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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
Brain Sci ; 11(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923647

RESUMO

We examined whether children with developmental language disorder (DLD) differed from their peers with typical development (TD) in the degree to which they encode information about a talker's mouth shape into long-term phonemic representations. Children watched a talker's face and listened to rare changes from [i] to [u] or the reverse. In the neutral condition, the talker's face had a closed mouth throughout. In the audiovisual violation condition, the mouth shape always matched the frequent vowel, even when the rare vowel was played. We hypothesized that in the neutral condition no long-term audiovisual memory traces for speech sounds would be activated. Therefore, the neural response elicited by deviants would reflect only a violation of the observed audiovisual sequence. In contrast, we expected that in the audiovisual violation condition, a long-term memory trace for the speech sound/lip configuration typical for the frequent vowel would be activated. In this condition then, the neural response elicited by rare sound changes would reflect a violation of not only observed audiovisual patterns but also of a long-term memory representation for how a given vowel looks when articulated. Children pressed a response button whenever they saw a talker's face assume a silly expression. We found that in children with TD, rare auditory changes produced a significant mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP) component over the posterior scalp in the audiovisual violation condition but not in the neutral condition. In children with DLD, no MMN was present in either condition. Rare vowel changes elicited a significant P3 in both groups and conditions, indicating that all children noticed auditory changes. Our results suggest that children with TD, but not children with DLD, incorporate visual information into long-term phonemic representations and detect violations in audiovisual phonemic congruency even when they perform a task that is unrelated to phonemic processing.

3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 542-560, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561369

RESUMO

Purpose Recent findings in preschool children indicated novel adjective recall was enhanced when learned using repeated retrieval with contextual reinstatement (RRCR) compared to repeated study (RS). Recall was similar for learned pictures used during training and new (generalized) pictures with the same adjective features. The current study compared the effects of learning method and learned/generalized pictures on the neural processes mediating the recognition of novel adjectives. Method Twenty typically developing children aged 4;6-5;11 (years;months) learned four novel adjectives, two using RRCR and two using RS. Five-minute and 1-week tests assessed adjective recall using learned and generalized pictures. Also, at the 1-week visit, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess children's processing of learned/generalized pictures, followed by naturally spoken novel adjectives in a match-mismatch paradigm. Results Naming recall and match-mismatch judgment accuracy were similar for the RS and RRCR conditions and across learned/generalized pictures. However, ERPs revealed more reliable condition effects in the phonological mapping negativity, indexing phonological expectations, and the late positive component, indexing semantic reanalysis, for the adjectives learned in the RRCR relative to the RS condition. Unfamiliar pictures (generalized) elicited larger amplitude N300 and N400 components relative to learned pictures. Conclusions Although behavioral accuracy measures suggest similar effects of the RS and RRCR learning conditions, subtle differences in the ERPs underlying novel adjective processing indicate advantages of RRCR for phonological processing and semantic reanalysis. While children readily generalized the novel adjectives, ERPs revealed greater cognitive resources for processing unfamiliar compared to learned pictures of the novel adjective characteristics. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13683214.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica
4.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1818-1841, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438149

RESUMO

Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in adverse conditions. Differences in both cognitive and linguistic capacities play a role, but increasing evidence suggests that such factors may contribute differentially depending on the listening challenge. Here, we used multilevel modeling to evaluate contributions of individual differences in age, hearing thresholds, vocabulary, selective attention, working memory capacity, personality traits, and noise sensitivity to variability in measures of comprehension and listening effort in two listening conditions. A total of 35 participants completed a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests as well as a spoken story comprehension task using (1) native-accented English speech masked by speech-shaped noise and (2) nonnative accented English speech without masking. Masker levels were adjusted individually to ensure each participant would show (close to) equivalent word recognition performance across the two conditions. Dependent measures included comprehension tests results, self-rated effort, and electrodermal, cardiovascular, and facial electromyographic measures associated with listening effort. Results showed varied patterns of responsivity across different dependent measures as well as across listening conditions. In particular, results suggested that working memory capacity may play a greater role in the comprehension of nonnative accented speech than noise-masked speech, while hearing acuity and personality may have a stronger influence on physiological responses affected by demands of understanding speech in noise. Furthermore, electrodermal measures may be more strongly affected by affective response to noise-related interference while cardiovascular responses may be more strongly affected by demands on working memory and lexical access.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Ruído , Autorrelato , Fala
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(12): 3961-3973, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197364

