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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143006, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen exposure has both acute and chronic detrimental effects on allergic asthma, but little is known about its wider effects on respiratory health. This is increasingly important knowledge as ambient pollen levels are changing with the changing global climate. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of pollen exposure with lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at age 15 in two prospective German birth cohorts, GINIplus and LISA. METHODS: Background city-specific pollen exposure was measured in infancy (during the first three months of life), and contemporary (on the day of and 7 days prior to lung function measurement). Greenness levels within circular buffers (100-3000 m) around the birth and 15-year home addresses were calculated using the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Regression models were used to assess the associations of grass and birch pollen with lung function and FeNO, and the modifying effects of residential greenness were explored. RESULTS: Cumulative early life exposure to grass pollen was associated with reduced lung function in adolescence (FEV1: -4.9 mL 95%CI: -9.2, -0.6 and FVC: -5.2 mL 95%CI: -9.8, -0.5 per doubling of pollen count). Acute grass pollen exposure was associated with increased airway inflammation in all children, with higher FeNO increases in children living in green areas. In contrast acute birch pollen exposure was associated with reduced lung function only in children sensitised to birch allergens. CONCLUSION: This study provides suggestive evidence that early pollen exposure has a negative effect on later lung function, which is in turn influenced by acute pollen exposures.

2.
Environ Int ; 146: 106195, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on how air pollution exposure during infancy, i.e. the first year of life, may affect lung function development into adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between exposure to air pollution during the first-year of life and lung function development up to the age of 15 in Germany. METHODS: We investigated 915 children from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts from Munich (n = 181) and Wesel (n = 734), who had at least two spirometric measurements at ages 6, 10 and 15. Z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were calculated. Annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with diameters <2.5, <10 and 2.5-10 µm (PM2.5/10/coarse), and PM2.5 absorbance at home addresses during the first-year of life, were estimated by land-use regression models. Associations between infancy exposure and lung function changes were fitted using multivariable linear mixed models with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: For per interquartile range increase in air pollutants during the first-year life, FEV1 z-scores declined annually by -0.012 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.014, -0.009) for PM2.5 to -0.023 (95%CI: -0.028, -0.018) for PMcoarse. The declines in FVC were lower than FEV1 [-0.006 (95%CI: -0.008, -0.003) to -0.011 (95%CI: -0.019, -0.003)]. In Munich, the attenuations were only significant for FEV1. Effect estimates of infancy exposure for certain air pollutants were higher for groups with asthma, older maternal age, and breastfeeding <12 weeks than their counterparts. DISCUSSION: Infancy exposure to higher air pollution may reduce lung function development up to adolescence, with airway size more affected than lung volume restriction. The potential modifying effects of maternal age, asthmatic status of children and breastfeeding warrant further exploration.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 983, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is a fundamental aspect of perceived health care quality. The original English version of the Patient Satisfaction with Cancer-related Care (PSCC) is a psychometrically validated, one-dimensional instrument with relevance to cancer-related care. The goal of the study was to perform a psychometric validation of the PSCC in German (PSCC-G). METHODS: A sample of 394 cancer patients were recruited at oncological clinics in Hamburg, Germany. Patients completed the PSCC-G, three subscales of the Patient Satisfaction and Quality in Oncological Care (PASQOC), and one subscale from the German version of the Recherché Evaluative sur la Performance des Réseaux de Santé (RESPERE-60) questionnaire. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) to determine the factorial validity, and we calculated Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α) to test the internal consistency of the PSCC-G. We examined the correlation between the PSCC-G and four subscales measuring additional dimensions of PS with care. We also conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to determine whether sociodemographics, self-perceived health status, and treatment setting predict scores on the PSCC-G. RESULTS: The EFA (using principal axis) revealed a one-factor solution. The Cronbach's α was 0.92. The convergent validity showed high correlations between three different subscales measuring patient satisfaction and the PSCC-G. Overall, males, older age patients, and those with a higher self-perceived health status were more satisfied with their cancer care based on their higher scores on the PSCC-G. CONCLUSION: The PSCC-G is a reliable and valid instrument that can assess satisfaction with cancer-related care for German-speaking cancer patients.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038277

