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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(1): 262-273, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570653

RESUMO

Type I and III leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LADs) are primary immunodeficiency disorders resulting in early death due to infections and additional bleeding tendency in LAD-III. The curative treatment of LAD-I and LAD-III is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this retrospective multicenter study, data were collected using the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry; we analyzed data from 84 LAD patients from 33 centers, all receiving an allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2017. The 3-year overall survival estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 83% (74-92) for the entire cohort: 84% (75-94) and 75% (50-100) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. We observed cumulative incidences (95% CI) of graft failure (GF) at 3 years of 17% (9%-26%) and grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at 100 days of 24% (15%-34%). The estimate (95% CI) at 3 years for GF- and GVHD-II to IV-free survival as event-free survival (EFS) was 56% (46-69) for the entire cohort; 58% (46-72) and 56% (23-88) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was a relevant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.4-9.1; P = .006). Patients' age at transplant ≥13 months, transplantation from a nonsibling donor, and any serological cytomegalovirus mismatch in donor-recipient pairs were significantly associated with severe acute GVHD and inferior EFS. The choice of busulfan- or treosulfan-based conditioning, type of GVHD prophylaxis, and serotherapy did not impact overall survival, EFS, or aGVHD. An intrinsic inflammatory component of LAD may contribute to inflammatory complications during allo-HSCT, thus providing the rationale for considering anti-inflammatory therapy pretreatment.

2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101601, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176235

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a viral tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by a Nairovirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The present survey aimed to determine the exposure of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) from southern Tunisia to CCHFV. A total of 273 sera from extensively reared camels were collected from Tataouine district, Tunisia, and tested by CCHFV-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. By combining the results of three serological tests, the overall seroprevalence of CCHFV was estimated as 89.7% (245/273). No viral RNA was detected from camel sera using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 165 ticks were collected from camels and tested with RT-qPCR, and only one Hyalomma impeltatum tick was positive for virus RNA.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 222: 108639, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259966

RESUMO

Complete remission from recurrent EBV-positive lymphoma is not mandatory before HSCT to achieve long-term cure in a patient suffering from a recently described immunodeficiency affecting the T-cell coactivation molecule 4-1BB.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiencies caused by severe defects in T-cell immunity are at risk of acquiring life-threatening viral or opportunistic infections. Cellular therapies are necessary to establish normal T-cell function and to allow for long-term survival. This is most commonly achieved by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but the outcome of this procedure is impaired if active infections are present at the time of HSCT. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are a well-established therapeutic strategy following HSCT to treat viral infections, to improve donor cell engraftment or to achieve graft versus leukemia activity in malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of DLIs as first cellular therapy in the treatment of patients with severe T-cell deficiencies. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of data originating from a cohort of six patients with primary T-cell deficiencies who were treated in four different centers and who received transfusions of unselected mature donor lymphocytes prior and not directly related to allogeneic HSCT. DLIs obtained from the peripheral blood of HLA-identical (10/10) family donors were transfused without prior conditioning to treat or to prevent life-threatening infections. RESULTS: All patients are alive with a follow-up of 0.5 to 16.5 years after the initial T-cell administration. Additional cellular therapies were administered in 5/6 patients at 0.8 to 15 months after the first DLI. Mild cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, stage ≤2) was observed in 3/6 patients and resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that unselected HLA-identical DLIs can effectively prevent or contribute to overcome infections with a limited risk for GvHD in T-cell deficient patients. The T-cell system established by this readily available source can provide T-cell function for years and can serve as a bridge to additional cellular therapies or -in specific conditions- as definite treatment.

