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1.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 61, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating C3 has been associated with diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). C3 activation is considered to contribute to several renal diseases. Here we examined whether elevated C3 concentration is associated with hospitalization due to CKD in the general population, and whether this relationship is mediated by factors such as diabetes and hypertension. METHODS: Baseline plasma C3 was quantified in 4552 participants, without previous hospital admission due to CKD, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort study. Incidence of first hospitalization due to CKD (main diagnosis) was investigated in relation to C3 levels using Cox proportional hazards regression models after a mean follow-up of 19.2 ± 4.16 years. Traditional risk factors of CKD including diabetes, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and baseline renal function were considered in adjustments and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 94 subjects were admitted to hospital due to CKD. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for hospitalization from CKD across quartiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.68 (0.69, 4.13), 2.71 (1.15, 6.39), and 3.16 (1.36, 7.34) (p for trend = 0.003). Results were generally consistent across different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that C3 is associated with incidence of first hospitalization due to CKD in the general population. The observed relationship cannot be entirely attributed to hyperglycemia and hypertension.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629206

RESUMO

Background: The kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has previously been associated with kidney function in rodents and humans. Yet its role as a predictive marker for future decline in kidney function has remained less clear. Methods: At baseline (1991-1994), fasting plasma KIM-1 (p-KIM-1) was measured in 4739 participants of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Creatinine and cystatin C were used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Collaboration 2012 creatinine-cystatin C equation at baseline and follow-up examination (2007-2012). Incident CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Results: During a mean follow-up time of 16.6 years, high p-KIM-1 levels were associated with a greater decline in eGFR (quartile 1 -1.36 versus quartile 4 -1.54 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, the risk for incident CKD at the follow-up examination was higher among participants with baseline p-KIM-1 levels in the highest quartile {odds ratio [OR] 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.92]} compared with those within the lowest quartile. The relative impact of baseline p-KIM-1 on incidence of CKD [OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.08-1.33) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in p-KIM-1] was comparable to those of age and systolic blood pressure (SBP) [OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.38-1.74) and OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.35) per 1 SD increase, respectively]. Adding p-KIM-1 to a conventional risk model resulted in significantly improved C-statistics (P = 0.04) and reclassified 9% of the individuals into the correct risk direction (continuous net reclassification improvement P = 0.02). Furthermore, the risk for hospitalization due to impaired renal function increased with increasing baseline p-KIM-1 [hazard ratio per 1 SD 1.43; (95% CI 1.18-1.74)] during a mean follow-up time of 19.2 years. Conclusion: Our results show that p-KIM-1 predicts the future decline of eGFR and risk of CKD in healthy middle-aged participants. Whether p-KIM-1 can be used to prioritize preventive action that needs to be further investigated.

4.
Diabetologia ; 62(2): 292-305, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547231

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants. METHODS: We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included. RESULTS: We identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, ß = 0.27, p = 1.3 × 10-11) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (pinteraction = 7.0 × 10-4, ß with diabetes = 0.69, ß without diabetes = 0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (pBonferroni < 2.7 × 10-6). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The current study identifies a rare coding variant in the CUBN locus and other potential genes associated with albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. These genes have been implicated in renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of albuminuria and highlight target genes and pathways for the prevention of diabetes-related kidney disease.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

6.
Genes Nutr ; 13: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796113

RESUMO

Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74 years with genotype information and without prevalent diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were included. Diet data were collected with a modified diet history method. Results: During 17-year follow-up, 3588 incident T2D cases were identified. Both the diet risk score (HR in the highest risk category 1.40; 95% CI 1.26, 1.58; P trend = 6 × 10-10) and the genetic risk score (HR in the highest tertile of the genetic risk score 1.67; 95% CI 1.54, 1.81; P trend = 7 × 10-35) were associated with increased incidence of T2D. No significant interaction between the genetic risk score and the diet risk score (P = 0.83) or its food components was observed. The highest risk was seen among the 6% of the individuals with both high genetic and dietary risk scores (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06, 3.01). Conclusions: The findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices.

