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1.
J Affect Disord ; 242: 111-122, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Completed suicide is a major cause of death in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide an overall review of the existing literature of completed suicide in BD patients, including clinical and genetic data DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles published on MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane database (1970-2017). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts, searching bibliographies, major textbooks and website of World Health Organization. Initially we did a broad search for the association of bipolar disorder and suicide and we were narrowing the search in terms included "bipolar disorder" and "completed suicide". STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were articles about completed suicide in patients with BD. Articles exclusively focusing on suicide attempts and suicidal behaviour have been excluded. We used PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) consensus for drafting this systematic review. RESULTS: The initial search generated 2806 articles and a total of 61 meeting our inclusion criteria. We reviewed epidemiological data, genetic factors, risk factors and treatment of completed suicide in BD. Suicide rates in BD vary between studies but our analyses show that they are approximately 20-30-fold greater than in general population. The highest risk of successful suicide was observed in BD-II subjects. The heritability of completed suicide is about 40% and some genes related to major neurotransmitter systems have been associated with suicide. Lithium is the only treatment that has shown anti-suicide potential. LIMITATIONS: The most important limitation of the present review is the limited existing literature on completed suicide in BD. CONCLUSIONS: BD patients are at high risk for suicide. It is possible to identify some factors related to completed suicide, such as early onset, family history of suicide among first-degree relatives, previous attempted suicides, comorbidities and treatment. However it is necessary to promote research on this serious health problem.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Humanos , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/psicologia , Violência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Nervenarzt ; 89(3): 290-299, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383410

RESUMO

In this article, the current literature on pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium are summarized by the section of Neurobiology and Genetics of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN). The publications of international expert groups and regulatory authorities are reviewed and discussed. In Germany, a statement on pharmacogenetics was also made by the gene diagnostics committee of the Ministry of Health. The DGPPN supports two recommendations: 1) to perform CYP2D6 genetic testing prior to prescription of tricyclic antidepressants and 2) to determine the HLA-B*1502 genotype in patients of Asian origin before using carbamazepine. The main obstacle for a broad application of pharmacogenetic tests in psychiatry remains the lack of large prospective studies, for both single gene-drug pair and cobinatorial pharmacogenetic tests, to evaluate the benefits of genetic testing. Psychiatrists, geneticists and funding agencies are encouraged to increase their efforts for the future benefit of psychiatric patients.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 23(2): 400-412, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28070120

RESUMO

Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers. The risk allele predicted higher transcriptional levels of PCDH17 mRNA in postmortem brain samples, which is consistent with increased gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy subjects. Further, overexpression of PCDH17 in primary cortical neurons revealed significantly decreased spine density and abnormal dendritic morphology compared with control groups, which again is consistent with the clinical observations of reduced numbers of dendritic spines in the brains of patients with major mood disorders. Given that synaptic spines are dynamic structures which regulate neuronal plasticity and have crucial roles in myriad brain functions, this study reveals a potential underlying biological mechanism of a novel risk gene for major mood disorders involved in synaptic function and related intermediate phenotypes.

4.
Nervenarzt ; 88(9): 974-982, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646248

RESUMO

Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan. Moreover, we provide first insights into a project based in Northern Iraq and Germany aimed at the treatment of people who were severely traumatized by the terror regime of the so-called Islamic State (IS).

5.
Nervenarzt ; 88(9): 989-994, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642982

RESUMO

People with a migration background are a risk group for psychiatric disorders. Innovative, transnational and sustainable projects are necessary to ensure adequate care for refugees and asylum seekers. Selected projects of the University of Munich, the Charité Berlin and the University of Konstanz show promising approaches in addition to other initiatives.

