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2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502714

RESUMO

Experimental, observational, and clinical trials support a critical role of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this report, we focus on understanding the relationship between common genetic variants and metabolites of FOCM. We conducted a genome-wide association study of FOCM biomarkers among 1,788 unaffected (without CRC) individuals of European ancestry from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Twelve metabolites, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamin B2 (flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin), vitamin B6 (4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), total homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, cystathionine, and creatinine were measured from plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS. For each individual biomarker, we estimated genotype array-specific associations followed by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified the variant rs35976024 (at 2p11.2 and intronic of ATOH8) associated with total homocysteine (p = 4.9 × 10-8 ). We found a group of six highly correlated variants on chromosome 15q14 associated with cystathionine (all p < 5 × 10-8 ), with the most significant variant rs28391580 (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ). Two variants (rs139435405 and rs149119426) on chromosome 14q13 showed significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations with S-adenosylhomocysteine. These three biomarkers with significant associations are closely involved in homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, when assessing the principal components (PCs) derived from seven individual biomarkers, we identified the variant rs12665366 (at 6p25.3 and intronic of EXOC2) associated with the first PC (p = 2.3 × 10-8 ). Our data suggest that common genetic variants may play an important role in FOCM, particularly in homocysteine metabolism.

3.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A contribution of genetic factors to the development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is broadly acknowledged. This study aimed to: (1) provide insight into the genetic pathogenesis of SUI by gathering and synthesizing the available data from studies evaluating differential gene expression in SUI patients and (2) identify possible novel therapeutic targets and leads. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted through September 2017 for the concepts of genetics and SUI. Gene networking connections and gene-set functional analyses of the identified genes as differentially expressed in SUI were performed using GeneMANIA software. RESULTS: Of 3019 studies, 4 were included in the final analysis. A total of 13 genes were identified as being differentially expressed in SUI patients. Eleven genes were overexpressed: skin-derived antileukoproteinase (SKALP/elafin), collagen type XVII alpha 1 chain (COL17A1), plakophilin 1 (PKP1), keratin 16 (KRT16), decorin (DCN), biglycan (BGN), protein bicaudal D homolog 2 (BICD2), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and Golgi SNAP receptor complex member 1 (GOSR1), while two genes were underexpressed: fibromodulin (FMOD) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA). GeneMANIA revealed that these genes are involved in intermediate filament cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix organization. CONCLUSION: Many genes are involved in the pathogenesis of SUI. Furthermore, whole-genome studies are warranted to identify these genetic connections. This study lays the groundwork for future research and the development of novel therapies and SUI biomarkers in clinical practice.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 917-925, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program recently released data on brain metastases (BM) diagnosed during primary cancer staging workup ("synchronous" BM, or SBM); this study examines the incidence of SBM compared with that of lifetime BM (LBM) identified using Medicare claims for patients diagnosed with lung cancer, breast cancer, or melanoma. METHODS: Incidence proportions (IP) and age-adjusted rates for each of SEER SBM and Medicare LBM are presented along with measures of concordance between the two sources of data, where Medicare LBM were defined by several combinations of diagnosis and putative diagnostic imaging procedure codes. RESULTS: The SBM IP in lung, breast, and melanoma cancers were 9.6%, 0.3%, and 1.1%, respectively; the corresponding LBM IP were 13.5%, 1.8%, and 3.6%. The greatest SBM IP among patients with lung cancer was 13.4% for non-small cell lung cancer, and among patients with breast cancer was 0.7% for triple-negative breast cancer. The greatest LBM IP among lung cancers was 23.1% in small-cell lung cancer, and among breast cancers was 4.2% for cases of the triple negative subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large dataset that is representative of the elderly population in the United States, these analyses estimate synchronous and lifetime incidence of BM in lung cancers, breast cancers, and melanomas. IMPACT: These and other population-based estimates may be used to guide development of BM screening policy and evaluation of real-world data sources.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
8.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1455-1466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWASs of European populations to Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium. First, we performed a meta-analysis of 7 GWASs (10,625 cases and 34,595 controls) and identified 46,554 promising risk variants for replication by adding them to the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) for genotype analysis in 6445 cases and 7175 controls. These data were analyzed, along with data from an additional 5705 cases and 5961 controls genotyped using the OncoArray. We also obtained data from 57,976 cases and 67,242 controls of European descent. Variants at identified risk loci were functionally annotated and evaluated in correlation with gene expression levels. RESULTS: A meta-analyses of all samples from people of Asian descent identified 13 loci and 1 new variant at a known locus (10q24.2) associated with risk of CRC at the genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10-8. We did not perform experiments to replicate these associations in additional individuals of Asian ancestry. However, the lead risk variant in 6 of these loci was also significantly associated with risk of CRC in European descendants. A strong association (44%-75% increase in risk per allele) was found for 2 low-frequency variants: rs201395236 at 1q44 (minor allele frequency, 1.34%) and rs77969132 at 12p11.21 (minor allele frequency, 1.53%). For 8 of the 13 associated loci, the variants with the highest levels of significant association were located inside or near the protein-coding genes L1TD1, EFCAB2, PPP1R21, SLCO2A1, HLA-G, NOTCH4, DENND5B, and GNAS. For other intergenic loci, we provided evidence for the possible involvement of the genes ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, KLF5, WWOX, and GLP2R. We replicated findings for 41 of 52 previously reported risk loci. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that most of the risk loci previously associated with CRC risk in individuals of European descent were also associated with CRC risk in East Asians. Furthermore, we identified 13 loci significantly associated with risk for CRC in Asians. Many of these loci contained genes that regulate the immune response, Wnt signaling to ß-catenin, prostaglandin E2 catabolism, and cell pluripotency and proliferation. Further analyses of these genes and their variants is warranted, particularly for the 8 loci for which the lead CRC risk variants were not replicated in persons of European descent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4616, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397198