7.
Diabetes ; 67(7): 1414-1427, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703844

RESUMO

Identification of sequence variants robustly associated with predisposition to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of DKD in type 2 diabetes (T2D) using eight complementary dichotomous and quantitative DKD phenotypes: the principal dichotomous analysis involved 5,717 T2D subjects, 3,345 with DKD. Promising association signals were evaluated in up to 26,827 subjects with T2D (12,710 with DKD). A combined T1D+T2D GWAS was performed using complementary data available for subjects with T1D, which, with replication samples, involved up to 40,340 subjects with diabetes (18,582 with DKD). Analysis of specific DKD phenotypes identified a novel signal near GABRR1 (rs9942471, P = 4.5 × 10-8) associated with microalbuminuria in European T2D case subjects. However, no replication of this signal was observed in Asian subjects with T2D or in the equivalent T1D analysis. There was only limited support, in this substantially enlarged analysis, for association at previously reported DKD signals, except for those at UMOD and PRKAG2, both associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. We conclude that, despite challenges in addressing phenotypic heterogeneity, access to increased sample sizes will continue to provide more robust inference regarding risk variant discovery for DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(2): 495-505, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165714

RESUMO

Background: It is unclear whether there are causal associations between blood lipids, statin use and cancer risks. Under certain assumptions, Mendelian randomization analysis of a genetic marker for an exposure eliminates reverse causation and confounding. Methods: We applied Mendelian randomization analysis to genetic scores, comprising 26-41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as instrumental variables (IVs) for triglycerides and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, HDLC), using a prospective cohort of 26 904 individuals in which there were 6607 incident cancers. We also investigated cancer risk for a SNP (rs12916) in the gene encoding hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the targeted enzyme in statin treatment. We used logistic regression and SNP pleiotropy-adjusted analyses to estimate the odds ratio per standard deviation (OR). Results: The OR for the triglyceride IV as a predictor of any cancer was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.03] unadjusted, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78-0.95) from the pleiotropy-adjusted analysis. For the HMGCR rs12916 per LDLC-lowering T-allele, the OR was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01-1.18) for prostate cancer and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.96) for breast cancer. The LDLC IV was not associated with prostate cancer or breast cancer. There were no associations between IVs and cancers of the lung, colon or bladder. Conclusions: Under the assumptions of Mendelian randomization, there is a causal and negative association between serum triglycerides and risk of any cancer. Further, the HMGCR genetic variant might be associated with risks of prostate and breast cancers but the biological mechanisms behind these findings are unclear, as the LDLC IV was not associated with these cancers.

9.
Diabetologia ; 61(2): 317-330, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098321

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts (six discovery and five replication) in the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided association and interaction results from 34,748 adults of European descent. SSB intake (soft drinks, fruit punches, lemonades or other fruit drinks) was derived from food-frequency questionnaires and food diaries. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified: (1) the associations between SSBs and glycaemic traits (fasting glucose and fasting insulin); and (2) the interactions between SSBs and 18 independent SNPs related to the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway. RESULTS: In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (ß ± SE 0.014 ± 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 × 10-3) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.005 [log e pmol/l], p = 2.0 × 10-10). No significant interactions on glycaemic traits were observed between SSB intake and selected SNPs. While a suggestive interaction was observed in the discovery cohorts with a SNP (rs1542423) in the ß-Klotho (KLB) locus on fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.011 log e pmol/l, uncorrected p = 0.006), results in the replication cohorts and combined meta-analyses were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. Although a suggestive interaction with a genetic variant in the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway was observed in the discovery cohorts, this observation was not confirmed in the replication analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Offspring Study), NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and NCT00005152 (Nurses' Health Study).


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Edulcorantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