6.
Nervenarzt ; 88(7): 755-759, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474173

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development. The results of recent studies suggest that copy number variants might contribute to BD development, although to a lesser extent than in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or autism. Results from the initial next generation sequencing studies indicate an enrichment of rare variants in pathways and genes that were previously found to be associated with BD. In the field of pharmacogenetics, a risk gene that influences the individual variance in the response to lithium treatment was identified for the first time in a recent large international GWAS. Currently the reported risk alleles do not sufficiently explain the phenotypic variance to be used for individual prediction of disease risk, disease course or response to medication. Future genetic research will provide important insights into the biological basis of BD by the identification of additional genes associated with BD. This knowledge of genetics will help identify potential etiological subgroups as well as cross-diagnostic disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Farmacogenética
7.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 27(6): 599-609, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342679

RESUMO

The hopes for readily implementable precision medicine are high. For many complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder, these hopes critically hinge on tangible successes in pharmacogenetics of treatment response or susceptibility to adverse events. In this article, we review the current state of pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder including latest results from candidate genes and genome-wide association studies. The majority of studies focus on response to lithium treatment. Although a host of genes has been studied, hardly any replicated findings have emerged so far. Very small samples sizes and heterogeneous phenotype definition may be considered the major impediments to success in this field. Drawing from current experiences and successes in studies on diagnostic psychiatric phenotypes, we suggest several approaches for our way forward.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Farmacogenética/métodos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Lítio/uso terapêutico
8.
Nervenarzt ; 87(9): 989-1010, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27439991

RESUMO

Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained support for a German center for mental disorders.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Relações Interinstitucionais , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Alemanha , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais
9.
Genes Brain Behav ; 15(7): 660-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27324142

RESUMO

Preliminary studies suggest that lithium (Li) response might be associated with some circadian gene polymorphisms, we therefore performed a pharmacogenetic study on the core clock genes in two independent samples suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) and thoroughly characterized for their Li response. Two independent Caucasian samples (165 and 58 bipolar patients) treated with Li were selected from samples recruited in a French multicenter study and assessed for their Li response using the Alda scale. The two samples were genotyped using the Human660 (H660) and OmniExpress (OE) BeadChips and gene-based association analyses of 22 core clock genes were conducted. In the first sample (H660 chip), the RAR-related orphan receptor-a gene (RORA) and the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Alpha gene (PPARGC1A or PGC-1α) were significantly associated with the Li response (empirical P-value = 0.0015 and 0.04, respectively), and remained significant only for RORA after Bonferroni correction. In the second sample (OE chip), PPARGC1A was significantly associated with the Li response (empirical P-value = 0.04), and did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction. PPARGC1A is a master regulator of mitochondrial function and a key component of the endogenous clock that stimulates the expression of Bmal1 and Rev-erb-alpha through coactivation of RORA. Although the observed associations deserve further replication and investigation, our results suggest genetic associations between Li response and these two close biological partners: PPARGC1A and RORA involved in circadian rhythms and bioenergetics processes in Li response.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 5: e678, 2015 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26556287

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1%. Molecular genetic studies have identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the disease pathways remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, contribute to basic mechanisms underlying brain development and plasticity, suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, including BD. In the present study, gene-based analyses were performed for all known autosomal microRNAs using the largest genome-wide association data set of BD to date (9747 patients and 14 278 controls). Associated and brain-expressed microRNAs were then investigated in target gene and pathway analyses. Functional analyses of miR-499 and miR-708 were performed in rat hippocampal neurons. Ninety-eight of the six hundred nine investigated microRNAs showed nominally significant P-values, suggesting that BD-associated microRNAs might be enriched within known microRNA loci. After correction for multiple testing, nine microRNAs showed a significant association with BD. The most promising were miR-499, miR-708 and miR-1908. Target gene and pathway analyses revealed 18 significant canonical pathways, including brain development and neuron projection. For miR-499, four Bonferroni-corrected significant target genes were identified, including the genome-wide risk gene for psychiatric disorder CACNB2. First results of functional analyses in rat hippocampal neurons neither revealed nor excluded a major contribution of miR-499 or miR-708 to dendritic spine morphogenesis. The present results suggest that research is warranted to elucidate the precise involvement of microRNAs and their downstream pathways in BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 61: 115-21, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26104431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder. Over the years, different approaches have been proposed to approach this heterogeneity by categorizing symptom patterns. The study aimed to compare positive/negative and system-specific approaches to subtyping. METHODS: We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS), which consists of subscales for three domains (language, affect and motor behavior) that are hypothesized to be related to specific brain circuits, to assess cross-sectional psychopathological characteristics in a sample of 100 inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We then categorized participants into positive/negative and system-specific subgroups to allow comparisons of the two approaches. RESULTS: The analyses revealed correlations between the PANSS positive subscore and the BPS affective subscore (r=.446, p<.001) and between the PANSS negative subscore and the BPS motor behavior subscore (r=.227, p=.023). As regards the positive and negative subtype, more participants were classified as positive in the language-dominant subtype (30.3%) and affect-dominant subtype (30.3%), whereas more were classified as negative in the motor behavior-dominant subtype (44.4%). However, most patients met the criteria for the mixed subtype. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the positive/negative and system-specific approaches can be regarded as complementary. Future studies should examine both approaches in a longitudinal assessment of psychopathological symptoms and link them with qualitative-phenomenological approaches.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/classificação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(6): 671-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25824303

