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2.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830691

RESUMO

Driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP) are associated with outcomes in critically ill patients, irrespective of the presence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). INTELLiVENT-ASV, a fully automated ventilatory mode, controls the settings that affect ΔP and MP. This study compared the intensity of ventilation (ΔP and MP) with INTELLiVENT-ASV versus conventional ventilation in a cohort of COVID-19 ARDS patients in two intensive care units in the Netherlands. The coprimary endpoints were ΔP and MP before and after converting from conventional ventilation to INTELLiVENT-ASV. Compared to conventional ventilation, INTELLiVENT-ASV delivered ventilation with a lower ΔP and less MP. With conventional ventilation, ΔP was 13 cmH2O, and MP was 21.5 and 24.8 J/min, whereas with INTELLiVENT-ASV, ΔP was 11 and 10 cmH2O (mean difference -2 cm H2O (95 %CI -2.5 to -1.2 cm H2O), p < 0.001) and MP was 18.8 and 17.5 J/min (mean difference -7.3 J/Min (95% CI -8.8 to -5.8 J/min), p < 0.001). Conversion from conventional ventilation to INTELLiVENT-ASV resulted in a lower intensity of ventilation. These findings may favor the use of INTELLiVENT-ASV in COVID-19 ARDS patients, but future studies remain needed to see if the reduction in the intensity of ventilation translates into clinical benefits.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774188

RESUMO

During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers and uninfected patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 as a result of transmission from infected patients and health-care workers. In the absence of high-quality evidence on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, clinical practice of infection control and prevention in ICUs varies widely. Using a Delphi process, international experts in intensive care, infectious diseases, and infection control developed consensus statements on infection control for SARS-CoV-2 in an ICU. Consensus was achieved for 31 (94%) of 33 statements, from which 25 clinical practice statements were issued. These statements include guidance on ICU design and engineering, health-care worker safety, visiting policy, personal protective equipment, patients and procedures, disinfection, and sterilisation. Consensus was not reached on optimal return to work criteria for health-care workers who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or the acceptable disinfection strategy for heat-sensitive instruments used for airway management of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Well designed studies are needed to assess the effects of these practice statements and address the remaining uncertainties.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744358, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804025

RESUMO

Our previous work identified human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 1 (HIVEP1) as a putative driver of LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in humans in vivo. While HIVEP1 is known to interact with NF-ĸB binding DNA motifs, its function in mammalian cells is unknown. We report increased HIVEP1 mRNA expression in monocytes from patients with sepsis and monocytes stimulated by Toll-like receptor agonists and bacteria. In complementary overexpression and gene deletion experiments HIVEP1 was shown to inhibit NF-ĸB activity and induction of NF-ĸB responsive genes. RNA sequencing demonstrated profound transcriptomic changes in HIVEP1 deficient monocytic cells and transcription factor binding site analysis showed enrichment for κB site regions. HIVEP1 bound to the promoter regions of NF-ĸB responsive genes. Inhibition of cytokine production by HIVEP1 was confirmed in LPS-stimulated murine Hivep1-/- macrophages and HIVEP1 knockdown zebrafish exposed to the common sepsis pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. These results identify HIVEP1 as a negative regulator of NF-κB in monocytes/macrophages that inhibits proinflammatory reactions in response to bacterial agonists in vitro and in vivo.

5.
Front Physiol ; 12: 725738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744766

RESUMO

Background: Variable pressure support ventilation (vPSV) is an assisted ventilation mode that varies the level of pressure support on a breath-by-breath basis to restore the physiological variability of breathing activity. We aimed to compare the effects of vPSV at different levels of variability and pressure support (ΔP S) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: This study was a crossover randomized clinical trial. We included patients with mild to moderate ARDS already ventilated in conventional pressure support ventilation (PSV). The study consisted of two blocks of interventions, and variability during vPSV was set as the coefficient of variation of the ΔP S level. In the first block, the effects of three levels of variability were tested at constant ΔP S: 0% (PSV0%, conventional PSV), 15% (vPSV15%), and 30% (vPSV30%). In the second block, two levels of variability (0% and variability set to achieve ±5 cmH2O variability) were tested at two ΔPS levels (baseline ΔP S and ΔP S reduced by 5 cmH2O from baseline). The following four ventilation strategies were tested in the second block: PSV with baseline ΔP S and 0% variability (PSVBL) or ±5 cmH2O variability (vPSVBL), PSV with ΔPS reduced by 5 cmH2O and 0% variability (PSV-5) or ±5 cmH2O variability (vPSV-5). Outcomes included gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and patient-ventilator asynchronies. Results: The study enrolled 20 patients. In the first block of interventions, oxygenation and respiratory mechanics parameters did not differ between vPSV15% and vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. The variability of tidal volume (V T) was higher with vPSV15% and vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. The incidence of asynchronies and the variability of transpulmonary pressure (P L) were higher with vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. In the second block of interventions, different levels of pressure support with and without variability did not change oxygenation. The variability of V T and P L was higher with vPSV-5 compared with PSV-5, but not with vPSVBL compared with PSVBL. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate ARDS, the addition of variability did not improve oxygenation at different pressure support levels. Moreover, high variability levels were associated with worse patient-ventilator synchrony. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT01683669.