RESUMO

Few data exist on health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) receiving first-line chemotherapy (Awad L ZE, Mesbah M Boston, MA. Applying survival data methodology to analyze quality of life data, in Mesbah M, Cole BF, Ting Lee M-L (eds): Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies: Design, Measurements and Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002). The QOLIXANE study is a prospective, noninterventional, multicenter substudy of the Platform for Outcome, Quality of Life and Translational Research on Pancreatic Cancer (PARAGON) registry, which evaluated QoL in patients with mPC receiving first-line gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy in real-life setting. QoL was prospectively measured via EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaires at baseline and every month thereafter. Therapy and efficacy parameters were prospectively collected. Main objectives were the rate of patients without deterioration of Global Health Status/QoL (GHS/QoL) at 3 and 6 months. Six hundred patients were enrolled in 95 German study sites. Median progression-free survival was 5.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). Median overall survival (OS) was 8.9 months (95% CI, 7.9-10.2), while median time to deterioration of GHS/QoL was 4.7 months (95% CI, 4.0-5.6). With a baseline GHS/QoL score of 46 (SD, 22.8), baseline QoL of the patients was severely impaired, in most cases due to loss in role functioning and fatigue. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, 61% and 41% of patients had maintained GHS/QoL after 3 and 6 months, respectively. However, in the QoL response analysis, 35% and 19% of patients had maintained (improved or stable) GHS/QoL after 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 14% and 9% had deteriorated GHS/QoL with the remaining patients being nonevaluable. In the Cox regression analysis, GHS/QoL scores strongly predicted survival with a hazard ratio of 0.86 (P < .0001). Patients with mPC have poor QoL at baseline that deteriorates within a median of 4.7 months. Treatment with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel is associated with maintained QoL in relevant proportions of patients. However, overall, results remain poor, reflecting the aggressive nature of the disease.

5.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 59(5): 282-290, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess insurants' views on various forms of medical rehabilitation of the German Federal Pension Insurance (DRV). METHODS: In ten focus groups, participants (n=78, 65% female, M=52.2 years) discussed the advantages and disadvantages of inpatient rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation, rehabilitation parallel to work, and case management. Central to discussion were treatment modalities such as setting, duration and cooperation with other actors in the health care system. The focus groups were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively (Mayring, 2008). RESULTS: Many participants expressed the need to be removed from their daily routine in order to concentrate on rehabilitative treatment. The perceived lower treatment intensity and double pressure of outpatient rehabilitation are feared to have a negative effect on treatment outcome. According to participants, the fit between the rehabilitation form and the needs of the rehabilitant is crucial. CONCLUSION: The qualitative data can be used to adjust rehabilitation treatment to insurants' needs.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16539-16554, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747609

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent diagnosis in older individuals and contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Given the link between lung disease and aging, we need to understand how molecular indicators of aging relate to lung function and disease. Using data from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys, we associated baseline epigenetic (DNA methylation) age acceleration with incident COPD and lung function. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, height, weight, and baseline lung disease as appropriate. Associations were replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Of 770 KORA participants, 131 developed incident COPD over 7 years. Baseline accelerated epigenetic aging was significantly associated with incident COPD. The change in age acceleration (follow-up - baseline) was more strongly associated with COPD than baseline aging alone. The association between the change in age acceleration between baseline and follow-up and incident COPD replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Associations with spirometric lung function parameters were weaker than those with COPD, but a meta-analysis of both cohorts provide suggestive evidence of associations. Accelerated epigenetic aging, both baseline measures and changes over time, may be a risk factor for COPD and reduced lung function.