RESUMO

One hundred years after its conceptual definition as 'Dementia Praecox' by Emil Kraepelin, schizophrenia is still a serious psychiatric illness that affects young adults and leads to disability in at least half of patients. The key treatment issue is partial or non-response, especially of negative symptoms. The illness is also associated with different degrees of cognitive dysfunction, particularly in verbal and working memory; the resulting functional impairment may lead to unemployment and an inability to maintain stable relationships. Patients' cognitive dysfunction led Kraepelin to the assumption that schizophrenia is a form of juvenile dementia caused by a degenerative process of the human brain. Postmortem studies and a plethora of imaging studies do not support the notion of a degenerative process, but such a process is supported by the recently published, largest genome-wide association study on schizophrenia. More than a 100 hits were described, converging on pathways that have a significant role in dopamine metabolism in immune modulation, calcium signalling and synaptic plasticity. This review suggests that research should focus on animal models based on risk genes like transcription factor 4 and study the effects of exposure to environmental stressors relevant for schizophrenia. The use of relevant end points like pre-pulse inhibition or cognitive dysfunction will allow us to gain an understanding of the molecular pathways in schizophrenia and consequently result in improved treatment options, especially for the disabling aspects of this illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/história , Animais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 4: e426, 2014 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136889

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. To identify new BD genes and pathways, the present study employed a three-step approach. First, gene-expression profiles of BD patients were assessed during both a manic and an euthymic phase. These profiles were compared intra-individually and with the gene-expression profiles of controls. Second, those differentially expressed genes that were considered potential trait markers of BD were validated using data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums' genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BD. Third, the implicated molecular mechanisms were investigated using pathway analytical methods. In the present patients, this novel approach identified: (i) sets of differentially expressed genes specific to mania and euthymia; and (ii) a set of differentially expressed genes that were common to both mood states. In the GWAS data integration analysis, one gene (STAB1) remained significant (P=1.9 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for multiple testing. STAB1 is located in close proximity to PBMR1 and the NEK4-ITIH1-ITIH3-ITIH4 region, which are the top findings from GWAS meta-analyses of mood disorder, and a combined BD and schizophrenia data set. Pathway analyses in the mania versus control comparison revealed three distinct clusters of pathways tagging molecular mechanisms implicated in BD, for example, energy metabolism, inflammation and the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present findings suggest that STAB1 is a new and highly promising candidate gene in this region. The combining of gene expression and GWAS data may provide valuable insights into the biological mechanisms of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/genética
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 19(4): 452-61, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23568192

