mean absolute deviation of segmental T1 and T2 values and log-transformed pixel-wise standard deviation as parameters of tissue heterogeneity did not reveal statistical significant differences between inflammation-positive and inflammation-negative HFrEF patients (all P > 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Conventionally performed quantitative T1 and T2 mapping values significantly correlated with prevalence of HFrEF but did not discriminate HFrEF patients with or without chronic myocardial inflammation in our cohort. This suggests that EMB is the preferred method to detect chronic myocardial inflammation in HFrEF.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825201

RESUMO

AIMS: The diagnostic approach to idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis (IGCM) is based on identifying various patterns of inflammatory cell infiltration and multinucleated giant cells (GCs) in histologic sections taken from endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). The sampling error for detecting focally located GCs by histopathology is high, however. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of gene profiling as a new diagnostic method in clinical practice, namely in a large cohort of patients suffering from acute cardiac decompensation. Methods and Results: In this retrospective multicenter study, EMBs taken from n = 427 patients with clinically acute cardiac decompensation and suspected acute myocarditis were screened (mean age: 47.03 ± 15.69 years). In each patient, the EMBs were analyzed on the basis of histology, immunohistology, molecular virology, and gene-expression profiling. Out of the total of n = 427 patient samples examined, GCs could be detected in 26 cases (6.1%) by histology. An established myocardial gene profile consisting of 27 genes was revealed; this was narrowed down to a specified profile of five genes (CPT1, CCL20, CCR5, CCR6, TLR8) which serve to identify histologically proven IGCM with high specificity in 25 of the 26 patients (96.2%). Once this newly established profiling approach was applied to the remaining patient samples, an additional n = 31 patients (7.3%) could be identified as having IGCM without any histologic proof of myocardial GCs. In a subgroup analysis, patients diagnosed with IGCM using this gene profiling respond in a similar fashion to immunosuppressive therapy as patients diagnosed with IGCM by conventional histology alone. Conclusions: Myocardial gene-expression profiling is a promising new method in clinical practice, one which can predict IGCM even in the absence of any direct histologic proof of GCs in EMB sections. Gene profiling is of great clinical relevance in terms of a) overcoming the sampling error associated with purely histologic examinations and b) monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2838-2852, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662949

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in viral myocarditis is attributed to myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, inducing acute and long-time cardiac damage. Interventions are not established. On the basis of the link between inflammation, fibrosis, aldosterone, and extracellular matrix regulation, we aimed to investigate the effect of an early intervention with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) eplerenone on cardiac remodelling in a murine model of persistent coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: SWR/J mice were infected with 5 × 104 plaque-forming units of CVB3 (Nancy strain) and daily treated either with eplerenone (200 mg/kg body weight) or with placebo starting from Day 1. At Day 8 or 28 post infection, mice were haemodynamically characterized and subsequently sacrificed for immunohistological and molecular biology analyses. Eplerenone did not influence CVB3 load. Already at Day 8, 1.8-fold (P < 0.05), 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), 3.2-fold (P < 0.01), and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) reduction in LV intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, presence of monocytes/macrophages, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, respectively, was observed in eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice. In vitro, eplerenone led to 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.2-fold (P < 0.01) less CVB3-induced cardiomyocyte oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, collagen production was 1.1-fold (P < 0.05) decreased in cardiac fibroblasts cultured with medium of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes. These ameliorations were in vivo translated into prevention of cardiac fibrosis, as shown by 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) lower collagen content in the LV of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice at Days 8 and 28, respectively. This resulted in an early and long-lasting improvement of LV dimension and function, as indicated by reduced LV end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume, and an increase in LV contractility (dP/dtmax ) and LV relaxation (dP/dtmin ), respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early intervention with the MRA eplerenone modulates the acute host and defence reaction and prevents cardiac disease progression in experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis without aggravation of viral load. The findings advocate for an initiation of therapy of viral myocarditis as early as possible, even before the onset of inflammation-induced myocardial dysfunction. This may also have implications for coronavirus disease-19 therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrose Endomiocárdica/prevenção & controle , Enterovirus Humano B/patogenicidade , Eplerenona/farmacologia , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/virologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/virologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miocardite/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1281-1285, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730555