7.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In order to optimize psycho-oncological care, studies that quantify the extent of distress and identify certain risk groups are needed. Among patients with prostate cancer (PCa), findings on depression and anxiety are limited. METHODS: We analyzed data of PCa patients selected from a German multi-center study. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7 (cut-off ≥7). We provided physical symptom burden, calculated absolute and relative risk (AR and RR) of depression and anxiety across patient subsets and between patients and the general population (GP) and tested age as a moderator within the relationship of disease-specific symptoms with depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Among 636 participants, the majority reported disease-specific problems (sexuality: 60%; urination: 52%). AR for depression and anxiety was 23% and 22%, respectively. Significant RR were small, with higher risks of distress in patients who are younger (eg, RRdepression = 1.15; 95%-CI: 1.06-1.26), treated with chemotherapy (RRdepression = 1.46; 95%-CI: 1.09-1.96) or having metastases (RRdepression = 1.30; 95%-CI: 1.02-1.65). Risk of distress was slightly elevated compared to GP (eg, RRdepression = 1.13; 95%-CI: 1.07-1.19). Age moderated the relationship between symptoms and anxiety (Burination = -0.10, P = .02; Bsexuality = -0.11, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Younger patients, those with metastases or treatment with chemotherapy seem to be at elevated risk for distress and should be closely monitored. Many patients suffer from disease-specific symptom burden, by which younger patients seem to be particularly distressed. Support of coping mechanisms associated with disease-specific symptom burden seems warranted.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 2085-2093, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710167

RESUMO

Clinical research has resulted in an improvement of treatment options for patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) over the last years. However, only few data exist on the real-life management of patients with ITP. To expand the knowledge, a multicenter, national survey was undertaken in 26 hematology practices distributed all over Germany. All patients with a diagnosis of ITP were documented using questionnaires, irrespective of the diagnosis date over a period of 2 years. Overall, data of 1023 patients were evaluated with 56% of patients being older than 60 years. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had chronic (> 12 months), 16% persistent (> 3-12 months), and 5% newly diagnosed (0-3 months) ITP. In 61% of cases, the disease lasted 3 or more years before survey documentation started. Main strategies applied as first-line therapy consisted of steroids in 45% and a "watch and wait" approach in 41% of patients. During second- and third-line strategies, treatment with steroids decreased (36% and 28%, respectively), while treatment modalities such as TPO-RAs increased (19% and 26%, respectively). As expected, patients with a low platelet count and thus a higher risk for bleeding and mortality received treatment (esp. steroids) more frequently during first line than those with a higher platelet count. Up to a third of patients were treated with steroids for more than a year. Overall, our study provides a cross-section overview about the current therapeutic treatment landscape in German ITP patients. The results will help to improve therapeutic management of ITP patients.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenectomia/tendências , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11862, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681112

RESUMO

Reduced lung function is associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is linked to impaired lung function and cardiovascular outcomes. We assessed the association of lung function with overall 8-year mortality in 867 individuals of the Activity and Function in the Elderly study using confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models (including gait speed and daily walking time as measures of physical function) without and with adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) but not FVC was related to mortality after adjustment for physical function and other confounders. Additional adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers did not change the hazard ratios (HR) markedly, e.g. for a FEV1/FVC below 0.7 from 1.55 [95% confidence-interval (CI) 1.14-2.11] to 1.49 (95% CI 1.09-2.03). These independent associations were also observed in the apparently lung healthy subpopulation with even higher HRs up to 2.76 (95% CI 1.52-4.93). A measure of airflow limitation but not vital capacity was associated with overall mortality in this community-dwelling older population and in the subgroup classified as lung healthy. These associations were independent of adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers and support the role of airflow limitation as independent predictor of mortality in older adults.