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of correctly and incorrectly produced words in children with and without phonological speech sound disorder (SSD) with similar vocabulary and language skills. Method Thirty-six monolingual English-speaking children aged 4 and 5 years, half with SSD and half with typical speech and language skills, participated in this study. Participants completed standardized speech and language tests as well as a mispronunciation detection task targeting omissions and substitutions of the phonemes /k, s, ɹ/ in five word positions/shapes. Results The children with SSD obtained significantly lower perceptual accuracy than the children with typical development. There was no statistically significant effect for phoneme. Omissions were more likely to be detected by both groups of participants compared with substitutions, and children with SSD had greater difficulty identifying substitutions as incorrectly produced words. Conclusions Speech perception difficulties may be a distinguishing feature of children with phonological SSD and without concomitant language difficulties. Further research is needed to investigate specific speech contexts in which perception predicts accurate production in children with SSD.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Vocabulário
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(11): 3600-3610, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976079

RESUMO

Purpose This study compared perception of consonants in medial position by preschoolers, with and without speech sound disorder (SSD), with similar vocabulary and language skills. In addition, we investigated the association between speech perception and production skills. Method Participants were 36 monolingual English-speaking children with similar vocabulary and language skills, half with SSD and half with typical speech and language development (TD). Participants completed a speech perception task targeting phonemes /p, k, s, ɹ/ in /aCa/ disyllables and a comprehensive battery of speech and language measures. Results Children with SSD were significantly less accurate in perceiving speech sound distinctions relative to peers with TD. The phoneme /p/ was perceived significantly more accurately than the three other target phonemes. The correlation between overall perceptual accuracy and overall production accuracy was significant. Furthermore, perceptual accuracy of targets /k, s, ɹ/ was significantly correlated with production accuracy of these phonemes. Conclusions Many children with SSD have greater difficulty perceiving the specific speech sounds they misarticulate. Nonetheless, most children with SSD present with broader perceptual difficulties than peers with TD with similar vocabulary and language skills.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Vocabulário
7.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(2): 883-889, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293902