RESUMO

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be documented in various tissues, but the frequency of cardiac involvement as well as possible consequences are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardial tissue from autopsy cases and to document a possible cardiac response to that infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from consecutive autopsy cases from Germany between April 8 and April 18, 2020. All patients had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swab tests. Exposures: Patients who died of coronavirus disease 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in cardiac tissue as well as CD3+, CD45+, and CD68+ cells in the myocardium and gene expression of tumor necrosis growth factor α, interferon γ, chemokine ligand 5, as well as interleukin-6, -8, and -18. Results: Cardiac tissue from 39 consecutive autopsy cases were included. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 85 (78-89) years, and 23 (59.0%) were women. SARS-CoV-2 could be documented in 24 of 39 patients (61.5%). Viral load above 1000 copies per µg RNA could be documented in 16 of 39 patients (41.0%). A cytokine response panel consisting of 6 proinflammatory genes was increased in those 16 patients compared with 15 patients without any SARS-CoV-2 in the heart. Comparison of 15 patients without cardiac infection with 16 patients with more than 1000 copies revealed no inflammatory cell infiltrates or differences in leukocyte numbers per high power field. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of autopsy cases, viral presence within the myocardium could be documented. While a response to this infection could be reported in cases with higher virus load vs no virus infection, this was not associated with an influx of inflammatory cells. Future investigations should focus on evaluating the long-term consequences of this cardiac involvement.

8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722766

RESUMO

Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6) can integrate into the germline, and as a result about 70 million people harbour the genome of one of these viruses in every cell of their body. Until now, it has been largely unknown if i) these integrations are ancient, ii) if they still occur, and iii) whether circulating virus strains differ from integrated ones. Here we used next generation sequencing and mining of public human genome datasets to generate the largest and most diverse collection of circulating and integrated HHV-6 genomes studied to date. In genomes of geographically dispersed, only distantly-related people, we identified clades of integrated viruses that originated from a single ancestral event, confirming this with fluorescent in situ hybridization to directly observe the integration locus. In contrast to HHV-6B, circulating and integrated HHV-6A sequences form distinct clades, arguing against ongoing integration of circulating HHV-6A or "reactivation" of integrated HHV-6A. Taken together, our study provides the first comprehensive picture of the evolution of HHV-6, and reveals that integration of heritable HHV-6 has occurred since the time of, if not before, human migrations out of Africa.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596164

RESUMO

AIMS: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly throughout China and keeps the world in suspense. Cardiovascular complications with myocarditis and embolism due to COVID-19 have been reported. SARS-CoV-2 genome detection in the heart muscle has not been demonstrated so far, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) of 104 patients (mean age: 57.90 ± 16.37 years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 33.7 ± 14.6%, sex: n = 79 male/25 female) with suspected myocarditis or unexplained heart failure were analysed. EMB analysis included histology, immunohistochemistry, and detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the IKDT Berlin, Germany. Among 104 EMBs investigated, five were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by reverse real-time transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We describe patients of different history of symptoms and time duration. Additionally, we investigated histopathological changes in myocardial tissue showing that the inflammatory process in EMBs seemed to permeate vascular wall leading to small arterial obliteration and damage. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that established the evidence of SARS-CoV-2 genomes detection in EMBs. In these patients, myocardial injury ischaemia may play a role, which could explain the ubiquitous troponin increases. EMB-based identification of the cause of myocardial injury may contribute to explain the different evolution of complicated SARS-CoV-2-infection and to design future specific and personalized treatment strategies.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2440-2447, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529795

RESUMO

AIMS: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly throughout China and keeps the world in suspense. Cardiovascular complications with myocarditis and embolism due to COVID-19 have been reported. SARS-CoV-2 genome detection in the heart muscle has not been demonstrated so far, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) of 104 patients (mean age: 57.90 ± 16.37 years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 33.7 ± 14.6%, sex: n = 79 male/25 female) with suspected myocarditis or unexplained heart failure were analysed. EMB analysis included histology, immunohistochemistry, and detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the IKDT Berlin, Germany. Among 104 EMBs investigated, five were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by reverse real-time transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We describe patients of different history of symptoms and time duration. Additionally, we investigated histopathological changes in myocardial tissue showing that the inflammatory process in EMBs seemed to permeate vascular wall leading to small arterial obliteration and damage. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that established the evidence of SARS-CoV-2 genomes detection in EMBs. In these patients, myocardial injury ischaemia may play a role, which could explain the ubiquitous troponin increases. EMB-based identification of the cause of myocardial injury may contribute to explain the different evolution of complicated SARS-CoV-2-infection and to design future specific and personalized treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/virologia , Miocardite/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Endocárdio/patologia , Feminino , Genômica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/genética , Miocardite/virologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-5, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437299