10.
Sleep Med ; 72: 65-74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554326

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Population-based studies on the association of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) with sleep among adolescents are rare. We examined this association by applying accelerometry and accounting for the day-by-day variability. METHODS: Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) were worn for one week by 1223 participants during the 15-year follow-up of the German birth cohorts (German infant study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention plus air pollution and genetics on allergy development, GINIplus) and (Influence of Lifestyle factors on the development of the Immune System and Allergies in East and West Germany, LISA) to measure PA and sleep. PA was categorised into sedentary, lifestyle and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) referring to Sasaki and Romanzini. Sleep was analysed according to the algorithm developed by Sadeh. Sleep quality was represented by sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL) and time awake per hour after sleep onset (TAPH). Sleep and activity were additionally reported by diaries. Linear and generalized mixed-effects-models with logit-link with subject specific random intercepts were used stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: Physical activity appears to be associated only with sleep quality the following night. Among female participants, SE improved (ß = 0.12 [95% CI = (0.05; 0.18)]) per 10 minutes increase of MVPA. SOL decreased (OR = 0.83 [95% CI = (0.69; 0.99)]) among male participants with at least 60 min of MVPA per day. Engaging in leisure sport MVPA was associated with higher SE among female (ß = 0.70 [95% CI = (0.22; 1.17)]) and male participants (ß = 0.76 [95% CI = (0.18; 1.34)]). Also, TAPH among female (ß = -0.37 [95% CI = (-0.65; -0.09)]) and SOL among male subjects (OR = 0.70 [95% CI = (0.57; 0.85)]) decreased. Increasing lifestyle activity was related to longer SOL among female (OR = 1.36 [95% CI = (1.15; 1.62)]) and male subjects (OR = 1.32 [95% CI = (1.10; 1.58)]). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based sample of German adolescents MVPA and leisure sport improved short term sleep quality, supporting regular PA in adolescents for their health benefit.

11.
Acta Oncol ; 59(8): 967-974, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427015

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to analyze preferred and perceived levels of patients' involvement in treatment decision-making in a representative sample of cancer patients.Material and Methods: We conducted a multicenter, epidemiological cross-sectional study with a stratified random sample based on the incidence of cancer diagnoses in Germany. Data were collected between January 2008 and December 2010. Analyses were undertaken between 2017 and 2019. We included 5889 adult cancer patients across all cancer entities and disease stages from 30 acute care hospitals, outpatient facilities, and cancer rehabilitation clinics in five regions in Germany. We used the Control Preferences Scale to assess the preferred level of involvement and the nine-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire to assess the perceived level of involvement.Results: About 4020 patients (mean age of 58 years, 51% female) completed the survey. Response rate was 68.3%. About a third each preferred patient-led, shared, or physician-led decision-making. About 50.7% perceived high levels, about a quarter each reported moderate (26.0%) or low (24.3%) levels of shared decision-making. Sex, age, relationship status, education, health care setting, and tumor entity were linked to preferred and/or perceived decision-making. Of those patients who preferred active involvement, about 50% perceived high levels of shared decision-making.Conclusion: The majority of patients with cancer wanted to be involved in medical decisions. Many patients perceived a high level of shared decision-making. However, many patients' level of involvement did not fit their preference. This study provides a solid basis for efforts to improve shared decision-making in German cancer care.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e036021, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare systems around the world are looking for solutions to the growing problem of mental disorders. RECOVER is the synonym for an evidence-based, stepped and cross-sectoral coordinated care service model for mental disorders. RECOVER implements a cross-sectoral network with managed care, comprehensive psychological, somatic and social diagnostics, crisis resolution and a general structure of four severity levels, each with assigned evidence-based therapy models (eg, assertive community treatment) and therapies (eg, psychotherapy). The study rationale is the investigation of the effectiveness and efficiency of stepped and integrated care in comparison to standard care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The trial is conducted in accordance to the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials Statement. The study aims to compare the RECOVER model with treatment as usual (TAU). The following questions are examined: Does RECOVER reduce healthcare costs compared with TAU? Does RECOVER improve patient-relevant outcomes? Is RECOVER cost-effective compared with TAU? A total sample of 890 patients with mental disorders will be assessed at baseline and individually randomised into RECOVER or TAU. Follow-up assessments are conducted after 6 and 12 months. As primary outcomes, cost reduction, improvement in symptoms, daily functioning and quality of life as well as cost-effectiveness ratios will be measured. In addition, several secondary outcomes will be assessed. Primary and secondary outcomes are evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle. Mixed linear or logistic regression models are used with the direct maximum likelihood estimation procedure which results in unbiassed estimators under the missing-at-random assumption. Costs due to healthcare utilisation and productivity losses are evaluated using difference-in-difference regressions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval from the ethics committee of the Hamburg Medical Association has been obtained (PV5672). The results will be disseminated to service users and their families via the media, to healthcare professionals via professional training and meetings and to researchers via conferences and publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND REGISTRY NAME: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03459664), RECOVER PROTOCOL VERSION: 19 March 2020 (V.3.0).