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate perception of the early-acquired consonant /p/ and later-acquired consonant /ʃ/ in medial word position by preschoolers with and without speech and language disorders. Method Twenty-four children, six with isolated speech sound disorder (SSD-only), six with SSD and concomitant developmental language disorder (SSD + DLD), and 12 with typical speech and language skills (TD) completed a battery of standardized speech and language tests as well as an identification task of /aCa/ disyllables. Targets and foils varied by only one place, manner, or voice feature. Mixed analysis of variance (participant groups × two target consonants) was conducted to compare performance of children in the three groups (between-subjects) and to compare performance on consonants that are early acquired or later acquired (within-subject). Results All groups of participants were more accurate in perceiving the early-acquired consonant than the later-acquired consonant. Overall performance by children with SSD-only did not differ significantly from children with TD. As a group, children with SSD + DLD were less accurate than children with TD and children with SSD-only for both target consonants. Conclusions Children with SSD + DLD performed less well than peers with SSD-only and with TD with both predictably easy and difficult sound contrasts. Children with SSD-only performed nominally less well than children with TD for the speech sound with which they have difficulty, but this difference did not reach statistical significance for these relatively small group sizes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Fonética , Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico
8.
J Neurodev Disord ; 8(1): 33, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27597881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual speech cues influence different aspects of language acquisition. However, whether developmental language disorders may be associated with atypical processing of visual speech is unknown. In this study, we used behavioral and ERP measures to determine whether children with a history of SLI (H-SLI) differ from their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers in the ability to match auditory words with corresponding silent visual articulations. METHODS: Nineteen 7-13-year-old H-SLI children and 19 age-matched TD children participated in the study. Children first heard a word and then saw a speaker silently articulating a word. In half of trials, the articulated word matched the auditory word (congruent trials), while in another half, it did not (incongruent trials). Children specified whether the auditory and the articulated words matched. We examined ERPs elicited by the onset of visual stimuli (visual P1, N1, and P2) as well as ERPs elicited by the articulatory movements themselves-namely, N400 to incongruent articulations and late positive complex (LPC) to congruent articulations. We also examined whether ERP measures of visual speech processing could predict (1) children's linguistic skills and (2) the use of visual speech cues when listening to speech-in-noise (SIN). RESULTS: H-SLI children were less accurate in matching auditory words with visual articulations. They had a significantly reduced P1 to the talker's face and a smaller N400 to incongruent articulations. In contrast, congruent articulations elicited LPCs of similar amplitude in both groups of children. The P1 and N400 amplitude was significantly correlated with accuracy enhancement on the SIN task when seeing the talker's face. CONCLUSIONS: H-SLI children have poorly defined correspondences between speech sounds and visually observed articulatory movements that produce them.

9.
Brain Lang ; 157-158: 14-24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27155219

RESUMO

Seeing articulatory gestures while listening to speech-in-noise (SIN) significantly improves speech understanding. However, the degree of this improvement varies greatly among individuals. We examined a relationship between two distinct stages of visual articulatory processing and the SIN accuracy by combining a cross-modal repetition priming task with ERP recordings. Participants first heard a word referring to a common object (e.g., pumpkin) and then decided whether the subsequently presented visual silent articulation matched the word they had just heard. Incongruent articulations elicited a significantly enhanced N400, indicative of a mismatch detection at the pre-lexical level. Congruent articulations elicited a significantly larger LPC, indexing articulatory word recognition. Only the N400 difference between incongruent and congruent trials was significantly correlated with individuals' SIN accuracy improvement in the presence of the talker's face.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Potenciais Evocados , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 86: 119-30, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094850

RESUMO

Sensitivity to the temporal relationship between auditory and visual stimuli is key to efficient audiovisual integration. However, even adults vary greatly in their ability to detect audiovisual temporal asynchrony. What underlies this variability is currently unknown. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed a simultaneity judgment task on a range of audiovisual (AV) and visual-auditory (VA) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and compared ERP responses in good and poor performers to the 200ms SOA, which showed the largest individual variability in the number of synchronous perceptions. Analysis of ERPs to the VA200 stimulus yielded no significant results. However, those individuals who were more sensitive to the AV200 SOA had significantly more positive voltage between 210 and 270ms following the sound onset. In a follow-up analysis, we showed that the mean voltage within this window predicted approximately 36% of variability in sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony in a larger group of participants. The relationship between the ERP measure in the 210-270ms window and accuracy on the simultaneity judgment task also held for two other AV SOAs with significant individual variability -100 and 300ms. Because the identified window was time-locked to the onset of sound in the AV stimulus, we conclude that sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony is shaped to a large extent by the efficiency in the neural encoding of sound onsets.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Individualidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Sci ; 18(5): 751-70, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25440407