6.
Front Physiol ; 12: 730857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594240

RESUMO

Background: The identification of phenotypes based on lung morphology can be helpful to better target mechanical ventilation of individual patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to assess the accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) methods for classification of lung morphology in critically ill ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis on two prospective studies that performed LUS and chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at the same time. Expert panels from the two participating centers separately developed two LUS methods for classifying lung morphology based on LUS aeration scores from a 12-region exam (Amsterdam and Lombardy method). Moreover, a previously developed LUS method based on anterior LUS scores was tested (Piedmont method). Sensitivity and specificity of all three LUS methods was assessed in the cohort of the other center(s) by using CT as the gold standard for classification of lung morphology. Results: The Amsterdam and Lombardy cohorts consisted of 32 and 19 ARDS patients, respectively. From these patients, 23 (45%) had focal lung morphology while others had non-focal lung morphology. The Amsterdam method could classify focal lung morphology with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 100%, while the Lombardy method had a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 61%. The Piedmont method had a sensitivity and specificity of 91 and 75% when tested on both cohorts. With both the Amsterdam and Lombardy method, most patients could be classified based on the anterior regions alone. Conclusion: LUS-based methods can accurately classify lung morphology in invasively ventilated ARDS patients compared to gold standard chest CT. The anterior LUS regions showed to be the most discriminant between focal and non-focal lung morphology, although accuracy increased moderately when lateral and posterior LUS regions were integrated in the method.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been postulated to present with distinct respiratory subphenotypes. However, most phenotyping schema have been limited by sample size, disregard for temporal dynamics, and insufficient validation. We aimed to identify respiratory subphenotypes of COVID-19-related ARDS using unbiased data-driven approaches. METHODS: PRoVENT-COVID was an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study at 22 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients who had received invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 (aged 18 years or older) served as the derivation cohort, and similar patients from two ICUs in the USA served as the replication cohorts. COVID-19 was confirmed by positive RT-PCR. We used latent class analysis to identify subphenotypes using clinically available respiratory data cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally using 8-hourly data from the first 4 days of invasive ventilation. We used group-based trajectory modelling to evaluate trajectories of individual variables and to facilitate potential clinical translation. The PRoVENT-COVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346342. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, 1007 patients were admitted to participating ICUs in the Netherlands, and included in the derivation cohort. Data for 288 patients were included in replication cohort 1 and 326 in replication cohort 2. Cross-sectional latent class analysis did not identify any underlying subphenotypes. Longitudinal latent class analysis identified two distinct subphenotypes. Subphenotype 2 was characterised by higher mechanical power, minute ventilation, and ventilatory ratio over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation than subphenotype 1, but PaO2/FiO2, pH, and compliance of the respiratory system did not differ between the two subphenotypes. 185 (28%) of 671 patients with subphenotype 1 and 109 (32%) of 336 patients with subphenotype 2 had died at day 28 (p=0·10). However, patients with subphenotype 2 had fewer ventilator-free days at day 28 (median 0, IQR 0-15 vs 5, 0-17; p=0·016) and more frequent venous thrombotic events (109 [32%] of 336 patients vs 176 [26%] of 671 patients; p=0·048) compared with subphenotype 1. Group-based trajectory modelling revealed trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power with similar dynamics to those observed in latent class analysis-derived trajectory subphenotypes. The two trajectories were: a stable value for ventilatory ratio or mechanical power over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation (trajectory A) or an upward trajectory (trajectory B). However, upward trajectories were better independent prognosticators for 28-day mortality (OR 1·64, 95% CI 1·17-2·29 for ventilatory ratio; 1·82, 1·24-2·66 for mechanical power). The association between upward ventilatory ratio trajectories (trajectory B) and 28-day mortality was confirmed in the replication cohorts (OR 4·65, 95% CI 1·87-11·6 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 1; 1·89, 1·05-3·37 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 2). INTERPRETATION: At baseline, COVID-19-related ARDS has no consistent respiratory subphenotype. Patients diverged from a fairly homogenous to a more heterogeneous population, with trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power being the most discriminatory. Modelling these parameters alone provided prognostic value for duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662857