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 148, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) characterizes the pathophysiology of COPD and different trajectories of FEV1 decline have been observed in patients with COPD (e.g. gradual or episodic). There is limited information about the development of patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) over the full range of the natural history of COPD. We examined the longitudinal association between change in FEV1 and change in disease-specific and generic HRQL. METHODS: We analysed data of 1734 patients with COPD participating in the COSYCONET cohort with up to 3 years of follow-up. Patients completed the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (EQ VAS). Change score models were used to investigate the relationship between HRQL and FEV1 and to calculate mean changes in HRQL per FEV1 change categories [decrease (≤ - 100 ml), no change, increase (≥ 100 ml)] after 3 years. Applying hierarchical linear models (HLM), we estimated the cross-sectional between-subject difference and the longitudinal within-subject change of HRQL as related to a FEV1 difference or change. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant deterioration in SGRQ (total score + 1.3 units) after 3 years, which was completely driven by the activity component (+ 4 units). No significant change was found for the generic EQ VAS. Over the same period, 58% of patients experienced a decrease in FEV1, 28% were recorded as no change in FEV1, and 13% experienced an increase. The relationship between HRQL and FEV1 was found to be approximately linear with decrease in FEV1 being statistically significantly associated with a deterioration in SGRQ (+ 3.20 units). Increase in FEV1 was associated with improvements in SGRQ (- 3.81 units). The associations between change in FEV1 and the EQ VAS were similar. Results of the HLMs were consistent and highly statistically significant, indicating cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The largest estimates were found for the association between FEV1 and the SGRQ activity domain. CONCLUSIONS: Difference and change in FEV1 over time correlate with difference and change in disease-specific and generic HRQL. We conclude, that deterioration of HRQL should induce timely re-examination of physical status and lung function and possibly reassessment of therapeutic regimes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01245933. Date of registration: 18 November 2010.