11.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2(2): 239-247, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has recently been associated with a decline in kidney function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing cardiac catheterization, yet little is known whether suPAR is associated with deterioration of kidney function in the general population. METHODS: In the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, plasma levels of suPAR were quantified in 5381 participants at baseline (1991-1994), and creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerulus filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up (2007-2012). Incident chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at follow-up. RESULTS: Participants within the highest quartile of suPAR had a significantly lower mean eGFR at follow-up than those within the lowest quartile (mean 68 vs. 74 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P-trend = 4.3 × 10-7). In multivariate regression analysis, suPAR (per 1 SD increment of log-transformed suPAR) was associated with a decline in eGFR (P = 3.3 × 10-9) and incident chronic kidney disease (561 events, odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.41). Furthermore, we identified 110 cases of hospitalization due to impaired kidney function via linkage to national registers of inpatient and outpatient hospital diagnoses. During a mean follow-up time of 19 years, suPAR was associated with risk for hospitalization due to impaired kidney function (hazard ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.74) in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. DISCUSSION: The increased suPAR level at baseline was associated with a significantly higher longitudinal decline in eGFR, higher incidence of chronic kidney disease, and hospitalization due to impaired kidney function in a cohort of healthy middle-aged participants.

12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(1): 291-303, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401687

RESUMO

High levels of proenkephalin-A (pro-ENK) have been associated with decreased eGFR in an acute setting. Here, we examined whether pro-ENK levels predict CKD and decline of renal function in a prospective cohort of 2568 participants without CKD (eGFR>60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 31.7% of participants developed CKD. Participants with baseline pro-ENK levels in the highest tertile had significantly greater yearly mean decline of eGFR (Ptrend<0.001) and rise of cystatin C (Ptrend=0.01) and creatinine (Ptrend<0.001) levels. Furthermore, compared with participants in the lowest tertile, participants in the highest tertile of baseline pro-ENK concentration had increased CKD incidence (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.94) when adjusted for multiple factors. Adding pro-ENK to a model of conventional risk factors in net reclassification improvement analysis resulted in reclassification of 14.14% of participants. Genome-wide association analysis in 4150 participants of the same cohort revealed the strongest association of pro-ENK levels with rs1012178 near the PENK gene, where the minor T-allele associated with a 0.057 pmol/L higher pro-ENK level per allele (P=4.67x10-21). Furthermore, the T-allele associated with a 19% increased risk of CKD per allele (P=0.03) and a significant decrease in the instrumental variable estimator for eGFR (P<0.01) in a Mendelian randomization analysis. In conclusion, circulating plasma pro-ENK level predicts incident CKD and may aid in identifying subjects in need of primary preventive regimens. Additionally, the Mendelian randomization analysis suggests a causal relationship between pro-ENK level and deterioration of kidney function over time.


Assuntos
Encefalinas/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiopatologia , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(4): 1211-1222, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864399

RESUMO

Background: Cross-sectional genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with blood lipids and related cardiovascular traits, but few genetic association studies have focused on long-term changes in blood lipids. Methods: Participants from the GLACIER Study (Nmax = 3492) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array, from which 29 387 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms; replication, fine-mapping regions and wildcard SNPs for lipid traits) were extracted for association tests with 10-year change in total cholesterol (ΔTC) and triglycerides (ΔTG). Four additional prospective cohort studies (MDC, PIVUS, ULSAM, MRC Ely; Nmax = 8263 participants) were used for replication. We conducted an in silico look-up for association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) Consortium (N ∼ 190 000) and functional annotation for the top ranking variants. Results: In total, 956 variants were associated (P < 0.01) with either ΔTC or ΔTG in GLACIER. In GLACIER, chr19:50121999 at APOE was associated with ΔTG and multiple SNPs in the APOA1/A4/C3/A5 region at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), whereas variants in four loci, DOCK7, BRE, SYNE1 and KCNIP1, reached study-wide significance (P < 1.7 × 10-6). The rs7412 variant at APOE was associated with ΔTC in GLACIER (P < 1.7 × 10-6). In pooled analyses of all cohorts, 139 SNPs at six and five loci were associated with ΔTC and for ΔTG, respectively (P < 10-3). Of these, a variant at CAPN3 (P = 1.2 × 10-4), multiple variants at HPR (Pmin = 1.5 × 10-6) and a variant at SIX5 (P = 1.9 × 10-4) showed evidence for association with CAD. Conclusions: We identified seven novel genomic regions associated with long-term changes in blood lipids, of which three also raise CAD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia
14.
Genes Nutr ; 11: 20, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By taking diet quality into account, we may clarify the relationship between genetically elevated triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and better understand the inconsistent results regarding genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We included 24,799 participants (62 % women, age 44-74 years) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. During a mean follow-up time of 15 years, 3068 incident CVD cases (1814 coronary and 1254 ischemic stroke) were identified. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed by combining 80 validated genetic variants associated with higher TG and LDL-C or lower HDL-C. The participants' dietary intake, assessed by a modified diet history method, was ranked according to a diet quality index that included six dietary components: saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fish, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. RESULTS: The GRSLDL-C (P = 5 × 10(-6)) and GRSHDL-C (P = 0.02) but not GRSTG (P = 0.08) were significantly associated with CVD risk. No significant interaction between the GRSs and diet quality was observed on CVD risk (P > 0.39). A high compared to a low diet quality attenuated the association between GRSLDL-C and the risk of incident ischemic stroke (P interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of an interaction between diet quality and GRSLDL-C on ischemic stroke.