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to assess loss of aeration, which is associated with outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that LUS scores are associated with outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. This retrospective international multicenter study evaluated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with at least one LUS study within 5 days after invasive mechanical ventilation initiation. The global LUS score was calculated by summing the 12 regional scores (range 0-36). Pleural line abnormalities and subpleural consolidations were also scored. The outcomes were successful liberation from the ventilator and intensive care mortality within 28 days, analyzed with multistate, competing risk proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty-seven patients with COVID-19-related ARDS were included in our study. The global LUS score was associated with successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96; P = 0.0007) independently of the ARDS severity, but not with 28 days mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.08; P = 0.36). Subpleural consolidation and pleural line abnormalities did not add to the prognostic value of the global LUS score. Examinations within 24 hours of intubation showed no prognostic value. To conclude, a lower global LUS score 24 hours after invasive ventilation initiation is associated with increased probability of liberation from the mechanical ventilator COVID-19 ARDS patients, independently of the ARDS severity.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682907

RESUMO

We describe the incidence and practice of prone positioning and determined the association of use of prone positioning with outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a national, multicenter observational study, performed at 22 intensive care units in the Netherlands. Patients were categorized into 4 groups, based on indication for and actual use of prone positioning. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were 90-day mortality, and ICU and hospital length of stay. In 734 patients, prone positioning was indicated in 60%-the incidence of prone positioning was higher in patients with an indication than in patients without an indication for prone positioning (77 vs. 48%, p = 0.001). Patients were left in the prone position for median 15.0 (10.5-21.0) hours per full calendar day-the duration was longer in patients with an indication than in patients without an indication for prone positioning (16.0 (11.0-23.0) vs. 14.0 (10.0-19.0) hours, p < 0.001). Ventilator settings and ventilation parameters were not different between the four groups, except for FiO2 which was higher in patients having an indication for and actually receiving prone positioning. Our data showed no difference in mortality at day 28 between the 4 groups (HR no indication, no prone vs. no indication, prone vs. indication, no prone vs. indication, prone: 1.05 (0.76-1.45) vs. 0.88 (0.62-1.26) vs. 1.15 (0.80-1.54) vs. 0.96 (0.73-1.26) (p = 0.08)). Factors associated with the use of prone positioning were ARDS severity and FiO2. The findings of this study are that prone positioning is often used in COVID-19 patients, even in patients that have no indication for this intervention. Sessions of prone positioning lasted long. Use of prone positioning may affect outcomes.

10.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(11): 327-335, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675433

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common microbial cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Currently, there are no available models of severe pneumococcal pneumonia in mechanically ventilated animals to mimic clinical conditions of critically ill patients. We studied endogenous pulmonary flora in 4 healthy pigs and in an additional 10 pigs in which we intra-bronchially instilled S. pneumoniae serotype 19 A, characterized by its resistance to penicillin, macrolides and tetracyclines. The pigs underwent ventilation for 72 h. All pigs that were not challenged with S. pneumoniae completed the 72-h study, whereas 30% of infected pigs did not. At 24 h, we clinically confirmed pneumonia in the infected pigs; upon necropsy, we sampled lung tissue for microbiological/histological confirmation of pneumococcal pneumonia. In control pigs, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly encountered pathogens, and their lung tissue mean ± s.e.m. concentration was 7.94 ± 20 c.f.u./g. In infected pigs, S. pneumoniae was found in the lungs of all pigs (mean ± s.e.m. pulmonary concentration of 1.26 × 105 ± 2 × 102 c.f.u./g). Bacteremia was found in 50% of infected pigs. Pneumococcal pneumonia was confirmed in all infected pigs at 24 h. Pneumonia was associated with thrombocytopenia, an increase in prothrombin time, cardiac output and vasopressor dependency index and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Upon necropsy, microbiological/histological pneumococcal pneumonia was confirmed in 8 of 10 pigs. We have therefore developed a novel model of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia in mechanically ventilated pigs with bacteremia and severe hemodynamic compromise. The model could prove valuable for appraising the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia, the effects associated with macrolide resistance and the outcomes related to the use of new diagnostic strategies and antibiotic or complementary therapies.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Pneumocócica , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/veterinária , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Suínos
11.
Front Physiol ; 12: 717269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566683