RESUMO

Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we examined perception of both audiovisually congruent and audiovisually incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults. In the first experiment, all participants watched videos of a talker articulating syllables 'ba', 'da', and 'ga' under three conditions - audiovisual (AV), auditory only (A), and visual only (V). The amplitude of the N1 (but not of the P2) event-related component elicited in the AV condition was significantly reduced compared to the N1 amplitude measured from the sum of the A and V conditions in all groups of participants. Because N1 attenuation to AV speech is thought to index the degree to which facial movements predict the onset of the auditory signal, our findings suggest that this aspect of audiovisual speech perception is mature by mid-childhood and is normal in the H-SLI children. In the second experiment, participants watched videos of audivisually incongruent syllables created to elicit the so-called McGurk illusion (with an auditory 'pa' dubbed onto a visual articulation of 'ka', and the expectant perception being that of 'ta' if audiovisual integration took place). As a group, H-SLI children were significantly more likely than either TD children or adults to hear the McGurk syllable as 'pa' (in agreement with its auditory component) than as 'ka' (in agreement with its visual component), suggesting that susceptibility to the McGurk illusion is reduced in at least some children with a history of SLI. Taken together, the results of the two experiments argue against global audiovisual integration impairment in children with a history of SLI and suggest that, when present, audiovisual integration difficulties in this population likely stem from a later (non-sensory) stage of processing.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain Lang ; 139: 36-48, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25463815

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of visual speech cues reduces the amplitude and latency of the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by speech stimuli. However, the developmental trajectory of this effect is not yet fully mapped. We examined ERP responses to auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in two groups of school-age children (7-8-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds) and in adults. Audiovisual speech led to the attenuation of the N1 and P2 components in all groups of participants, suggesting that the neural mechanisms underlying these effects are functional by early school years. Additionally, while the reduction in N1 was largest over the right scalp, the P2 attenuation was largest over the left and midline scalp. The difference in the hemispheric distribution of the N1 and P2 attenuation supports the idea that these components index at least somewhat disparate neural processes within the context of audiovisual speech perception.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletrofisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Couro Cabeludo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 57(4): 1480-502, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24686922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. METHOD: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15 TD children, and 15 adults judged whether a flashed explosion-shaped figure and a 2-kHz pure tone occurred simultaneously. The stimuli were presented at 0-, 100-, 200-, 300-, 400-, and 500-ms temporal offsets. This task was combined with EEG recordings. RESULTS: H-SLI children were profoundly less sensitive to temporal separations between auditory and visual modalities compared with their TD peers. Those H-SLI children who performed better at simultaneity judgment also had higher language aptitude. TD children were less accurate than adults, revealing a remarkably prolonged developmental course of the audiovisual temporal discrimination. Analysis of early event-related potential components suggested that poor sensory encoding was not a key factor in H-SLI children's reduced sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony. CONCLUSIONS: Audiovisual temporal discrimination is impaired in H-SLI children and is still immature during mid-childhood in TD children. The present findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the role of atypical audiovisual processing in the development of SLI.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Visual , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Neurosci ; 37(8): 1295-307, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23301775

RESUMO

Using electrophysiology, we have examined two questions in relation to musical training - namely, whether it enhances sensory encoding of the human voice and whether it improves the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change. Participants performed an auditory distraction task, in which they identified each sound as either short (350 ms) or long (550 ms) and ignored a change in timbre of the sounds. Sounds consisted of a male and a female voice saying a neutral sound [a], and of a cello and a French Horn playing an F3 note. In some blocks, musical sounds occurred on 80% of trials, while voice sounds on 20% of trials. In other blocks, the reverse was true. Participants heard naturally recorded sounds in half of experimental blocks and their spectrally-rotated versions in the other half. Regarding voice perception, we found that musicians had a larger N1 event-related potential component not only to vocal sounds but also to their never before heard spectrally-rotated versions. We therefore conclude that musical training is associated with a general improvement in the early neural encoding of complex sounds. Regarding the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change, musicians' accuracy tended to suffer less from the change in timbre of the sounds, especially when deviants were musical notes. This behavioral finding was accompanied by a marginally larger re-orienting negativity in musicians, suggesting that their advantage may lie in a more efficient disengagement of attention from the distracting auditory dimension.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Música , Estimulação Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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