5.
Blood ; 136(10): 1201-1211, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614953

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency resulting in life-threatening infections and inflammatory complications. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can cure the disease, but the indication to transplant remains controversial. We performed a retrospective multicenter study of 712 patients with CGD who underwent allo-HCT transplantation from March 1993 through December 2018. We studied 635 children (aged <18 years) and 77 adults. Median follow-up was 45 months. Median age at transplantation was 7 years (range, 0.1-48.6). Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years were 85.7% and 75.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with reduced survival and increased chronic graft-versus-host disease. Nevertheless, OS and EFS at 3 years for patients ≥18 years were 76% and 69%, respectively. Use of 1-antigen-mismatched donors was associated with reduced OS and EFS . No significant difference was found in OS, but a significantly reduced EFS was noted in the small group of patients who received a transplant from a donor with a >1 antigen mismatch. Choice of conditioning regimen did not influence OS or EFS. In summary, we report an excellent outcome after allo-HCT in CGD, with low incidence of graft failure and mortality in all ages. Older patients and recipients of 1-antigen-mismatched grafts had a less favorable outcome. Transplantation should be strongly considered at a younger age and particularly in the presence of a well-matched donor.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28523, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced toxicity conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of patients with hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis (HLH) results in favorable survival, however at the expense of relevant rates of mixed chimerism. Factors predisposing to mixed chimerism remain to be determined. PROCEDURE: Patients with primary HLH transplanted 2009-2016 after treosulfan- or melphalan-based conditioning regimens were analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study for survival, engraftment, chimerism, and adverse events. Mixed chimerism was considered substantial if < 25% donor chimerism occurred and/or if secondary cell therapy was administered. Donor type, graft source, type of alkylating agent, type of serotherapy, and remission status were analyzed as potential risk factors in a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 60 patients, engraftment was achieved in 95%, and the five-year estimated overall survival rate was 75%. Prevalence of any recipient chimerism was 48%. Substantial recipient chimerism was recorded in 32% of patients. Secondary post-HSCT cell therapy was administered in 30% of patients. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donor (< 10/10) was the only significant risk factor for the occurrence of substantial recipient chimerism (P = 0.01; odds ratio, 5.8; CI 95%, 1.5-26.3). CONCLUSION: The use of an HLA-matched donor is the most important factor to avoid substantial recipient chimerism following treosulfan -or melphalan-based conditioning in primary HLH.

7.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 17: 785-795, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355867

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive (AR) complete interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency, also known as one genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), is a life-threatening congenital disease leading to premature death. Affected patients present a pathognomonic predisposition to recurrent and severe infections with environmental mycobacteria or the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Current therapeutic options are limited to antibiotic treatment and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, however with poor outcome. Given the clinical success of gene therapy, we introduce the first lentiviral-based gene therapy approach to restore expression and function of the human IFN-γR-downstream signaling cascade. In our study, we developed lentiviral vectors constitutively expressing the human IFN-γR1 and demonstrate stable transgene expression without interference with cell viability and proliferation in transduced human hematopoietic cells. Using an IFN-γR1-deficient HeLa cell model, we show stable receptor reconstitution and restored IFN-γR1 signaling without adverse effect on cell functionality. Transduction of both SV40-immortalized and primary fibroblasts derived from IFN-γR1-deficient MSMD patients was able to recover IFN-γR1 expression and restore type II IFN signaling upon stimulation with IFN-γ. In summary, we highlight lentiviral vectors to correct the IFN-γ mediated immunity and present the first gene therapy approach for patients suffering from AR complete IFN-γR1 deficiency.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 708-717, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458183

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a heterogeneous group of fatal genetic disorders, in which the immune response is severely impaired. SCID can be cured if diagnosed early. We aim to determine the incidence of clinically defined SCID cases, acquire data of reported cases and evaluate their possible prediction by newborn screening, before introduction of a general screening program in Germany. METHODS: The German Surveillance Unit for rare Paediatric Diseases (ESPED) prospectively queried the number of incident SCID cases in all German paediatric hospitals in 2014 and 2015. Inclusion criteria were (1) opportunistic or severe infections or clinical features associated with SCID (failure to thrive, lacking thymus or lymphatic tissue, dysregulation of the immune system, graft versus host reaction caused by maternal T cells), (2) dysfunctional T cell immunity or proof of maternal T cells and (3) exclusion of a secondary immunodeficiency such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a capture-recapture analysis, cases were matched with cases reported to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID). RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were initially reported to ESPED, 24 reports could be confirmed as SCID, 21 patients were less than 1 year old at time of diagnosis. One SCID case was reported to ESID only. The estimated incidence of SCID in Germany is 1.6/100,000 (1:62,500) per year in children less than 1 year of age. Most patients reported were symptomatic and mortality in regard to reported outcome was high (29% (6/22)). The majority of incident SCID cases were considered to be probably detectable by newborn screening. CONCLUSIONS: SCID is a rare disease with significant mortality. Newborn screening may give the opportunity to improve the prognosis in a significant number of children with SCID.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(8): 1760-1769, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343795