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) is as high as 10%. It is also partially determined by the distribution of perfusion. During thoracic surgery, different body positions are used, such as the supine, semilateral, lateral, and prone positions, with such positions potentially influencing the distribution of perfusion. Furthermore, hypovolemia can impair hypoxic vasoconstriction. However, the effects of body position and hypovolemia on the distribution of perfusion remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that, during OLV, the relative perfusion of the ventilated lung is higher in the lateral decubitus position and that hypovolemia impairs the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow. Methods: Sixteen juvenile pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, submitted to a right-sided thoracotomy, and randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) intravascular normovolemia or (2) intravascular hypovolemia, as achieved by drawing ~25% of the estimated blood volume (n = 8/group). Furthermore, to mimic thoracic surgery inflammatory conditions, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide was continuously infused at 0.5 µg kg-1 h-1. Under left-sided OLV conditions, the animals were further randomized to one of the four sequences of supine, left semilateral, left lateral, and prone positioning. Measurements of pulmonary perfusion distribution with fluorescence-marked microspheres, ventilation distribution by electrical impedance tomography, and gas exchange were then performed during two-lung ventilation in a supine position and after 30 min in each position and intravascular volume status during OLV. Results: During one-lung ventilation, the relative perfusion of the ventilated lung was higher in the lateral than the supine position. The relative perfusion of the non-ventilated lung was lower in the lateral than the supine and prone positions and in semilateral compared with the prone position. During OLV, the highest arterial partial pressure of oxygen/inspiratory fraction of oxygen (PaO2/F I O 2) was achieved in the lateral position as compared with all the other positions. The distribution of perfusion, ventilation, and oxygenation did not differ significantly between normovolemia and hypovolemia. Conclusions: During one-lung ventilation in endotoxemic pigs, the relative perfusion of the ventilated lung and oxygenation were higher in the lateral than in the supine position and not impaired by hypovolemia.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(15): 1262, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532399

RESUMO

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently diagnosed by the Berlin Definition. Diagnosis is subjective and often late. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of exhaled breath with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the breath concentration of octane has a high diagnostic accuracy for ARDS. To facilitate rapid bedside measurement of this biomarker, a point-of-care (POC) breath test was developed. A prototype already showed good reproducibility and repeatability for the detection of octane. In this study we aim to measure octane in exhaled breath of invasively ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients and validate the diagnostic accuracy of the breath test for the early diagnosis of ARDS. Methods: This is a multicentre observational cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU receiving invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours. At least 500 patients in two academic hospitals in The Netherlands will be included. ARDS patients will be compared to patients without ARDS. ARDS diagnosis will be based on the Berlin Definition. Two diagnostic assessments will be performed during the first 72 hours of invasive ventilation, including breath sampling, arterial blood gas analysis and lung ultrasound (LUS). In patients fulfilling the criteria for ARDS, three additional breath samples will be taken to assess resolution. The primary endpoint is the diagnostic accuracy for ARDS, defined by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROCC) of octane concentration in exhaled breath. Secondary endpoints are the association between exhaled breath octane and ARDS adjusted for confounders, and the added diagnostic accuracy of the breath test on top of the Lung Injury Prediction Score (LIPS). Discussion: This is the first study that validates a metabolic biomarker of ARDS in an adequate sample size. The major novelty is the use of a POC breath test that has been specifically developed for the purpose of diagnosing ARDS. Strengths are; assessment in the early phase, in patients at risk for ARDS, longitudinal sampling and an expert panel to reliably diagnose ARDS. This study will provide a decisive answer on the question if exhaled breath metabolomics can be used to diagnose ARDS. Trial registration: The trial is registered at trialregister.nl (ID: NL8226) with the tag "DARTS".