14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 61, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ageing population worldwide needs to investigate quality of life (QoL) and level of functioning (LoF) in the elderly and its associated variables. We aimed to study the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and Level of Functioning (LoF) in an elderly population in Europe. METHOD: As part of the Ment_Dis65+ European Project, 3142 community-dwelling adults aged 65-84 years in six countries were assessed by using the adaptation for the elderly of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) to provide psychiatric diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases (10th edition) (ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders). Socio-demographic and clinical interviews, and two self-report tools, the World Health Organization QoL assessment (WHO QoL BREF), to assess QoL, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule -II (WHODAS-II), to assess LoF, were also administered. RESULTS: Most subjects reported good levels of QoL (56.6%) and self-rated health (62%), with no or mild disability (58.8%). There was a linear decrease of the QoL and the LoF by increase of age. Elderly with ICD-10 mental disorder (e.g. somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders) had poorer QoL and lower LoF. There were a number of predictors of lower levels of QoL and disability, including both socio-demographic variables (e.g. male gender, increase in age, poor financial situation, retirement, reduced number of close significant others), ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis (mainly anxiety, somatoform disorders) and presence of medical disorders (mainly heart and respiratory diseases). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that QoL and LoF were quite acceptable in European elderly people. A series of variables, including psychiatric and somatic disorders, as well as socio-demographic factor influenced in a negative way both QoL and LoF. More specific links between mental health, social and health services dedicated to this segment of the population, should be implemented in order to provide better care for elderly people with conditions impacting their QoL and functioning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Asthma first occurring in adulthood (adult-onset asthma, AOA) is associated with poorer prognosis compared to childhood-onset asthma (COA), which urgently calls for more research in this area. The aim of this work was to analyze the data on asthma collected in the German National Cohort and compare it with the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS), in particular regarding AOA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our analysis was based on the dataset of the main questionnaire at mid-term of the German National Cohort baseline examination, comprising 101,723 participants. Variables considered in the analyses were self-reported diagnosis of asthma, age at first diagnosis, asthma treatment in the past 12 months, age, and sex. RESULTS: In the midterm dataset, 8.7% of women and 7.0% of men in the German National Cohort reported that they had ever been diagnosed with asthma. Approximately one third of participants with asthma received their initial diagnosis before their 18th birthday. COA affected 2.2% of women and 2.8% of men, whereas AOA affected 6.5% of women and 4.2% of men. During the previous 12 months, 33% of COA cases and 60% of AOA cases were medically treated. CONCLUSION: The proportion of persons affected by asthma in the German National Cohort, as well as observed patterns regarding age and gender, corresponds to other data sources such as DEGS. However, in our analysis, the proportion of individuals with AOA was higher than described in the literature. The increase in cumulative asthma diagnoses with age is markedly steeper in younger participants, indicating a rising trend over time.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide assessment of the respiratory status on the basis of standardized lung function measurements has so far not been available in Germany. The present work describes the lung function tests in the German National Cohort (GNC) and presents initial results based on the GNC Midterm Baseline Dataset. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of lung function in the GNC comprised spirometry (level 1) and the determination of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, level 2). Our quality assurance concept included regular training of lung function test procedures at various GNC sites, interim evaluations of test quality, as well as regular calibration/measurement checks of test equipment. For spirometry, we established a stepwise procedure for offline quality control based on raw flow volume curves. RESULTS: In the present dataset (n = 101,734), spirometry was available for 86,893 study participants and FeNO was available for 15,228 participants. The average (±SD) FEV1 Z score (according to GLI 2012) was -0.321 ± 1.047, the FVC Z score was -0.153 ± 0.941, and the FEV1/FVC Z score was -0.337 ± 0.901. The difference in FEV1/FVC between current smokers and never-smokers increased with age. The average FeNO was 14.2 ÷ 2.0 ppb. Current smoking reduced FeNO levels by 43%, whereas respiratory allergy increased FeNO levels by 16% in nonsmokers. DISCUSSION: The results of spirometry and the FeNO measurements are in the expected range with regard to their distributions and correlates. The GNC provides a valuable basis for future investigations of respiratory health and its determinants as well as research into the prevention of respiratory diseases in Germany.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Asma , Expiração , Alemanha , Humanos , Espirometria
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 3, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The successful implementation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical routine faces many challenges, first and foremost the lack of consideration thereof in the patient care process. The aim of this study will be to first identify relevant barriers and facilitators and then design suitable implementation strategies which will be evaluated to improve the effectiveness of a PRO measure assessment in inpatient and outpatient cancer routine care. METHODS: During the preparation phase, interviews with oncological patients (N = 28) and medical staff (N = 4) as well as focus groups with medical staff (N = 18) across five different departments caring for cancer patients were conducted. On the basis of these, qualitative content analysis revealed relevant barriers and facilitators for implementation of PROs in cancer care. Subsequently, implementation strategies and a model of implementation were developed. In the study phase, implementation strategies will be evaluated based on nine different implementation outcomes in five different oncological clinics. Evaluation of the implementation process will take place during three months in each clinic and data will be conducted pre, while and post implementation of the PRO measure. Therefore a sample size of 60 participants of whom 30 staff members and 30 participants will be questioned using existing and newly developed implementation outcome evaluation instruments. DISCUSSION: Key to improving the effectiveness of PRO assessment in the time-critical clinical environment is the utilization of easy-to-use, electronic PRO questionnaires directly linked to patients' records thereby improving consideration of PROs in patient care. In order to validate the effectiveness of this implementation process further, an evaluation parallel to implementation following an observational study design with a mixed-methods approach will be conducted. This study could contribute to the development of adequate evaluation processes of implementation of PROs to foster sustainable integration of PRO measures into routine cancer care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/y7xce/).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(4): 1208-1218, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of atopic dermatitis (AD) liability-scale heritability could be attributed to 31 susceptibility loci identified by using genome-wide association studies, with only 3 of them (IL13, IL-6 receptor [IL6R], and filaggrin [FLG]) resolved to protein-coding variants. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a significant portion of unexplained AD heritability is further explained by low-frequency and rare variants in the gene-coding sequence. METHODS: We evaluated common, low-frequency, and rare protein-coding variants using exome chip and replication genotype data of 15,574 patients and 377,839 control subjects combined with whole-transcriptome data on lesional, nonlesional, and healthy skin samples of 27 patients and 38 control subjects. RESULTS: An additional 12.56% (SE, 0.74%) of AD heritability is explained by rare protein-coding variation. We identified docking protein 2 (DOK2) and CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) as novel genome-wide significant susceptibility genes. Rare coding variants associated with AD are further enriched in 5 genes (IL-4 receptor [IL4R], IL13, Janus kinase 1 [JAK1], JAK2, and tyrosine kinase 2 [TYK2]) of the IL13 pathway, all of which are targets for novel systemic AD therapeutics. Multiomics-based network and RNA sequencing analysis revealed DOK2 as a central hub interacting with, among others, CD200R1, IL6R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Multitissue gene expression profile analysis for 53 tissue types from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project showed that disease-associated protein-coding variants exert their greatest effect in skin tissues. CONCLUSION: Our discoveries highlight a major role of rare coding variants in AD acting independently of common variants. Further extensive functional studies are required to detect all potential causal variants and to specify the contribution of the novel susceptibility genes DOK2 and CD200R1 to overall disease susceptibility.