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital pure red cell aplasia associated with congenital abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can correct the hematological phenotype and is indicated in transfusion-dependent patients. In 70 children reported to the German DBA and French HSCT registries, HSCT was performed from 1985 to 2017. Median age at HSCT was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-17.3 years). Two-thirds of patients (64%) were transplanted from a matched sibling donor (MSD), and most procedures were performed after the year 1999 (73%). Primary engraftment was achieved in all patients. One patient developed secondary graft failure. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24% for °II-IV (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 37%) and 7% for °III-IV (95% CI, 3% to 17%); cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 11% (95% CI, 5% to 22%). The probability of chronic GVHD-free survival (cGFS) was 87% (95% CI, 79% to 95%) and significantly improved over time (<2000: 68% [95% CI, 47% to 89%] vs ≥2000: 94% [95% CI, 87% to 100%], P < .01). cGFS was comparable following HSCT from a MSD and an unrelated donor (UD). Of note, no severe chronic GVHD or deaths were reported following MSD-HSCT after 1999. The difference of cGFS in children transplanted <10 years of age compared with older patients did not reach statistical significance (<10 years: 90% [95% CI, 81% to 99%] vs 10-18 years 78% [95% CI, 58% to 98%]). In summary, these data indicate that HSCT is efficient and safe in young DBA patients and should be considered if a MSD or matched UD is available. HSCT for transfusion dependency only must be critically discussed in older patients.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1165-1179.e11, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe early-onset erythroderma and gut inflammation, with massive tissue infiltration of oligoclonal activated T cells are the hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS). OBJECTIVE: The impact of altered gut homeostasis in the cutaneous manifestations of OS remains to be clarified. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 15 patients with OS and the 129Sv/C57BL/6 knock-in Rag2R229Q/R229Q (Rag2R229Q) mouse model. Homing phenotypes of circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in the sera by ELISA and in skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium salt. RESULTS: We show that memory/activated T cells from patients with OS and from the Rag2R229Q mouse model of OS abundantly express the skin homing receptors cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen and CCR4 (Ccr4), associated with high levels of chemokine C-C motif ligands 17 and 22. Serum levels of LPS are also elevated. A broad Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory signature is detected in the periphery and in the skin. Increased Tlr4 expression in the skin of Rag2R229Q mice is associated with enhanced cutaneous inflammation on local and systemic administration of LPS. Likewise, boosting colitis in Rag2R229Q mice results in increased frequency of Ccr4+ splenic T cells and worsening of skin inflammation, as indicated by epidermal thickening, enhanced epithelial cell activation, and dermal infiltration by Th1 effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the existence of an interplay between gut and skin that can sustain skin inflammation in OS.

11.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093117

RESUMO

Interferon γ (IFN-γ) was shown to be a macrophage activating factor already in 1984. Consistently, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). MSMD is characterized by genetic predisposition to disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species. Paradoxically, macrophages from patients with MSMD were little tested. Here, we report a disease modeling platform for studying IFN-γ related pathologies using macrophages derived from patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We used iPSCs from patients with autosomal recessive complete- and partial IFN-γR2 deficiency, partial IFN-γR1 deficiency and complete STAT1 deficiency. Macrophages from all patient iPSCs showed normal morphology and IFN-γ-independent functionality like phagocytic uptake of bioparticles and internalization of cytokines. For the IFN-γ-dependent functionalities, we observed that the deficiencies played out at various stages of the IFN-γ pathway, with the complete IFN-γR2 and complete STAT1 deficient cells showing the most severe phenotypes, in terms of upregulation of surface markers and induction of downstream targets. Although iPSC-derived macrophages with partial IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 deficiency still showed residual induction of downstream targets, they did not reduce the mycobacterial growth when challenged with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Taken together, we report a disease modeling platform to study the role of macrophages in patients with inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity.