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the presence of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human retina in deceased patients with confirmed novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen eyes of 14 deceased patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease were enucleated during autopsy. A sample of human retina was secured and fixed in RNAlater™. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect three different viral RNA sequences (RdRp-gene, E-gene and Orf1 gene) of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In three out of 14 eyes SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in the retina of deceased COVID-19 patients. As analysis for three different sequences (RdRp-gene, E-gene and Orf1 gene) revealed positive results in RT-PCR, the existence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in human retina is proven according to the standards of the World-Health-Organization. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in the retina of COVID-19 patients.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015289, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410525

RESUMO

Background Variants of the desmosomal protein desmoplakin are associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, an important cause of ventricular arrhythmias in children and young adults. Disease penetrance of desmoplakin variants is incomplete and variant carriers may display noncardiac, dermatologic phenotypes. We describe a novel cardiac phenotype associated with a truncating desmoplakin variant, likely causing mechanical instability of myocardial desmosomes. Methods and Results In 2 young brothers with recurrent myocarditis triggered by physical exercise, screening of 218 cardiomyopathy-related genes identified the heterozygous truncating variant p.Arg1458Ter in desmoplakin. Screening for infections yielded no evidence of viral or nonviral infections. Myosin and troponin I autoantibodies were detected at high titers. Immunohistology failed to detect any residual DSP protein in endomyocardial biopsies, and none of the histologic criteria of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy were fulfilled. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed no features associated with right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, but multifocal subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement was present in the left ventricles of both brothers. Screening of adult cardiomyopathy cohorts for truncating variants identified the rare genetic variants p.Gln307Ter, p.Tyr1391Ter, and p.Tyr1512Ter, suggesting that over subsequent decades critical genetic/exogenous modifiers drive pathogenesis from desmoplakin truncations toward different end points. Conclusions The described novel phenotype of familial recurrent myocarditis associated with a desmoplakin truncation in adolescents likely represents a serendipitously revealed subtype of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. It may be caused by a distinctive adverse effect of the variant desmoplakin upon the mechanical stability of myocardial desmosomes. Variant screening is advisable to allow early detection of patients with similar phenotypes.

15.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(5): 721-725, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the presence of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human retina in deceased patients with confirmed novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen eyes of 14 deceased patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease were enucleated during autopsy. A sample of human retina was secured and fixed in RNAlater™. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect three different viral RNA sequences (RdRp-gene, E-gene and Orf1 gene) of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In three out of 14 eyes SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in the retina of deceased COVID-19 patients. As analysis for three different sequences (RdRp-gene, E-gene and Orf1 gene) revealed positive results in RT-PCR, the existence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in human retina is proven according to the standards of the World-Health-Organization. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in the retina of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doenças Retinianas/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biópsia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Enucleação Ocular , Infecções Oculares Virais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Doenças Retinianas/mortalidade
16.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-7, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400241

RESUMO

Purpose: Investigating the existence of inflammation in the distal outflow system posterior of the Schlemm's canal in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Methods: Scleral biopsies (n = 62) from POAG-patients were taken during deep sclerectomy and fixed either in formalin or RNAlater®. Histologic (hematoxylin & eosin) and immunohistological staining for CD 3 and CD 45RO were performed.Results: Cellular infiltration of immunocompetent cells (CD 3 and CD 45RO positive cells) exists around collector channels (CC). This inflammation is limited to the area around the CCs. Ninety-two percent of the biopsies are positive for inflammation. Untreated, dysgenetic glaucoma eyes and 8% of POAG eyes were negative for inflammation. Neither the use of benzalkonium chloride nor the number and type of preoperative antiglaucomatous medication correlated to the immunohistological result.Conclusion: In POAG a diverse cellular infiltration exists around the CCs in the vast majority of biopsies. This could have major diagnostic and therapeutic consequences for the treatment of POAG.Abbreviations: POAG: primary open-angle glaucoma; CC: collector channel; AH: aqueous humor; TM: trabecular meshwork; SC: Schlemm's canal; HE: hematoxylin & eosin; APC: antigen-presenting cell.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155309