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups of European ancestry (a total of 64,888 subjects) and identified multiple SNPs significantly associated with BD (the most significant being SNP rs6785[A], P=6.32 × 10(-5), odds ratio (OR)=1.090). Risk SNPs were then subjected to further analyses in healthy Europeans for intermediate phenotypes of BD, including hippocampal volume, hippocampal function and cognitive performance. Our results showed that the risk SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal function, with the risk alleles showing a decreased hippocampal volume and diminished activation of the left hippocampus, adding further evidence for their involvement in BD susceptibility. We also found the risk SNPs were strongly associated with CREB1 expression in lymphoblastoid cells (P<0.005) and the prefrontal cortex (P<1.0 × 10(-6)). Remarkably, population genetic analysis indicated that CREB1 displayed striking differences in allele frequencies between continental populations, and the risk alleles were completely absent in East Asian populations. We demonstrated that the regional prevalence of the CREB1 risk alleles in Europeans is likely caused by genetic hitchhiking due to natural selection acting on a nearby gene. Our results suggest that differential population histories due to natural selection on regional populations may lead to genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to complex diseases, such as BD, and explain inconsistencies in detecting the genetic markers of these diseases among different ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/etnologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipocampo/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 19(7): 774-83, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23958956

RESUMO

Genes that are differentially expressed between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls may have key roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We analyzed two large-scale genome-wide expression studies, which examined changes in gene expression in schizophrenia patients and their matched controls. We found calcium/calmodulin (CAM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is significantly downregulated in individuals with schizophrenia in both studies. To seek the potential genetic variants that may regulate the expression of CAMKK2, we investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CAMKK2 and the expression level of CAMKK2. We found one SNP, rs1063843, which is located in intron 17 of CAMKK2, is strongly associated with the expression level of CAMKK2 in human brains (P=1.1 × 10(-6)) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (the lowest P=8.4 × 10(-6)). We further investigated the association between rs1063843 and schizophrenia in multiple independent populations (a total of 130 623 subjects) and found rs1063843 is significantly associated with schizophrenia (P=5.17 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found the T allele of rs1063843, which is associated with lower expression level of CAMKK2, has a higher frequency in individuals with schizophrenia in all of the tested samples, suggesting rs1063843 may be a causal variant. We also found that rs1063843 is associated with cognitive function and personality in humans. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that CAMKK2 participates in a highly interconnected PPI network formed by top schizophrenia genes, which further supports the potential role of CAMKK2 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Taken together, these converging lines of evidence strongly suggest that CAMKK2 may have pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility.


Assuntos
Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação para Baixo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Personalidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética
16.
Methods Inf Med ; 52(4): 340-50, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23877579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. METHODS: Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. RESULTS: Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. CONCLUSIONS: A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Gestão da Informação/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Segurança Computacional , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Sistemas de Alerta
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 18(5): 607-13, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22665259

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported an association between the A-allele of rs1006737 within CACNA1C and affective disorders and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between rs1006737 and established and potential endophenotypes for these disorders in a population-based cohort of 3793 subjects, using an analytical method designed to assess a previously reported sex-specific effect of CACNA1C. The investigated endophenotypes included personality traits and resilience factors. At 10-year follow-up, subjects were screened for depressive symptoms. All subjects were genotyped for rs1006737. The direction of the effect and mode of inheritance of rs1006737 differed between the sexes. In men, the A-allele was associated with higher emotional lability and lower resilience, that is, lower sense of coherence (P=0.021), lower perceived social support (P=0.018), lower dispositional optimism (P=0.032) and more depressive symptoms at follow-up (P=0.007). In women, the A-allele was associated with lower emotional lability and stronger resilience, that is, higher sense of coherence (P=0.00028), higher perceived social support (P=0.010), lower neuroticism (P=0.022) and fewer depressive symptoms at follow-up (P=0.035). After conservative Bonferroni correction for 32 tests, results only remained significant for sense of coherence in women (P=0.009). These results suggest that CACNA1C is involved in the genetic architecture of endophenotypes for affective disorders and schizophrenia, and that it shows a distinct sex-specific effect. Comprehensive phenotype characterization in case-control samples and the general population, as well as an adequate modeling of sex-specific genetic effects, may be warranted to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanisms conferred by robustly identified susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Depressão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Personalidade/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/genética , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apoio Social , Estatística como Assunto
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 18(3): 340-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212596