12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1543-1552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic pathogen. It causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease in humans. Hard ticks, in particular Hyalomma spp., are considered to function as reservoir as well as vector for CCHFV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan, from September to November 2017. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep and goats in livestock farms. The ticks were morphologically identified, followed by confirmation with molecular methods (PCR and sequencing). Furthermore, ticks were examined for CCHFV genomes (S segment) by a one-step multiplex real-time RT-qPCR and positive samples were sequenced to determine the CCHFV genotype. RESULTS: In total, 525 of 529 livestock infesting adult ticks belonged to the genus Hyalomma, and 4 ticks to the genus Rhipicephalus (R. microplus 3×, R. turanicus 1×). In the genus Hyalomma, H. marginatum (28%), H. excavatum (26%), H. dromedarii (22%), H. anatolicum (16%) and H. scupense (8%) ticks were identified. Tick infestations were as follows: sheep 58%, goats 28% and cattle 14%. Four per cent (20/525) of ticks were CCHFV genome-positive, and all genomes clustered in CCHFV genotype Asia 1. Among CCHFV-positive ticks, 75% (15/20) were female and 25% (5/20) male. CCHFV genomes were most frequently detected in H. marginatum (30%, 6/20), followed by H. dromedarii (25%, 5/20), H. excavatum (20%, 4/20), H. anatolicum (20%, 4/20) and H. scupense (5%, 1/20). All CCHFV-positive ticks were found on sheep. The largest number of CCHFV-positive ticks were detected in the district of Kalat (60%, 12/20), followed by the districts of Quetta (30%, 6/20) and Killa Abdullah (10%, 2/20). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the circulation of CCHFV in ticks in Balochistan, south-western Pakistan. It is imperative to take effective tick control measures in this area, especially to control livestock tick infestations to prevent CCHF infections in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/virologia
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(3): 421-434, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NEMO-deficient patients present with variable degrees of immunodeficiency. Accordingly, treatment ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis and/or IgG-substitution to allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The correct estimation of the immunodeficiency is essential to avoid over- as well as under-treatment. We compare the immunological phenotype of a NEMO-deficient patient with a newly-described splice site mutation that causes truncation of the NEMO zinc-finger (ZF) domain and a severe clinical course with the immunological phenotype of three NEMO-deficient patients with missense mutations and milder clinical courses and all previously published patients. METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets, proliferation, and intracellular NEMO-expression were assessed by FACS. NF-κB signal transduction was determined by measuring IκBα-degradation and the production of cytokines upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1ß, and TLR-agonists in immortalized fibroblasts and whole blood, respectively. RESULTS: The patient with truncated ZF-domain of NEMO showed low levels of IgM and IgG, reduced class-switched memory B cells, almost complete skewing towards naïve CD45RA+ T cells, impaired T cell proliferation as well as cytokine production upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1ß, and TLR-agonists. He suffered from severe infections (sepsis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis) during infancy. In contrast, three patients with missense mutations in IKBKG presented neither skewing of T cells towards naïvety nor impaired T cell proliferation. They are stable on prophylactic IgG-substitution or even off any prophylactic treatment. CONCLUSION: The loss of the ZF-domain and the impaired T cell proliferation accompanied by almost complete persistence of naïve T cells despite severe infections are suggestive for a profound immunodeficiency. Allogenic HSCT should be considered early for these patients before chronic sequelae occur.