RESUMO

AIMS: Low cardiac iron levels promote heart failure in experimental models. While cardiac iron concentration (CI) is decreased in patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), CI has never been measured in non-advanced HFrEF. We measured CI in left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) from patients with non-advanced HFrEF and explored CI association with systemic iron status and disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 80 consecutive patients with non-ischaemic HFrEF with New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms and a median (interquartile range) LV ejection fraction of 25 (18-33)%. CI was 304 (262-373) µg/g dry tissue. CI was not related to immunohistological findings or the presence of cardiotropic viral genomes in EMBs and was not related to biomarkers of systemic iron status or anaemia. Patients with CI in the lowest quartile (CIQ1 ) had lower body mass indices and more often presented with heart failure histories longer than 6 months than patients in the upper three quartiles (CIQ2-4 ). CIQ1 patients had higher serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels than CIQ2-4 patients [3566 (1513-6412) vs. 1542 (526-2811) ng/L; P = 0.005]. CIQ1 patients also had greater LV end-diastolic (P = 0.001) and end-systolic diameter indices (P = 0.003) and higher LV end-diastolic pressures (P = 0.046) than CIQ2-4 patients. CONCLUSION: Low CI is associated with greater disease severity in patients with non-advanced non-ischaemic HFrEF. CI is unrelated to systemic iron homeostasis. The prognostic and therapeutic implications of CI measurements in EMBs should be further explored.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(5): 539-548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

19.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817787

RESUMO

The cardiac-specific overexpression of the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) has cardioprotective effects in various experimental heart disease models. Here, we analyzed the link between ANT1 expression and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27)-mediated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, which represents a novel communication pathway between mitochondria and the extracellular environment. The interaction between ANT1 and HSP27 was identified by co-immunoprecipitation from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. ANT1 transgenic (ANT1-TG) cardiomyocytes demonstrated elevated HSP27 expression levels. Increased levels of HSP27 were released from the ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Extracellular HSP27 stimulated TLR4 signaling via protein kinase B (AKT). The HSP27-mediated activation of the TLR4 pathway was more pronounced in ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes than in wild-type (WT) cardiomyocytes. HSP27-specific antibodies inhibited TLR4 activation and the expression of HSP27. Inhibition of the HSP27-mediated TLR4 signaling pathway with the TLR4 inhibitor oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) and increased caspase 3/7 activity, which are both markers for cell stress. Conversely, treating cardiomyocytes with recombinant HSP27 protein stimulated TLR4 signaling, induced HSP27 and ANT1 expression, and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential. The activation of HSP27 signaling was verified in ischemic ANT1-TG heart tissue, where it correlated with ANT1 expression and the tightness of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Our study shows a new mechanism by which ANT1 is part of the cardioprotective HSP27-mediated TLR4 signaling.

20.
J Proteomics ; 209: 103508, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476444

RESUMO

To identify potential biomarkers supporting better phenotyping and to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), this study comparatively analyzed plasma protein profiles of DCM patients and individuals with low normal and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by mass spectrometry. After plasma depletion using a MARS Hu-6 column, global proteome profiling was performed using a LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. To compare and confirm results, two different discovery sets of samples were investigated. Differentially abundant proteins are involved in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and acute phase response. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), cystatin C, lysozyme C, apolipoprotein A-II, and apolipoprotein M were validated by targeted protein analysis in a third independent patient cohort. Additionally, PON1 levels were also determined by an ELISA. These data highlight PON1 as a potential marker for differentiating DCM patients not only from patients with normal LVEF, but also from heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction. The results highlight lipid metabolism and inflammation as the major pathways being altered in DCM patients in comparison to patients presenting with suspicious myocarditis to the hospital. SIGNIFICANCE: Several studies focused on the identification of heart failure (HF) associated protein signatures in blood plasma, but only few that are largely based on only small sample series considered specific HF pathologies. Therefore, we performed a comparative global blood plasma protein profiling of a larger sample of individuals with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) classified as dilated cardiomyopathy patients and individuals with normal LVEF but presenting with suspicious myocarditis. DCM patients displayed altered levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and acute phase response. The most reliable candidates, such as serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), cystatin C, lysozyme C, apolipoprotein A-II, and apolipoprotein M were validated by targeted protein analysis in an independent patient cohort. PON1 levels were also determined by an ELISA. These data highlight PON1 as a potential marker for differentiating DCM patients not only from patients with normal LVEF, but also from heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

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