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic study of top susceptibility variants from a genome-wide association (GWA) study of bipolar disorder to gain insight into the functional consequences of genetic variation influencing disease risk. We report here the results of experiments to explore the effects of these susceptibility variants on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human cerebellum samples. Among the top susceptibility variants, we identified an enrichment of cis regulatory loci on mRNA expression (eQTLs), and a significant excess of quantitative trait loci for DNA CpG methylation, hereafter referred to as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Bipolar disorder susceptibility variants that cis regulate both cerebellar expression and methylation of the same gene are a very small proportion of bipolar disorder susceptibility variants. This finding suggests that mQTLs and eQTLs provide orthogonal ways of functionally annotating genetic variation within the context of studies of pathophysiology in brain. No lymphocyte mQTL enrichment was found, suggesting that mQTL enrichment was specific to the cerebellum, in contrast to eQTLs. Separately, we found that using mQTL information to restrict the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied enhances our ability to detect a significant association. With this restriction a priori informed by the observed functional enrichment, we identified a significant association (rs12618769, P(bonferroni)<0.05) from two other GWA studies (TGen+GAIN; 2191 cases and 1434 controls) of bipolar disorder, which we replicated in an independent GWA study (WTCCC). Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of integrating functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression and DNA methylation to advance the biological understanding of bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metilação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 18(2): 195-205, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182935

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of bipolar disorder (BD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genome-wide significant signals in European-ancestry samples, but so far account for little of the inherited risk. We performed a meta-analysis of ∼750,000 high-quality genetic markers on a combined sample of ∼14,000 subjects of European and Asian-ancestry (phase I). The most significant findings were further tested in an extended sample of ∼17,700 cases and controls (phase II). The results suggest novel association findings near the genes TRANK1 (LBA1), LMAN2L and PTGFR. In phase I, the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9834970 near TRANK1, was significant at the P=2.4 × 10(-11) level, with no heterogeneity. Supportive evidence for prior association findings near ANK3 and a locus on chromosome 3p21.1 was also observed. The phase II results were similar, although the heterogeneity test became significant for several SNPs. On the basis of these results and other established risk loci, we used the method developed by Park et al. to estimate the number, and the effect size distribution, of BD risk loci that could still be found by GWAS methods. We estimate that >63,000 case-control samples would be needed to identify the ∼105 BD risk loci discoverable by GWAS, and that these will together explain <6% of the inherited risk. These results support previous GWAS findings and identify three new candidate genes for BD. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and may potentially lead to identification of functional variants. Sample size will remain a limiting factor in the discovery of common alleles associated with BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/etnologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Anquirinas/genética , Anquirinas/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Citocinas/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina/genética , Receptores de Prostaglandina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 2: e165, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23010768

RESUMO

Research suggests that clinical symptom dimensions may be more useful in delineating the genetics of bipolar disorder (BD) than standard diagnostic models. To date, no study has applied this concept to data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a GWAS of factor dimensions in 927 clinically well-characterized BD patients of German ancestry. Rs9875793, which is located in an intergenic region of 3q26.1 and in the vicinity of the solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 gene (SLC2A2), was significantly associated with the factor analysis-derived dimension 'negative mood delusions' (n=927; P=4.65 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)=2.66). This dimension was comprised of the symptoms delusions of poverty, delusions of guilt and nihilistic delusions. In case-control analyses, significant association with the G allele of rs9875793 was only observed in the subgroup of BD patients who displayed symptoms of 'negative mood delusions' (allelic χ(2) model: P(G)=0.0001, OR=1.92; item present, n=89). Further support for the hypothesis that rs9875793 is associated with BD in patients displaying 'negative mood delusions' symptom, such as delusions of guilt, was obtained from an European American sample (GAIN/TGEN), which included 1247 BD patients and 1434 controls (P(EA)=0.028, OR=1.27).


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Delusões/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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