13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 142, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A delay in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been associated with an increased mortality. Decisions regarding interventions and eligibility for immune modulatory therapy are often made at the time of admission to the ICU. The primary aim of this study was to compare the host immune response measured upon ICU admission in CAP patients admitted immediately from the emergency department (direct ICU admission) with those who were transferred within 72 h after admission to the general ward (delayed ICU admission). METHODS: Sixteen host response biomarkers providing insight in pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in sepsis and blood leukocyte transcriptomes were analysed in patients with CAP upon ICU admission in two tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. RESULTS: Of 530 ICU admissions with CAP, 387 (73.0%) were directly admitted and 143 (27.0%) had a delayed admission. Patients with a delayed ICU admission were more often immunocompromised (35.0 versus 21.2%, P = .002) and had more malignancies (23.1 versus 13.4%, P = .011). Shock was more present in patients who were admitted to the ICU directly (46.6 versus 33.6%, P = .010). Delayed ICU admission was not associated with an increased hospital mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 0.89-1.78, P = .20). The plasma levels of biomarkers (n = 297) reflecting systemic inflammation, endothelial cell activation and coagulation activation were largely similar between groups, with exception of C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and angiopoietin-1, which were more aberrant in delayed admissions compared to direct ICU admissions. Blood leukocyte transcriptomes (n = 132) of patients with a delayed ICU admission showed blunted innate and adaptive immune response signalling when compared with direct ICU admissions, as well as decreased gene expression associated with tissue repair and extracellular matrix remodelling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Blood leukocytes of CAP patients with delayed ICU admission show evidence of a more immune suppressive phenotype upon ICU admission when compared with blood leukocytes from patients directly transferred to the ICU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Molecular Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Sepsis (MARS) project, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01905033.

14.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362165

RESUMO

Airway care interventions may prevent accumulation of airway secretions and promote their evacuation, but evidence is scarce. Interventions include heated humidification, nebulization of mucolytics and/or bronchodilators, manual hyperinflation and use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E). Our aim is to identify current airway care practices for invasively ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICU) in the Netherlands. A self-administered web-based survey was sent to a single pre-appointed representative of all ICUs in the Netherlands. Response rate was 85% (72 ICUs). We found substantial heterogeneity in the intensity and combinations of airway care interventions used. Most (81%) ICUs reported using heated humidification as a routine prophylactic intervention. All (100%) responding ICUs used nebulized mucolytics and/or bronchodilators; however, only 43% ICUs reported nebulization as a routine prophylactic intervention. Most (81%) ICUs used manual hyperinflation, although only initiated with a clinical indication like difficult oxygenation. Few (22%) ICUs used MI-E for invasively ventilated patients. Use was always based on the indication of insufficient cough strength or as a continuation of home use. In the Netherlands, use of routine prophylactic airway care interventions is common despite evidence of no benefit. There is an urgent need for evidence of the benefit of these interventions to inform evidence-based guidelines.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether driving pressure and expiratory flow limitation are associated with the development of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a predefined composite of PPCs. The authors determined the association among PPCs and intraoperative ventilation parameters, mechanical power and energy load, and occurrence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) assessed with the positive end-expiratory pressure test. Two hundred patients were enrolled, of whom 78 (39%) developed one or more PPCs. Patients with PPCs, compared with those without PPCs, had similar driving pressure (mean difference [MD] -0.1 [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.0 to 0.7] cmH2O, p = 0.561), mechanical power (MD 0.5 [95% CI, -0.3 to 1.1] J/m, p = 0.364), and total energy load (MD 95 [95% CI, -78 to 263] J, p = 0.293), but they had a higher incidence of EFL (51% v 38%, p = 0.005). Only EFL was associated independently with the development of PPCs (odds ratio 2.46 [95% CI, 1.28-4.80], p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: PPCs occurred frequently in this patient population undergoing cardiac surgery. PPCs were associated independently with the presence of EFL but not with driving pressure, total energy load, or mechanical power.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are the most common causative pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) on the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to determine whether the host immune response differs between Gram-positive and Gram-negative CAP upon ICU admission. METHODS: Sixteen host response biomarkers providing insight in pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in sepsis and blood leukocyte transcriptomes were analysed in patients with CAP upon ICU admission in two tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. RESULTS: 309 patients with CAP with a definite or probable likelihood (determined by predefined criteria) were included. A causative pathogen was determined in 74.4% of admissions. Patients admitted with Gram-positive CAP (n=90) were not different from those admitted with Gram-negative CAP (n=75) regarding demographics, chronic comorbidities, severity of disease and mortality. Host response biomarkers reflective of systemic inflammation, coagulation activation and endothelial cell function, as well as blood leukocytes transcriptomes, were largely similar between Gram-positive and Gram-negative CAP. Blood leukocyte transcriptomes were also similar in Gram-positive and Gram-negative CAP in two independent validation cohorts. On a pathogen-specific level, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli induced the most distinct host immune response. CONCLUSION: Outcome and host response are similar in critically ill patients with CAP due to Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria.