15.
Diabetologia ; 59(8): 1655-8, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209463

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) rs10830963 polymorphism and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy on occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in high-risk women. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the randomised controlled gestational diabetes prevention trial 'RADIEL', conducted between 2008 and 2014 in four maternity hospitals in southern Finland. A total of 226 women with a history of GDM and/or a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) were enrolled at <20 weeks of gestation (mean 13 weeks) and randomised into an intervention group receiving counselling on diet, physical activity and weight control and a control group receiving standard antenatal care. The main outcome was incidence of GDM, defined as one or more pathological glucose values in a standard 75 g 2-h OGTT. The MTNR1B rs10830963 was genotyped for further analyses. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the genotype distribution between the intervention and the control group. A significant interaction was observed between the rs10830963 genotypes and the lifestyle intervention on age-adjusted occurrence of gestational diabetes (p = 0.038). Among women homozygous for the C allele of rs10830963, the OR for GDM was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (OR 0.16 [95% CI 0.03, 0.85], p = 0.014). This difference was not seen in women heterozygous (OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.32, 2.41], p = 0.798) or homozygous (OR 2.25 [95% CI 0.34, 14.69], p = 0.384) for the risk allele G. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In women at high risk of GDM, only those not carrying the risk allele G benefited from the lifestyle intervention. Our results indicate that certain genetic risk variants may modify the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions. This may provide important information when planning GDM prevention studies in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Estilo de Vida , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Finlândia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Gravidez
16.
Nutrients ; 8(5)2016 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171109

