Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 217
Filtrar
3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876685

RESUMO

Defective silencing of retrotransposable elements has been linked to inflammageing, cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Here we implicate the histone H3.3 chaperone Daxx, a retrotransposable element repressor inactivated in myeloid leukaemia and other neoplasms, in protection from inflammatory disease. Loss of Daxx alters the chromatin landscape, H3.3 distribution and histone marks of haematopoietic progenitors, leading to engagement of a Pu.1-dependent transcriptional programme for myelopoiesis at the expense of B-cell differentiation. This causes neutrophilia and inflammation, predisposing mice to develop an autoinflammatory skin disease. While these molecular and phenotypic perturbations are in part reverted in animals lacking both Pu.1 and Daxx, haematopoietic progenitors in these mice show unique chromatin and transcriptome alterations, suggesting an interaction between these two pathways. Overall, our findings implicate retrotransposable element silencing in haematopoiesis and suggest a cross-talk between the H3.3 loading machinery and the pioneer transcription factor Pu.1.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7322, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916498

RESUMO

Blastocyst-derived stem cell lines were shown to self-organize into embryo-like structures in 3D cell culture environments. Here, we provide evidence that embryo-like structures can be generated solely based on transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of embryonic stem cells in a simple 3D co-culture system. Embryonic stem cells in these cultures self-organize into elongated, compartmentalized embryo-like structures reflecting aspects of the inner regions of the early post-implantation embryo. Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals transcriptional profiles resembling epiblast, primitive-/visceral endoderm, and extraembryonic ectoderm of early murine embryos around E4.5-E5.5. In this stem cell-based embryo model, progression from rosette formation to lumenogenesis accompanied by progression from naïve- to primed pluripotency was observed within Epi-like cells. Additionally, lineage specification of primordial germ cells and distal/anterior visceral endoderm-like cells was observed in epiblast- or visceral endoderm-like compartments, respectively. The system presented in this study allows for fast and reproducible generation of embryo-like structures, providing an additional tool to study aspects of early embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Corpos Embrioides/citologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Corpos Embrioides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Endoderma/embriologia , Endoderma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos , RNA-Seq
5.
Cell ; 184(26): 6243-6261.e27, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914922

RESUMO

COVID-19-induced "acute respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS) is associated with prolonged respiratory failure and high mortality, but the mechanistic basis of lung injury remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyze pulmonary immune responses and lung pathology in two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 ARDS using functional single-cell genomics, immunohistology, and electron microscopy. We describe an accumulation of CD163-expressing monocyte-derived macrophages that acquired a profibrotic transcriptional phenotype during COVID-19 ARDS. Gene set enrichment and computational data integration revealed a significant similarity between COVID-19-associated macrophages and profibrotic macrophage populations identified in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. COVID-19 ARDS was associated with clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and ultrastructural hallmarks of pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure of human monocytes to SARS-CoV-2, but not influenza A virus or viral RNA analogs, was sufficient to induce a similar profibrotic phenotype in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 triggers profibrotic macrophage responses and pronounced fibroproliferative ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/virologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Fenótipo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transcrição Genética
6.
EMBO J ; : e108662, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825707

RESUMO

Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathogenic component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may limit the ability of the brain to clear amyloid deposits and cellular debris. Tight control of the immune system is therefore key to sustain the ability of the brain to repair itself during homeostasis and disease. The immune-cell checkpoint receptor/ligand pair PD-1/PD-L1, known for their inhibitory immune function, is expressed also in the brain. Here, we report upregulated expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 in astrocytes and microglia, respectively, surrounding amyloid plaques in AD patients and in the APP/PS1 AD mouse model. We observed juxtamembrane shedding of PD-L1 from astrocytes, which may mediate ectodomain signaling to PD-1-expressing microglia. Deletion of microglial PD-1 evoked an inflammatory response and compromised amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) uptake. APP/PS1 mice deficient for PD-1 exhibited increased deposition of Aß, reduced microglial Aß uptake, and decreased expression of the Aß receptor CD36 on microglia. Therefore, ineffective immune regulation by the PD-1/PD-L1 axis contributes to Aß plaque deposition during chronic neuroinflammation in AD.

7.
Cell Metab ; 33(12): 2398-2414.e9, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715039

RESUMO

Wound healing is a coordinated process that initially relies on pro-inflammatory macrophages, followed by a pro-resolution function of these cells. Changes in cellular metabolism likely dictate these distinct activities, but the nature of these changes has been unclear. Here, we profiled early- versus late-stage skin wound macrophages in mice at both the transcriptional and functional levels. We found that glycolytic metabolism in the early phase is not sufficient to ensure productive repair. Instead, by combining conditional disruption of the electron transport chain with deletion of mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, followed by single-cell sequencing analysis, we found that a subpopulation of early-stage wound macrophages are marked by mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and HIF1α stabilization, which ultimately drives a pro-angiogenic program essential for timely healing. In contrast, late-phase, pro-resolving wound macrophages are marked by IL-4Rα-mediated mitochondrial respiration and mitohormesis. Collectively, we identify changes in mitochondrial metabolism as a critical control mechanism for macrophage effector functions during wound healing.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1382-1390, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663978