RESUMO

Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk. We identify 12 independent risk signals for prostate cancer (p < 4.28 × 10-15), including three risk variants that have yet to be reported. From a polygenic risk score (PRS) model, derived to assess the cumulative effect of risk variants at 8q24, men in the top 1% of the PRS have a 4-fold (95%CI = 3.62-4.40) greater risk compared to the population average. These 12 variants account for ~25% of what can be currently explained of the familial risk of prostate cancer by known genetic risk factors. These findings highlight the overwhelming contribution of germline variation at 8q24 on prostate cancer risk which has implications for population risk stratification.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1072, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the large inter-individual variation in mammographic density (MD) changes following starting and stopping use of estrogen and progestin combined therapy (EPT) has not been well-studied. Previous studies have shown that circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors are associated with MD and cross-talk between estrogen signaling and growth factors is necessary for cell proliferation in the breast. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in growth factor genes in association with MD changes after women stop EPT use. METHODS: We genotyped 191 SNPs in 13 growth factor pathway genes in 284 non-Hispanic white California Teachers Study participants who previously used EPT and collected their mammograms before and after quitting EPT. Percent MD was assessed using a computer-assisted method. Change in percent MD was calculated by subtracting percent MD of an 'off-EPT' mammogram from percent MD of an 'on-EPT' (i.e. baseline) mammogram. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate the association between SNPs and change in percent MD. We calculated P-values corrected for multiple testing within a gene (Padj). RESULTS: Rs1983210 in INHA and rs35539615 in IGFBP1/3 showed the strongest associations. Per minor allele of rs1983210, the absolute change in percent MD after stopping EPT use decreased by 1.80% (a difference in absolute change in percent MD) (Padj= 0.021). For rs35539615, change in percent MD increased by 1.79% per minor allele (Padj= 0.042). However, after applying a Bonferroni correction for the number of genes tested, these associations were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in growth factor pathway genes INHA and IGFBP1/3 may predict longitudinal MD change after women quit EPT. The observed differences in EPT-associated changes in percent MD in association with these genetic polymorphisms are modest but may be clinically significant considering that the magnitude of absolute increase in percent MD reported from large clinical trials of EPT ranged from 3% to 7%.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2256, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892050

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1462-1465, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864454

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have focused on the relationship of exonic variation with breast cancer and subtypes defined by tumor markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2.Methods: We genotyped 1,764 breast cancer patients and 1,400 controls from the California Teachers Study cohort using the Infinium HumanExome Beadchip. Individual variant and gene-based analyses were conducted for overall breast cancer and by individual tumor marker subtype.Results: No exonic variants or gene-based analyses were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer overall or by ER-, PR-, or HER2-defined subtype.Conclusions: We did not detect any novel statistically significant exonic variants with overall breast cancer risk or by subtype.Impact: Exonic variants in the exome chip may not be associated with overall breast cancer or subtype susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1462-5. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
18.
Diabetologia ; 60(12): 2384-2398, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905132