14.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949009

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for autosomal recessive osteopetrosis caused by defects in the TCIRG1 gene. Despite recent progress in conditioning, a relevant number of patients are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because of the severity of the disease and significant transplant-related morbidity. We exploited peripheral CD34+ cells, known to circulate at high frequency in the peripheral blood of TCIRG1-deficient patients, as a novel cell source for autologous transplantation of gene corrected cells. Detailed phenotypical analysis showed that circulating CD34+ cells have a cellular composition that resembles bone marrow, supporting their use in gene therapy protocols. Transcriptomic profile revealed enrichment in genes expressed by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To overcome the limit of bone marrow harvest/ HSPC mobilization and serial blood drawings in TCIRG1 patients, we applied UM171-based ex-vivo expansion of HSPCs coupled with lentiviral gene transfer. Circulating CD34+ cells from TCIRG1-defective patients were transduced with a clinically-optimized lentiviral vector (LV) expressing TCIRG1 under the control of phosphoglycerate promoter and expanded ex vivo. Expanded cells maintained long-term engraftment capacity and multi-lineage repopulating potential when transplanted in vivo both in primary and secondary NSG recipients. Moreover, when CD34+ cells were differentiated in vitro, genetically corrected osteoclasts resorbed the bone efficiently. Overall, we provide evidence that expansion of circulating HSPCs coupled to gene therapy can overcome the limit of stem cell harvest in osteopetrotic patients, thus opening the way to future gene-based treatment of skeletal diseases caused by bone marrow fibrosis.

15.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 613-624, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(5): 1447-1450, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663273

RESUMO

Combined immune deficiency due to athymia in patients with complete DiGeorge syndrome can be corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation. Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent concomitant clinical problem in these patients, which persists after thymus transplantation. Cotransplantation of allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid tissue has been attempted but does not achieve durable correction of the patients' hypoparathyroidism due to parathyroid graft rejection. Surprisingly, we observed correction of hypoparathyroidism in one patient after thymus transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of allogeneic parathyroid tissue in the patient's thymus transplant biopsy. Despite a lack of HLA-matching between thymus donor and recipient, the reconstituted immune system displays tolerance toward the thymus donor. Therefore we expect this patient's hypoparathyroidism to be permanently cured. It is recognised that ectopic parathyroid tissue is not infrequently found in the thymus. If such thymuses could be identified, we propose that their use would offer a compelling approach to achieving lasting correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism.

17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(2): 101324, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757688