RESUMO

Intergenerational inheritance of immune traits linked to epigenetic modifications has been demonstrated in plants and invertebrates. Here we provide evidence for transmission of trained immunity across generations to murine progeny that survived a sublethal systemic infection with Candida albicans or a zymosan challenge. The progeny of trained mice exhibited cellular, developmental, transcriptional and epigenetic changes associated with the bone marrow-resident myeloid effector and progenitor cell compartment. Moreover, the progeny of trained mice showed enhanced responsiveness to endotoxin challenge, alongside improved protection against systemic heterologous Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes infections. Sperm DNA of parental male mice intravenously infected with the fungus C. albicans showed DNA methylation differences linked to immune gene loci. These results provide evidence for inheritance of trained immunity in mammals, enhancing protection against infections.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Hereditariedade , Imunidade Inata/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeriose/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Animais , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/genética , Candidíase/metabolismo , Candidíase/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/genética , Listeriose/metabolismo , Listeriose/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/imunologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
9.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592166

RESUMO

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
10.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527724

RESUMO

Background: Immune cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Changes in the distribution and cellular functions of major immune cells, such as alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils are well known; however, their transcriptional reprogramming and contribution to the pathophysiology of COPD are still not fully understood. Method: To determine changes in transcriptional reprogramming and lipid metabolism in the major immune cell type within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, we analysed whole transcriptomes and lipidomes of sorted CD45+Lin-HLA-DR+CD66b-Autofluorescencehi AMs from controls and COPD patients. Results: We observed global transcriptional reprogramming featuring a spectrum of activation states, including pro- and anti-inflammatory signatures. We further detected significant changes between COPD patients and controls in genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as fatty acid biosynthesis in GOLD2 patients. Based on these findings, assessment of a total of 202 lipid species in sorted AMs revealed changes of cholesteryl esters, monoacylglycerols and phospholipids in a disease grade-dependent manner. Conclusions: Transcriptome and lipidome profiling of COPD AMs revealed GOLD grade-dependent changes, such as in cholesterol metabolism and interferon-α and γ responses.

11.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21939, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549824

RESUMO

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is associated with hepatic metabolic function, yet it is not well understood how endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disturbance might influence metabolic homeostasis. Here, we describe the physiological function of Cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (Creld2), previously characterized as a downstream target of the ER-stress signal transducer Atf6. To this end, we generated Creld2-deficient mice and induced UPR by injection of tunicamycin. Creld2 augments protein folding and creates an interlink between the UPR axes through its interaction with proteins involved in the cellular stress response. Thereby, Creld2 promotes tolerance to ER stress and recovery from acute stress. Creld2-deficiency leads to a dysregulated UPR and causes the development of hepatic steatosis during ER stress conditions. Moreover, Creld2-dependent enhancement of the UPR assists in the regulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we observed a sex dimorphism in human and mouse livers with only male patients showing an accumulation of CRELD2 protein during the progression from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and only male Creld2-deficient mice developing hepatic steatosis upon aging. These results reveal a Creld2 function at the intersection between UPR and metabolic homeostasis and suggest a mechanism in which chronic ER stress underlies fatty liver disease in males.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Homeostase , Fígado/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Envelhecimento , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Fígado Gorduroso , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica
12.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e107100, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337766

RESUMO

Adult neurogenesis enables the life-long addition of functional neurons to the hippocampus and is regulated by both cell-intrinsic molecular programs and behavioral activity. De novo DNA methylation is crucial for embryonic brain development, but its role during adult hippocampal neurogenesis has remained unknown. Here, we show that de novo DNA methylation is critical for maturation and functional integration of adult-born neurons in the mouse hippocampus. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that de novo DNA methyltransferases target neuronal enhancers and gene bodies during adult hippocampal neural stem cell differentiation, to establish neuronal methylomes and facilitate transcriptional up-regulation of neuronal genes. Inducible deletion of both de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in adult neural stem cells did not affect proliferation or fate specification, but specifically impaired dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis of newborn neurons, thereby hampering their functional maturation. Consequently, abolishing de novo DNA methylation modulated activation patterns in the hippocampal circuitry and caused specific deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that proper establishment of neuronal methylomes during adult neurogenesis is fundamental for hippocampal function.

13.
EXCLI J ; 20: 1243-1260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345236

RESUMO

An increasing amount of attention has been geared towards understanding the privacy risks that arise from sharing genomic data of human origin. Most of these efforts have focused on issues in the context of genomic sequence data, but the popularity of techniques for collecting other types of genome-related data has prompted researchers to investigate privacy concerns in a broader genomic context. In this review, we give an overview of different types of genome-associated data, their individual ways of revealing sensitive information, the motivation to share them as well as established and upcoming methods to minimize information leakage. We further discuss the concise threats that are being posed, who is at risk, and how the risk level compares to potential benefits, all while addressing the topic in the context of modern technology, methodology, and information sharing culture. Additionally, we will discuss the current legal situation regarding the sharing of genomic data in a selection of countries, evaluating the scope of their applicability as well as their limitations. We will finalize this review by evaluating the development that is required in the scientific field in the near future in order to improve and develop privacy-preserving data sharing techniques for the genomic context.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367190