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Elevated levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin in non-diabetic individuals are markers of dysregulation of glucose metabolism and are strong risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have discovered over 50 SNPs associated with these traits. Most of these loci were discovered in European populations and have not been tested in a well-powered multi-ethnic study. We hypothesised that a large, ancestrally diverse, fine-mapping genetic study of glycaemic traits would identify novel and population-specific associations that were previously undetectable by European-centric studies. METHODS: A multiethnic study of up to 26,760 unrelated individuals without diabetes, of predominantly Hispanic/Latino and African ancestries, were genotyped using the Metabochip. Transethnic meta-analysis of racial/ethnic-specific linear regression analyses were performed for fasting glucose and fasting insulin. We attempted to replicate 39 fasting glucose and 17 fasting insulin loci. Genetic fine-mapping was performed through sequential conditional analyses in 15 regions that included both the initially reported SNP association(s) and denser coverage of SNP markers. In addition, Metabochip-wide analyses were performed to discover novel fasting glucose and fasting insulin loci. The most significant SNP associations were further examined using bioinformatic functional annotation. RESULTS: Previously reported SNP associations were significantly replicated (p ≤ 0.05) in 31/39 fasting glucose loci and 14/17 fasting insulin loci. Eleven glycaemic trait loci were refined to a smaller list of potentially causal variants through transethnic meta-analysis. Stepwise conditional analysis identified two loci with independent secondary signals (G6PC2-rs477224 and GCK-rs2908290), which had not previously been reported. Population-specific conditional analyses identified an independent signal in G6PC2 tagged by the rare variant rs77719485 in African ancestry. Further Metabochip-wide analysis uncovered one novel fasting insulin locus at SLC17A2-rs75862513. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that while glycaemic trait loci often have generalisable effects across the studied populations, transethnic genetic studies help to prioritise likely functional SNPs, identify novel associations that may be population-specific and in turn have the potential to influence screening efforts or therapeutic discoveries. DATA AVAILABILITY: The summary statistics from each of the ancestry-specific and transethnic (combined ancestry) results can be found under the PAGE study on dbGaP here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs000356.v1.p1.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1427-1435, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637796

RESUMO

Background: Many cancers share specific genetic risk factors, including both rare high-penetrance mutations and common SNPs identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, little is known about the overall shared heritability across cancers. Quantifying the extent to which two distinct cancers share genetic origin will give insights to shared biological mechanisms underlying cancer and inform design for future genetic association studies.Methods: In this study, we estimated the pair-wise genetic correlation between six cancer types (breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate) using cancer-specific GWAS summary statistics data based on 66,958 case and 70,665 control subjects of European ancestry. We also estimated genetic correlations between cancers and 14 noncancer diseases and traits.Results: After adjusting for 15 pair-wise genetic correlation tests between cancers, we found significant (P < 0.003) genetic correlations between pancreatic and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.55, P = 0.003), lung and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.31, P = 0.001). We also found suggestive genetic correlations between lung and breast cancer (rg = 0.27, P = 0.009), and colorectal and breast cancer (rg = 0.22, P = 0.01). In contrast, we found no evidence that prostate cancer shared an appreciable proportion of heritability with other cancers. After adjusting for 84 tests studying genetic correlations between cancer types and other traits (Bonferroni-corrected P value: 0.0006), only the genetic correlation between lung cancer and smoking remained significant (rg = 0.41, P = 1.03 × 10-6). We also observed nominally significant genetic correlations between body mass index and all cancers except ovarian cancer.Conclusions: Our results highlight novel genetic correlations and lend support to previous observational studies that have observed links between cancers and risk factors.Impact: This study demonstrates modest genetic correlations between cancers; in particular, breast, colorectal, and lung cancer share some degree of genetic basis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1427-35. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Cancer ; 140(12): 2728-2733, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295283

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in ethnic/racial minority populations can help to fine-map previously identified risk regions or discover new risk loci because of the genetic diversity in these populations. We conducted a GWAS of colorectal cancer (CRC) in 6,597 African Americans (1,894 cases and 4,703 controls) (Stage 1) and followed up the most promising markers in a replication set of 2,041 participants of African descent (891 cases and 1,150 controls) (Stage 2). We identified a novel variant, rs56848936 in the gene SYMPK at 19q13.3, associated with colon cancer risk (odds ratio 0.61 for the risk allele G, p = 2.4 × 10-8 ). The frequency of the G allele was 0.06 in African Americans, compared to <0.01 in Europeans, Asians and Amerindians in the 1000 Genomes project. In addition, a variant previously identified through fine-mapping in this GWAS in the region 19q13.1, rs7252505, was confirmed to be more strongly associated with CRC in the African American replication set than the variant originally reported in Europeans (rs10411210). The association between rs7252505 and CRC was of borderline significance (p = 0.05) in a Hispanic population GWAS with 1,611 CRC cases and 4,330 controls. With the three datasets combined, the odds ratio was 0.84 for the risk allele A (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.89, p = 3.7 × 10-8 ). This study further highlights the importance of conducting GWAS studies in diverse ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Risco
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