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Livestock serve as a transient reservoir for CCHFV, but do not show clinical signs. In this cross-sectional study, sheep and goats in Balochistan, Pakistan, were examined to determine the CCHFV seroprevalence, spatial distribution of seropositive sheep and goats, and to identify potential risk factors for seropositivity to CCHFV in these animals. To this end, farms and animals were selected by systematic sampling, blood samples from 800 sheep and 800 goats were collected and information regarding farm management and the kept animals were retrieved using a standard questionnaire. Sera were tested for antibodies against CCHFV in two independent ELISA formats and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) following a hierarchical diagnostic decision tree. By these assays 149 (19 %, 95 %-CI: 16-21 %) out of 800 sheep serum samples and 37 (5 %, 95 %-CI: 3-6 %) out of 800 goat serum samples were positive for CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies. Interestingly, at least 8 (5 %, 95 %-CI: 2-10 %) out of 160 sera pools were from CCHFV viraemic sheep, as sera (in pools of 5) tested positive for CCHFV genome by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Risk factor analysis revealed that the open type of housing (OR = 3.76, 95 %-CI:1.57-9.56, p-value = 0.003), grazing (OR = 4.18, 95 %-CI:1.79-10.37, p-value = 0.001), presence of vegetation in or around the farm (OR = 3.13, 95 %-CI: 1.07-10.15, p-value = 0.043), lack of treatment against ticks (OR = 3.31, 95 %-CI: 1.16-10.21, p-value = 0.029), absence of rural poultry (OR = 2.93, 95 %-CI: 1.41-6.29, p-value = 0.004), animals with age ≥ 2 years (OR = 4.15, 95 %-CI: 2.84-6.19, p-value<0.001), animals infested with ticks (OR = 2.35, 95 %-CI: 1.59-3.52, p-value<0.001), and sheep species (OR = 4.72, 95 %-CI:3.24-6.86, p-value<0.001) represented statistically significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCHFV. Taken together this study confirms the circulation of CCHFV in livestock in Balochistan, Pakistan. The identification of risk factors might help to reduce the risk of infection in sheep and goats, which may also mitigate the risk for human infection. An interesting option for reducing the risk of CCHFV infection in small ruminants is keeping also chickens, since they pick ticks that transmit CCHFV.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(4): 1262-1271.e13, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a lethal disease caused by mutations in a transcription factor critical for the function of thymus-derived regulatory T (Treg) cells (ie, FOXP3), resulting in impaired Treg function and autoimmunity. At present, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the therapy of choice for patients with IPEX syndrome. If not available, multiple immunosuppressive regimens have been used with poor disease-free survival at long-term follow-up. Rapamycin has been shown to suppress peripheral T cells while sparing Treg cells expressing wild-type FOXP3, thereby proving beneficial in the clinical setting of immune dysregulation. However, the mechanisms of immunosuppression selective to Treg cells in patients with IPEX syndrome are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the cellular and molecular basis of the clinical benefit observed under rapamycin treatment in 6 patients with IPEX syndrome with different FOXP3 mutations. METHODS: Phenotype and function of FOXP3-mutated Treg cells from rapamycin-treated patients with IPEX syndrome were tested by flow cytometry and in vitro suppression assays, and the gene expression profile of rapamycin-conditioned Treg cells by droplet-digital PCR. RESULTS: Clinical and histologic improvements in patients correlated with partially restored Treg function, independent of FOXP3 expression or Treg frequency. Expression of TNF-receptor-superfamily-member 18 (TNFRSF18, glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor-related) and EBV-induced-3 (EBI3, an IL-35 subunit) in patients' Treg cells increased during treatment as compared with that of Treg cells from untreated healthy subjects. Furthermore inhibition of glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor-related and Ebi3 partially reverted in vitro suppression by in vivo rapamycin-conditioned Treg cells. CONCLUSIONS: Rapamycin is able to affect Treg suppressive function via a FOXP3-independent mechanism, thus sustaining the clinical improvement observed in patients with IPEX syndrome under rapamycin treatment.

20.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817480

RESUMO

(1) Background: Refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (R-aGvHD) remains a leading cause of death after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Survival rates of 15% after four years are currently achieved; deaths are only in part due to aGvHD itself, but mostly due to adverse effects of R-aGvHD treatment with immunosuppressive agents as these predispose patients to opportunistic infections and loss of graft-versus-leukemia surveillance resulting in relapse. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from different tissues and those generated by various protocols have been proposed as a remedy for R-aGvHD but the enthusiasm raised by initial reports has not been ubiquitously reproduced. (2) Methods: We previously reported on a unique MSC product, which was generated from pooled bone marrow mononuclear cells of multiple third-party donors. The products showed dose-to-dose equipotency and greater immunosuppressive capacity than individually expanded MSCs from the same donors. This product, MSC-FFM, has entered clinical routine in Germany where it is licensed with a national hospital exemption authorization. We previously reported satisfying initial clinical outcomes, which we are now updating. The data were collected in our post-approval pharmacovigilance program, i.e., this is not a clinical study and the data is high-level and non-monitored. (3) Results: Follow-up for 92 recipients of MSC-FFM was reported, 88 with GvHD ≥°III, one-third only steroid-refractory and two-thirds therapy resistant (refractory to steroids plus ≥2 additional lines of treatment). A median of three doses of MSC-FFM was administered without apparent toxicity. Overall response rates were 82% and 81% at the first and last evaluation, respectively. At six months, the estimated overall survival was 64%, while the cumulative incidence of death from underlying disease was 3%. (4) Conclusions: MSC-FFM promises to be a safe and efficient treatment for severe R-aGvHD.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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