19.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(3): 446-456, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The origin of malnutrition in older age is multifactorial and risk factors may vary according to health and living situation. The present study aimed to identify setting-specific risk profiles of malnutrition in older adults and to investigate the association of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition. DESIGN: Data of four cross-sectional studies were harmonized and uniformly analysed. Malnutrition was defined as BMI < 20 kg/m2 and/or weight loss of >3 kg in the previous 3-6 months. Associations between factors of six domains (demographics, health, mental function, physical function, dietary intake-related problems, dietary behaviour), the number of individual risk factors and malnutrition were analysed using logistic regression. SETTING: Community (CD), geriatric day hospital (GDH), home care (HC), nursing home (NH). PARTICIPANTS: CD older adults (n 1073), GDH patients (n 180), HC receivers (n 335) and NH residents (n 197), all ≥65 years. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence was lower in CD (11 %) than in the other settings (16-19 %). In the CD sample, poor appetite, difficulties with eating, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases were associated with malnutrition; in GDH patients, poor appetite and respiratory diseases; in HC receivers, younger age, poor appetite and nausea; and in NH residents, older age and mobility limitations. In all settings the likelihood of malnutrition increased with the number of potential individual risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates a varying relevance of certain risk factors of malnutrition in different settings. However, the relationship of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition in all settings implies comprehensive approaches to identify persons at risk of malnutrition early.

20.
Caries Res ; 54(1): 87-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786571

RESUMO

This epidemiological study aimed to compare the caries and molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) experience in asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents assessed at 10 and 15 years of age. 730 adolescents from ongoing birth cohort studies (GINIplus/LISA) from Munich, Germany, were examined for carious lesions at the age of 10 and 15 years to determine caries experience under inclusion of non-cavitated carious lesions D1-2T and the tooth-related decay-missing-filled index. Furthermore, MIH was scored on all permanent teeth according to the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. The association between caries and MIH prevalence at the 10-year and 15-year follow-up as well as caries incidence with ever having an asthma diagnosis was analysed using hurdle regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Of the 730 adolescents, 52 and 78 were identified as asthmatics at the 10- and 15-year follow-up, respectively. There were no significant differences in caries prevalence or experience between asthma-free participants and any of the asthma groups (taking metered-dose inhaler (MDI) medication vs. taking no MDI medication). However, a significant positive association was found for asthmatic adolescents who did not take MDI medication with higher MIH/T values (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.03-6.37, p = 0.043) compared to non-asthmatics. In conclusion, asthma did not influence the caries status of adolescents in the present study. Interestingly, a significant association was found between adolescents with asthma who did not take MDI medication and the number of MIH-affected teeth. The association between asthma, medication, and MIH needs further confirmation.

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