17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 283, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain if a similar association exists in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the impact of intensity of ventilation on patient outcome. The PRoVENT-COVID study is a national multicenter observational study in COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. Ventilator parameters were collected a fixed time points on the first calendar day of invasive ventilation. Mean dynamic ΔP and MP were calculated for individual patients at time points without evidence of spontaneous breathing. A Cox proportional hazard model, and a double stratification analysis adjusted for confounders were used to estimate the independent associations of ΔP and MP with outcome. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 825 patients included in this analysis, 28-day mortality was 27.5%. ΔP was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.88-1.18]; P = 0.750). MP, however, was independently associated with 28-day mortality (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.031), and increasing quartiles of MP, stratified on comparable levels of ΔP, had higher risks of 28-day mortality (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01-1.30]; P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, we show an independent association of MP, but not ΔP with 28-day mortality. MP could serve as one prognostic biomarker in addition to ΔP in these patients. Efforts aiming at limiting both ΔP and MP could translate in a better outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (study identifier NCT04346342).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
19.
Chest ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "buffalo chest" is a condition in which a simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax occurs due to a communication of both pleural cavities caused by an iatrogenic or idiopathic fenestration of the mediastinum. This rare condition is known by many clinicians because of a particular anecdote which stated that Native Americans could kill a North American bison with a single arrow in the chest by creating a simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax, due to the animal's peculiar anatomy in which there is one contiguous pleural space due to an incomplete mediastinum. RESEARCH QUESTION: What evidence is there for the existence of buffalo chest? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The term "buffalo chest" and its anecdote were first mentioned in a ''personal communication'' by a veterinarian in the Annals of Surgery in 1984. A mixed method research was performed on buffalo chest and its etiology. A total of 47 cases of buffalo chest were identified in humans. RESULTS: This study found that all authors were referring to the article from 1984 or to each other. Evidence was found for interpleural communications in other mammal species, but no literature on the anatomy of the mediastinum of the bison was found. The main reason for this research was fact-checking the origin of the anecdote and search for evidence for the existence of buffalo chest. Autopsies were performed on eight bison, and four indeed were found to have had interpleural communications. INTERPRETATION: We hypothesize that humans can also have interpleural fenestrations, which can be diagnosed when a pneumothorax occurs.

20.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(9): 783, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268396

RESUMO

Background: Mechanical ventilation can injure lung tissue and respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of the amount of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation on patient outcomes. Methods: This is an analysis of the database of the 'Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC)'-III, considering intensive care units (ICUs) of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Boston, MA. Adult patients who received invasive ventilation for at least 48 hours were included. Patients were categorized according to the amount of spontaneous breathing, i.e., ≥50% ('high spontaneous breathing') and <50% ('low spontaneous breathing') of time during first 48 hours of ventilation. The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days. Results: In total, the analysis included 3,380 patients; 70.2% were classified as 'high spontaneous breathing', and 29.8% as 'low spontaneous breathing'. Patients in the 'high spontaneous breathing' group were older, had more comorbidities, and lower severity scores. In adjusted analysis, the amount of spontaneous breathing was not associated with the number of ventilator-free days [20.0 (0.0-24.2) vs. 19.0 (0.0-23.7) in high vs. low; absolute difference, 0.54 (95% CI, -0.10 to 1.19); P=0.101]. However, 'high spontaneous breathing' was associated with shorter duration of ventilation in survivors [6.5 (3.6 to 12.2) vs. 7.6 (4.1 to 13.9); absolute difference, -0.91 (95% CI, -1.80 to -0.02); P=0.046]. Conclusions: In patients surviving and receiving ventilation for at least 48 hours, the amount of spontaneous breathing during this period was not associated with an increased number of ventilator-free days.

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