RESUMO

A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46-68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151932, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown associations between blood lipid levels and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). To test the potential effect of blood lipids with AF risk, we assessed whether previously developed lipid gene scores, used as instrumental variables, are associated with the incidence of AF in 7 large cohorts. METHODS: We analyzed 64,901 individuals of European ancestry without previous AF at baseline and with lipid gene scores. Lipid-specific gene scores, based on loci significantly associated with lipid levels, were calculated. Additionally, non-pleiotropic gene scores for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were calculated using SNPs that were only associated with the specific lipid fraction. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AF per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase of each lipid gene score. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 5434 (8.4%) incident AF cases were identified. After meta-analysis, the HDLc, LDLc, total cholesterol, and triglyceride gene scores were not associated with incidence of AF. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) were 1.01 (0.98-1.03); 0.98 (0.96-1.01); 0.98 (0.95-1.02); 0.99 (0.97-1.02), respectively. Similarly, non-pleiotropic HDLc and LDLc gene scores showed no association with incident AF: HR (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.97-1.03); 1.01 (0.99-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study of individuals of European ancestry, gene scores for lipid fractions were not associated with incident AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
18.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 9(2): 162-71, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, but this relationship is highly variable. Recently published data from 2 Danish cohorts suggest that genetic factors may underlie some of this variability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested whether established triglyceride-associated loci modify the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride concentrations in 2 Swedish cohorts (the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk [GLACIER Study; N=4312] and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study [N=5352]). The genetic loci were amalgamated into a weighted genetic risk score (WGRSTG) by summing the triglyceride-elevating alleles (weighted by their established marginal effects) for all loci. Both BMI and the WGRSTG were strongly associated with triglyceride concentrations in GLACIER, with each additional BMI unit (kg/m(2)) associated with 2.8% (P=8.4×10(-84)) higher triglyceride concentration and each additional WGRSTG unit with 2% (P=7.6×10(-48)) higher triglyceride concentration. Each unit of the WGRSTG was associated with 1.5% higher triglyceride concentrations in normal weight and 2.4% higher concentrations in overweight/obese participants (Pinteraction=0.056). Meta-analyses of results from the Swedish cohorts yielded a statistically significant WGRSTG×BMI interaction effect (Pinteraction=6.0×10(-4)), which was strengthened by including data from the Danish cohorts (Pinteraction=6.5×10(-7)). In the meta-analysis of the Swedish cohorts, nominal evidence of a 3-way interaction (WGRSTG×BMI×sex) was observed (Pinteraction=0.03), where the WGRSTG×BMI interaction was only statistically significant in females. Using protein-protein interaction network analyses, we identified molecular interactions and pathways elucidating the metabolic relationships between BMI and triglyceride-associated loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that body fatness accentuates the effects of genetic susceptibility variants in hypertriglyceridemia, effects that are most evident in females.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0126104, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25898210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether carbohydrate consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Genetic susceptibility might modify the associations between dietary intakes and disease risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, potatoes, whole grains, refined grains, cookies and cakes, sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages) and the risk of incident ischemic CVD (iCVD; coronary events and ischemic stroke), and whether these associations differ depending on genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia. METHODS: Among 26,445 individuals (44-74 years; 62% females) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 2,921 experienced an iCVD event during a mean follow-up time of 14 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method, and clinical risk factors were measured in 4,535 subjects. We combined 80 validated genetic variants associated with triglycerides and HDL-C or LDL-C, into genetic risk scores and examined the interactions between dietary intakes and genetic risk scores on the incidence of iCVD. RESULTS: Subjects in the highest intake quintile for whole grains had a 13% (95% CI: 3-23%; p-trend: 0.002) lower risk for iCVD compared to the lowest quintile. A higher consumption of foods rich in added sugar (sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages) had a significant cross-sectional association with higher triglyceride concentrations and lower HDL-C concentrations. A stronger positive association between a high consumption of sugar and sweets on iCVD risk was observed among those with low genetic risk score for triglycerides (p-interaction=0.05). CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study that examined food sources of carbohydrates, individuals with a high consumption of whole grains had a decreased risk of iCVD. No convincing evidence of an interaction between genetic susceptibility for dyslipidemia, measured as genetic risk scores of dyslipidemia-associated variants, and the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods on iCVD risk was observed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Frutas/química , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Verduras/química
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 101(5): 1065-80, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats could affect glucose metabolism and obesity development and, thereby, may have a crucial role in the cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicated that replacing saturated with unsaturated fats might be favorable, and plant foods might be a better choice than animal foods. Nevertheless, epidemiologic studies suggested that dairy foods are protective. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that, by examining dietary fat and its food sources classified according to fat type and fat content, some clarification regarding the role of dietary fat in T2D incidence could be provided. DESIGN: A total of 26,930 individuals (61% women), aged 45-74 y, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort were included in the study. Dietary data were collected by using a modified diet-history method. During 14 y of follow-up, 2860 incident T2D cases were identified. RESULTS: Total intake of high-fat dairy products (regular-fat alternatives) was inversely associated with incident T2D (HR for highest compared with lowest quintiles: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). Most robust inverse associations were seen for intakes of cream and high-fat fermented milk (P-trend < 0.01) and for cheese in women (P-trend = 0.02). High intake of low-fat dairy products was associated with increased risk, but this association disappeared when low- and high-fat dairy were mutually adjusted (P-trend = 0.18). Intakes of both high-fat meat (P-trend = 0.04) and low-fat meat (P-trend < 0.001) were associated with increased risk. Finally, we did not observe significant association between total dietary fat content and T2D (P-trend = 0.24), but intakes of saturated fatty acids with 4-10 carbons, lauric acid (12:0), and myristic acid (14:0) were associated with decreased risk (P-trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased T2D risk at high intake of high- but not of low-fat dairy products suggests that dairy fat partly could have contributed to previously observed protective associations between dairy intake and T2D. Meat intake was associated with increased risk independently of the fat content.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Laticínios/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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