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that led to an ongoing pandemic with massive global health and socioeconomic consequences. The disease is characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by respiratory clinical manifestations ranging from mild common cold symptoms, including cough and fever, to severe respiratory distress and multi-organ failure. Macrophages, a heterogeneous group of yolk-sac derived, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes of complex ontogeny present in all mammalian organs, play critical roles in developmental, homeostatic and host defense processes with tissue-dependent plasticity. In case of infection, they are responsible for early pathogen recognition, initiation and resolution of inflammation, as well as repair of tissue damage. Monocytes, bone-marrow derived blood-resident phagocytes, are recruited under pathological conditions such as viral infections to the affected tissue to defend the organism against invading pathogens and to aid in efficient resolution of inflammation. Given their pivotal function in host defense and the potential danger posed by their dysregulated hyperinflammation, understanding monocyte and macrophage phenotypes in COVID-19 is key for tackling the disease's pathological mechanisms. Here, we outline current knowledge on monocytes and macrophages in homeostasis and viral infections and summarize concepts and key findings on their role in COVID-19. While monocytes in the blood of patients with moderate COVID-19 present with an inflammatory, interferon-stimulated gene (ISG)-driven phenotype, cellular dysfunction epitomized by loss of HLA-DR expression and induction of S100 alarmin expression is their dominant feature in severe disease. Pulmonary macrophages in COVID-19 derived from infiltrating inflammatory monocytes are in a hyperactivated state resulting in a detrimental loop of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and recruitment of cytotoxic effector cells thereby exacerbating tissue damage at the site of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Monócitos/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326259

RESUMO

Proinflammatory activation of macrophages in metabolic tissues is critically important in the induction of obesity-induced metaflammation. Here, we demonstrate that the soluble mannose receptor (sMR) plays a direct functional role in both macrophage activation and metaflammation. We show that sMR binds CD45 on macrophages and inhibits its phosphatase activity, leading to an Src/Akt/NF-κB-mediated cellular reprogramming toward an inflammatory phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, increased serum sMR levels were observed in obese mice and humans and directly correlated with body weight. Importantly, enhanced sMR levels increase serum proinflammatory cytokines, activate tissue macrophages, and promote insulin resistance. Altogether, our results reveal sMR as regulator of proinflammatory macrophage activation, which could constitute a therapeutic target for metaflammation and other hyperinflammatory diseases.

17.
RNA ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975917

RESUMO

The stem cell-specific RNA-binding protein TRIM71/LIN-41 was the first identified target of the pro-differentiation and tumor suppressor miRNA let-7. TRIM71 has essential functions in embryonic development and a proposed oncogenic role in several cancer types, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we show that TRIM71 regulates let-7 expression and activity via two independent mechanisms. On the one hand, TRIM71 enhances pre-let-7 degradation through its direct interaction with LIN28 and TUT4, thereby inhibiting let-7 maturation and indirectly promoting the stabilization of let-7 targets. On the other hand, TRIM71 represses the activity of mature let-7 via its RNA-dependent interaction with the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) effector protein AGO2. We found that TRIM71 directly binds and stabilizes let-7 targets, suggesting that let-7 activity inhibition occurs on active RISCs. MiRNA enrichment analysis of several transcriptomic datasets from mouse embryonic stem cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells suggests that these let-7 regulatory mechanisms shape transcriptomic changes during developmental and oncogenic processes. Altogether, our work reveals a novel role for TRIM71 as a miRNA repressor and sheds light on a dual mechanism of let-7 regulation.

18.
Biospektrum (Heidelb) ; 27(3): 227, 2021.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994671
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841435

RESUMO

Strong evidence has been accumulated since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic that neutrophils play an important role in the pathophysiology, particularly in those with severe disease courses. While originally considered to be a rather homogeneous cell type, recent attention to neutrophils has uncovered their fascinating transcriptional and functional diversity as well as their developmental trajectories. These new findings are important to better understand the many facets of neutrophil involvement not only in COVID-19 but also many other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, both communicable and non-communicable. Here, we highlight the observed immune deviation of neutrophils in COVID-19 and summarize several promising therapeutic attempts to precisely target neutrophils and their reactivity in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos
20.
Cell ; 184(7): 1671-1692, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743212

RESUMO

The introduction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the human population represents a tremendous medical and economic crisis. Innate immunity-as the first line of defense of our immune system-plays a central role in combating this novel virus. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for the interaction of the human innate immune system with SARS-CoV-2 to link the clinical observations with experimental findings that have been made during the first year of the pandemic. We review evidence that variability in innate immune system components among humans is a main contributor to the heterogeneous disease courses observed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease spectrum induced by SARS-CoV-2. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms observed for cells and soluble mediators involved in innate immunity is a prerequisite for the development of diagnostic markers and therapeutic strategies targeting COVID-19. However, this will also require additional studies addressing causality of events, which so far are lagging behind.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...